The Free State of Hawaii (Moku'āina Ku'oko'a o Hawai'i) is one of the remnant survivor states of the United States of America. It is an associated state of the Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand; as such it is an independent nation that is committed to aligning its defense and foreign policy with the larger power. Hawaii has restored its monarchy to a symbolic and ceremonial status as a sign of its independence; otherwise, it mostly follows the forms of government that it inherited from the United States.
The Hawaiian islands were settled by Polynesian settlers sometime around 300 BC. Captain Cook's arrival in 1778 is the first documented contact between Europeans and native Hawaiians. He called them the "Sandwich Islands" in honor of his sponsor, the 4th Earl of Sandwich. In Cook's wake came many traders, whalers and missionaries from Europe and North America.
Kamehameha the Great united the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1810. American businessmen, backed by a company of US Marines, overthrew the monarchy in 1893 and established a Republic - which was annexed by the United States five years later. Hawaii was the last state to join the union before Doomsday. It was admitted on August 21, 1959, following a referendum.
The Hawaiian Islands were among the most militarized parts of the USA before Doomsday. The most populated island, O'ahu, was home to Pearl Harbor, infamously attacked in 1941, together with over a dozen Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force installations. The island served as the headquarters for most American military operations in the Pacific. The Pacific Missile Range on Kauai was a key launch site and testing area for American missiles. The island of Hawaii, called the Big Island, was home to Pohakuloa Training Area, a large tract owned by the Army. The Space Surveillance Complex on Maui was an important observatory and radar station. The Navy owned the island of Kaho'olawe, but only used it as a blasting range.
Three separate Soviet thermonuclear missiles landed on Oahu on Doomsday, 26 September 1983. A fourth landed at the Missile Range and devastated nearly all of Kauai and Niihau. The military facilities on the other islands were not considered key targets. The equipment was rendered inoperable by the missiles' electromagnetic pulses. The Pohakuloa Training Area on the Big Island was left intact. It housed around 2000 permanent troops, plus some additional units staying there for training. Apparently Soviet forces determined that a force of strictly ground forces posed no threat if they were isolated on the island. The personnel and vehicles at Pohakuloa would play a key role in the next decade of Hawaii's history.
Therefore, Hawaii after the war consisted of only four habitable islands: Hawaii, Maui, Lanai, and Molokai.
Most of Hawaii's population and almost all of its urban land had been located on O'ahu and caught between the blast zones of three thermonuclear weapons. The radiation from the attacks made the island inaccessible for years and caused first- and second-degree burns on Lanai and Molokai. Nearly all of the state's political and economic leadership was lost.
The two remaining county governments, that of Hawaii (Big Island) and Maui, took charge of recovery and rescue operations. Mayors Herbert Matayoshi (Hawaii) and Hannibal Tavares (Maui) met hours after the attack. They immediately traveled together to Hilo and Wailuku, the respective county seats, and announced that they would be sharing administrative power for an unknown amount of time.
Hawaii's economy had depended on military money, tourism, and imports, so food was an immediate crisis with trade and communication to the Mainland apparently cut off. The islands' main crops were sugarcane and pineapples, neither a strong foundation for a good diet. Fortunately, the islands in the 1980s still had the remnants of a diversified agricultural economy, with plenty of livestock and poultry on the Big Island in particular. In addition, the Hawaiians realized that they would have to imitate their ancestors and depend on fish for much of their diet.
The age-old conflict between Hawaii's landowners and farm laborers was bound to re-ignite in this time of crisis, with the added element of people who had never worked in agriculture before but suddenly depended on local produce. The landowning companies were largely based at O'ahu, and within a month nearly all the agricultural land was in the hands of the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, Hawaii's powerful leftist labor union. The mayors worked closely with the ILWU, given the need to feed the population.
Many people resented ILWU's control over rations. A food riot broke out on Maui as hundreds of hungry people stormed a field and began taking food for themselves. ILWU and County security forces were unable to put the riot down. The rioting spread to the Big Island, where military vehicles from the Pohakuloa Training Area were employed, using up much of the precious remaining petroleum.
The riot was finally put down in February 1984. Union leader Louis Goldblatt was in firm control of the the islands' government and agriculture. He essentially collectivized Hawaii's entire economy. Officers on each island assigned agricultural or fishing work to people who had served in defunct service industries. Production and consumption were tightly controlled. In addition, Goldblatt began the gradual evacuation of the most heavily irradiated island, Moloka'i. In short, Hawaii under Governor Goldblatt achieved stability, at the cost of political liberty.
Meanwhile, Hawaii's medical supplies were running out. The increased reliance on traditional remedies, the fish- and pineapple-based diet, the sporadic violence, occasional repression, and chronic radiation poisoning were all taking their toll on the population. Some US military ships made their way to Hawaii during these years. Goldblatt submitted to their demand to use Pohakuloa as their base and also allowed them use of a formerly civilian port and airstrip near Hilo. The military, in need of food, participated in Goldblatt's ration system, often providing security and receiving rations.
Contact with USA
Both Ronald Reagan and George Bush stopped in Hawaii on their way to Australia in 1985. Each took a brief tour of the USA's last functioning state. The two conservatives were somewhat shocked at the Communistic turn Hawaii had taken, but were glad that the islanders were surviving. They secured Goldblatt's promise to hold elections in the near future.
When Bush assumed office as President of the American Provisional Government, he claimed authority over all remaining US military forces. Additional troops were sent to Hawaii in early 1986, but the lack of food and fuel made the mission an abortive one.
In 1987, Goldblatt was assassinated. Bush personally visited Hawaii months later and found the islands torn by civil war. The Australian and US troops accompanying him restored order, with the help of those troops still in Hawaii, who remained loyal to their Commander in Chief.
A military committee responsible directly to the President was placed in charge of the islands. Interestingly, they largely kept Goldblatt's rationing in place. Conditions were eased somewhat by the first shipments of food and medicine from Australia. However, Hawaii's population continued to decline as many people left for Australia and New Zealand.
Return to normalcy
The military supervised elections in November of 1989 that brought Harry Kim of the Big Island to the gubernatorial office. Kim's personal popularity finally brought stability to Hawaii. This was still a time of hardship, but the turbulence and suffering of the war years began to subside.
Over the next seven years Hawaii, American Samoa, and the smaller US territories in the Pacific remained in contact with the American Provisional Administration in Canberra. Food supplies began to be shipped from Australia. When the US and Australian militaries began missions of exploration of the American coasts, Hawaii was the natural starting and end point for these voyages.
Two major incidents of violence were yet to occur during the Kim years. In 1990 food shortages again led to rioting. The military installation at Pohakuloa was targeted by bombers, and local officials on Maui attempted to sever ties with the Big Island, firing on US troops as they landed to restore order on the island. In 1992 the aggressors were the military itself, when a band of conspirators attempted to seize several ships, apparently to establish a private colony on the North American mainland. The scheme was stopped, not without bloodshed, in a showdown at the military port outside Hilo. In neither case did the unrest lead to a breakdown of the government's control, and Kim's administration helped infuse Hawaiians with a sense of shared nationhood.
Later in 1992, the USS Benjamin Franklin returned from its famous circumnavigation of the globe. Among its many stops had been the Bonin Islands, a small archipelago that administratively had been a village within the City of Tokyo, despite being located 1,000 km offshore. Cut off from the outside world for nearly a decade, the islanders were starving and impoverished. The following year, 1993, Hawaii mounted a rescue mission to bring the entire surviving population of the Bonin Islands - less than 1000 souls - to resettle on Maui.
A squadron of Canadian ships arrived at Hawaii in 1994 as part of a tour of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The same ships stopped briefly at Hilo the following year on their return voyage, which famously discovered the Commonwealth of Victoria, the most successful new polity on the west coast of North America. Together with the Franklin voyage and the Bonin expedition, the visits signaled a beginning of an end to the isolation of the Aftermath period.
In 1995, it was announced that Australia and New Zealand would soon form a Commonwealth together, and that the US Provisional Government would then disband. Samoa, Micronesia, and the Marshall Islands would ultimately decide to join the new ANZC, but Hawaii did not. The state put it to a referendum, having citizens vote among three options: joining the Commonwealth as an equal member, becoming an associated stat, or remaining separate from it entirely. Full separation was the least popular option; in a runoff the following month between the first two options, Free Association won with a commanding majority.
On May 1, 1995, Governor Kim proclaimed the Free State of Hawaii, stepping down in favor of an interim government led by Alan Arakawa of Maui. The destruction of the United States had been tragic and traumatic, but the decision to move forward toward independence marked a new era of optimism in Hawaii. Restoring Hawaii as an independent nation drew attention to its royal family, which had been deposed just 104 years earlier in a US-sponsored coup. The surviving heir was Andrew Piʻikoi Kawānanakoa. At 31, he had not had a public career before, but now he was increasingly visible and signaled his openness to a restoration of the monarchy, alongside other traditions. Kawānanakoa happened to be descended from both of the old rival branches of the royal family, adding to an impression that he was fated to restore the old throne.
A constitutional convention opened in July. Its delegates largely followed the form of the prewar State of Hawaii and the United States, adding some changes to reflect the ideals and reality of the new postwar world. A provision for a king passed with relative ease. But the people, not the king, were held to be sovereign. Inspired largely by the constitution of Japan, the king was given no political role, to the point that Hawaii would still have a directly elected governor as its chief executive. The king's task would be to recognize rather than nominally appoint the governor.
Elections were quickly held in November. Controversially they included both a referendum on the new constitution and candidates for offices created by it. If the constitution had been rejected, none of the winning candidates could have assumed their posts. However, it passed, and the winning candidate for governor was Big Islander John Waihe'e, a vocal proponent of the Constitution and of the royal restoration. On January 20, 1996, the new constitution went into effect. Waihe'e and the first Congress of Hawaii were sworn in at Hilo; King Andrew Piʻikoi was crowned on the same day.
The early Free State era
Hawaii saw positive growth in the next dozen years. The population had stabilized as a more diverse range of staple crops had been planted from Australian seeds. In 1997, production began on the Big Island of sugarcane-based automobile fuel. This has since become a major industry in Hawaii. The strict labor quotas and food rations were relaxed somewhat but remained an inescapable part of life on the islands.
In general, Hawaiians came to feel a great sense of pride in their islands during the early Free State period. For the first time in a century, Hawaii was a nation - a point of view encouraged by Governor Waihe'e's beliefs and style. The growing nationalism proved an embarrassment when representatives of CRUSA - the anti-Commonwealth Committee to Restore the United States of America - arrived in Hilo to drum up support for a local chapter in 1999. A crowd gathered to jeer and deride their devotion to the old country. When police arrived, they took the side of the crowds, and a nasty brawl erupted between police and the CRUSA. In the end, the CRUSA "agitators" were given asylum by the Free State Militia, but were politely asked to return to Australia.
Governor Waihe'e was re-elected in 2001. At the finish of his second term, the constitutional maximum, Linda Lingle of Moloka'i was elected in 2003. She was re-elected in 2007.
A long territorial dispute between Hawaii and the Commonwealth only concluded in 2005. Both Hilo and Canberra claimed authority over a number of former US islands that had not been part of Hawaii or the various territories that had joined the ANZC in the mid-90s. These included: the Midway Islands, Wake Island, Johnston Atoll, the ruined air base on Okinawa, and the US Miscelaneous Pacific Islands (Howland Island, Baker Island, and Jarvis Island, Kingman Reef, and Palmyra Atoll). The dispute dragged on for years and became a running joke: none of the islands were inhabited and both governments admitted that they did not have the means to administer them. In 2005 it was finally agreed that Okinawa and the Miscellaneous Islands would go to the ANZC, while Hawaii would get Midway, Wake, and Johnston.
Marcus Island was not in dispute: the US military had maintained the last functioning LORAN station there since Doomsday, and had signed it over to the ANZC in 1995.
On February 12, 2009, Linda Lingle resigned, citing a skin cancer condition that prevented her from fulfilling her duties as governor. Like so many Moloka'ians, she suffered from long-term effects of nuclear radiation. Her very visible scars had helped her identify with many of her constituents, but throughout 2008 and 2009 the cancer had grown steadily worse, forcing her to spend days at a time in the hostpital. After an emotional farewell press conference, King Andrew Piʻikoi greeted as the new chief executive First Deputy Governor Ka'apikapika Angel Pilago, a Big Islander.
During her first term, Lingle began the process of resettling her home island. Goldblatt had begun the evacuation of Moloka'i during his rule, and the US miliary had taken nearly all remaining residents to Maui, leaving only some fishing settlements on the eastern end. The decades since Doomsday had made it safe again, and in 2006, at Lingle's urging, Congress commissioned agricultural scientist Lani Weigert to head a program to plant and settle Moloka'i. Called Imua Moloka'i (Forward Moloka'i), the project took three years to plan. Actual planting and construction did not begin until June 2009, after Lingle had resigned. Still, the new settlement at Kualapu'u is considered a crowning achievement of her administration.
In 2008, Lingle had sent a delegation to Japan to discuss resettling the Bonin Islands (in Japanese, Ogasawara) as a territory of Hawaii. For sixteen years, the Ogasawarans had lived on Maui as a distinct survivor community. In recent years many Ogasawarans had begun to fear that their community was losing its cultural distinctiveness, and they also began to express the wish to return home. Dr. Kyoichi Mori, an Ogasawaran-born marine biologist at the University of Hawaii, helped found the Ogasawara Community Alliance in 2000 and spoke with members of Congress about creating a new Hawaiian colony in the Bonins. The ANZC government was upset that Lingle had begun discussions on her own, but they joined in three-way talks anyway, eventually allowing Hawaii to annex and settle the Bonins. In October 2009, the Ogasawara Bill authorized the creation of the new settlements; the bill's sponsor, Congressman Dennis "Danny" Mateo, explains the details of the agreement and the law in this interview, "Resettlement of Ogasawara".
The restoration of the United States of America, announced in 2010 by nine western states, was greeted as a momentous event in every part of the USA's former territory. It gave new life to the restoration movement, represented by the CRUSA, the organization that had sparked a violent backlash in Hilo a decade earlier. But the actual restoration of the country gave hope to those in Hawaii who still felt loyal to the United States. These included surviving military veterans from the prewar era, as well as refugees from the mainland. Some of these loyalists finally organized an active local CRUSA chapter in Hawaii. It now has branches on each island. A political party was organized a few years later and competes in state elections today.
This time, Hawaii's American loyalists did not spark a backlash. This bespoke a general opening-up of political life in the state as its status became more settled. By the early 2010s, there was little doubt that Hawaii was a secure democracy with a stable relationship with the ANZC and its associated nations. An organized Americanist movement no longer seemed such a threat to these arrangements.
Nevertheless, the majority of Hawaiians still supported the status quo and opposed close ties to the new USA. Memories of the U.S. government, from the overthrow of the monarchy in 1893 to the nuclear war of 1983, are largely negative.
Hawaii's economy has also inexorably become more tied to Australia and New Zealand. In the decade of the 2010s, most Hawaiians were able to attain something close to a modern standard of living thanks to trade with ANZ. Most notable of all has been the gradual return of tourism, this time mostly from those two countries. Maui and the Big Island are not swarming with tourists like they were before, but growing crowds of visitors have brought new money and new construction.
Hawaii's claimed territory covers the entirety of the old US State, plus Ogasawara and the uninhabited Midway Islands, Wake Island, and Johnston Atoll. It only has effective control over the four remaining main islands, plus Ogasawara and tiny Kaho'olawe. A small fishing settlement was built on Kaho'olawe during the Goldblatt era, so that island is no longer uninhabited. Moloka'i, too, has begun to be resettled after having been almost totally emptied in the years after Doomsday. The military installation at Johnston was hit with a nuclear attack, but the airstrips on Midway and Wake remain intact. The ANZC and Hawaii have cleaned off the airstrips and use them for occasional exercises, but have not established permanent bases there.
The populated part of Hawaii is subdivided into 25 districts. They were created by Goldblatt as "work areas" for ensuring that everyone was doing meaningful work and receiving rations. Today the Work Committees remain on paper, but they are a power that the government reserves for itself in case of another emergency. The districts vary greatly in size and population. Hardly anyone lives in Kaho'olawe or Pohakuloa Districts, for example, while Hilo District is a bustling city with a large infrastructure to provide services and oversee rations. The uninhabited islands are formally administered by a five-person department within the Free State Marine Militia.
Hawaii's population remains one of the most diverse in the world. A look at its last five governors illustrates this well: Kim (Korean), Arikawa (Japanese), Waihee (Hawaiian), Lingle (Jewish), and Pilago (Filipino) represent only a part of Hawaii's ethnic spectrum. English and Hawaiian are both official languages. Japanese and Philippine languages, however, have increased in prominence; owing to the resurgence of the Diaspora communities.
Since Doomsday, some immigrants have arrived from mainland North America and other Pacific islands, but this has been offset by Hawaiian emigration to Australia or New Zealand. Hawaii's net losses due to emigration only began to reverse in 2001, the first year that the population increased.
As an associated state of the ANZC, Hawaii hosts a few Commonwealth Army and Navy bases. Hawaii also maintains the Free State Militia, divided into Land, Air, and Marine divisions. The FSM uses a combination of US equipment salvaged from its own territory, US equipment brought to Australia, and new equipment bought from the ANZC.
Nothing was salvagable from the blast sites on O'ahu and Kauai'i. A number of tanks, jeeps, and Humvees were left in Pohakuloa Army Training Area in the center of the Big Island. Today many have been moved to other locations on the other islands. The ANZC has expanded the former National Guard post at Keaukaha, near Hilo, into a combined air-sea base. It has become a crucial link between Australia and the Americas. Most usable equipment from the small Midway naval facility has been brought to the main islands.
The World Census and Reclamation Bureau, an ANZC-led organization for seeking out and making contact with surviving societies, has its Central Pacific Command in Hilo, with offices downtown and substantial port facilities just west of the city. The Command has been responsible for exploring much of North America, as well as coordinating WCRB activities in central and eastern Polynesia and occasional expeditions to the Russian Far East. The base harkens back to Hawaii's historic role as a military center, although the WCRB's goals are exclusively peaceful. As the Bureau becomes more internationalized after its recent transfer to the League of Nations, the Central Pacific Command will likely be reduced in size and importance, since more of the North American work will be done by units based in South America.
Hawaii's 1996 Constitution was based on that of the USA and the old State of Hawaii. Despite the return to monarchy, Hawaii kept the modest title of "Free State" rather than style itself a kingdom. The monarch is constitutionally "a symbol of the history and unity of our isles, a living link to our past, and a voice of counsel to our elected officials." He has no political authority. He has a residence in Hilo and one on Maui but most of the time lives in the restored Hulihe'e Palace on the Big Island.
The Congress of Hawaii has one chamber and is led by a Speaker. The chief executive is elected independently of the Congress; she still has the title of Governor as a tribute to Hawaii's American past, and out of deference to the Commonwealth. Hawaii continues the American practice of November elections and January inaugurations.
Hawaii's relationship with the ANZC is based on the past relationship between the pacific trust territories and the USA. Hawaii has full sovereignty over its own internal affairs, and the Commonwealth has some say over foreign trade and defense. Hawaii sends one non-voting delegate to the Commonwealth Parliament. Hawaii sends a voting delegate to the League of Nations. Although Hawaii depends on Australia-New Zealand for support, Associated States like it are welcome at the table.
Tourism is a huge industry in Hilo. Aloha Islands is based in the capital, and has flights to and from the ANZC; Chile; Argentina; Brazil; Mexico; Victoria; Alaska; Singapore; Indonesia; the Philippines; and Taiwan. The Mauna Loa Macadamia Nut Corporation also has its offices and factories in Hilo. Maui's main industries are agriculture and tourism. Its largest businesses are the Maui Pineapple Company, Ltd. and the Hawaii Sugarcane Company, Inc.
Hilo is the kingdom's cultural center. Several museums, art houses, galleries, and restaurants, several of which date pre-Doomsday, can be found downtown. Maui has become a tourist attraction in its own right.
- Kalākaua Park is the central "town square" of Hilo and is home to a number of historic buildings, including the Hilo Federal Building. Several are used by the Hawaii government. Two memorials - one for Hawaiians who died in World War II, the other for those who died on Doomsday - also are part of Kalākaua Park.
- The Observatories at Mauna Kea are an independent collection of astronomical research facilities located on the summit of Mauna Kea on the Big Island, and are controlled directly by the Free State of Hawaii. The facilities are located in a 500-acre (2.0 km2) special land use zone known as the "Astronomy Precinct," which is located in the Mauna Kea Science Reserve. The observatories are sometimes opened to public use, by reservation, but are most often used by astronomers from the University of Hawaii, the ANZC, Mexico and South America.
- The Astronomy Center of Hawaii is an astronomy and culture education center located in Hilo, featuring exhibits and shows dealing not only with astronomy but also Hawaiian culture and history, and how the two intersect. Its planetarium, funded from ANZC sources, is one of the most advanced in the Western Hemisphere.
- The Palace Theater, located in downtown Hilo, shows a wide variety of films, including popular movies shipped in from South America, Mexico and the ANZC, and films produced by Hawaiian filmmakers.
- The (East) Hawaii Cultural Center, located in Hilo, regularly features art exhibitions and also holds workshops and classes. It was added to the US National Register of Historic Places in 1979.
- The Lyman House Memorial Museum is a Hilo-based natural history museum founded in 1931.
- The Pacific Tsunami Museum, also based in Hilo, is dedicated primarily to the history surrounding tsunamis that hit the Big Island in 1946 and 1960. It has been expanded, thanks to ANZC government funding, to include several exhibits on tsunamis for adults and children.
- The Hilo Tropical Gardens is a point of interest for botany enthusiasts.
Haleakalā National Park is home to Haleakalā, a dormant volcano.
The Hāna Highway runs along the east coast of Maui, curving around many mountains and passing by black sand beaches and waterfalls.
Lahaina is one of the main attractions on the island with an entire street of shops and restaurants which lead to a wharf where many set out for a sunset cruise or whale watching journey. Snorkeling can be done at almost any beach along the Maui coast.
The main tourist areas are West Maui (Kāʻanapali, Lahaina, Nāpili-Honokōwai, Kahana, Napili, Kapalua), and South Maui (Kīhei, Wailea-Mākena). The main port of call for cruise ships is located in Kahului. A smaller port can be found in Maʻalaea Harbor located between Lahaina and Kihei.
Hawaii uses the same flag that it has used since its days as a Kingdom in the early 19th century, combining elements of the British and US flags.
Hawaii still is occasionally referred to as the Aloha State, its nickname when it was part of the United States. The national motto is Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono which, translated into English, is The Life of the Land is Perpetuated in Righteousness.
The national anthem is, Hawaii Ponoī which in English translates to 'Hawaii's Own' or 'Hawaii's Own True Sons.' The words were written in 1874 by King David Kalākaua with music composed by Captain Henri Berger, then the king's royal bandmaster. Hawaiʻi Ponoʻī was one of the national anthems of the Republic of Hawaiʻi and the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, having replaced Liliuokalani's compostition He Mele Lahui Hawaii. It was the adopted song of the Territory of Hawaiʻi before becoming the state symbol by an act of the Hawaiʻi State Legislature in 1967. The song became the official national anthem of the Free State of Hawaii upon its independence. The melody is reminiscent of England's anthem God Save the Queen and the Prussian hymn Heil dir im Siegerkranz.
- January 1 - New Year's Day
- March 26 - Prince Kūhiō Day
- Good Friday
- May 1 - Independence Day
- June 11 - Kamehameha Day
- September 26 - Remembrance Day
- October 7 - King's Birthday
- Last Monday in October - Labor Day
- Fourth Thursday in November - Thanksgiving
- December 25 - Christmas
The Hawaii Tribune-Herald is the nation's newspaper of record, publishing five days a week.
The nation is served by seven AM and eight FM radio stations, most of which are affiliated with the ANZBC and other ANZC-based networks. The most popular include Islands 98 FM in Maui; and Honu News/Talk 620 AM, Kona FM 92 and Kapa Radio 100 FM in Hilo.
Two television stations are based in Hilo. Channel Two, operating on channel 2, is affiliated with the Seven and Nine networks from Australia and broadcasts 19 hours a day. Hawaii One, operated by the Hawaii government and affiliated with the ANZBC, operates 24 hours a day on Channel 7. It carries sessions, speeches and other government-related business, along with Hawaiian news, music, cultural events, sports and public access programming.
Relatively few households own a television set, but numerous public meeting places have at least one for general viewing.
Sports in Hawaii reflects a mixture of native Hawaiian, pre-Doomsday American and pre/post-DD Australian, New Zealand and Polynesian culture.
The national government, in conjunction with various groups within the ANZC, have worked to preserve such traditional Hawaiian sports as malia (a type of canoe racing).
Surfing also is a popular pastime, particularly on the Big Island.
Before Doomsday, American football (known currently in the islands as gridiron) was a very popular spectator sport in Hawaii, with great support at the high school level and with the University of Hawaii Rainbow Warriors NCAA Division I program. Doomsday put any and all enthusiasm for sports into a long dormancy in the islands. Informal pickup games of American football, baseball, soccer and basketball between work shifts were the only signs of sport for years in Hawaii.
After Hawaii had passed through the tumultuous first decade post-Doomsday and settled into a viable nation-state associated with the ANZC, competitive individual and team sports began to be re-established and spectator interest returned to the surviving populated areas.
Officials from the Australian and New Zealand rugby union associations began to take a major interest in Hawaii after the American Provisional Administration folded into the Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand in 1995. Over the objections of officials from the gridiron-rules American Football League, officials began sponsoring clinics to teach the fundamentals of the sport to local boys. With the approval of the Hawaiian government, the Australian, New Zealand and Tongan associations (under the guise of ANZC Rugby) helped establish the Hawaii Rugby Union Association, which oversees the sport in Hawaii.
Youth and amateur adult leagues were set up in 1997, leading to a four-club premier league which debuted in 2002). By the mid-2000s Hawaiians were actively being recruited by ANZC clubs, and rugby union found itself the premier team sport in post-DD Hawaii.
Gridiron, meanwhile, struggled just to get re-established in the islands, partly due to rugby union's head start in the region and also due to factions within the AFL disagreeing on how the sport was to be re-established and promoted.
In 2010, gridiron has emerged as a niche sport, with four youth leagues and six amateur clubs competing primarily for the love of the game and before limited crowds.
Association football - or soccer, as it's known in the islands - is becoming the region's second-most popular sport in terms of participation and fan interest.
Baseball is the third-most popular sport, especially at the youth level. Surviving enthusiasts in Hilo, and in the ANZC, helped re-establish the sport at a very modest level in the 1990s. The expected battle with cricket never came about, as Australia's cricket association never followed in the footsteps of rugby union (as expected), and ceded the islands to Australia's fledgling baseball governing body.
One sport popular in pre-Doomsday America and Oceania - golf - has survived to the present day. Primarily played by amateurs (including businessmen and senior citizens), Hawaii supports a few local amateur tournaments. The Oceanic Professional Golfers Association (OPGA) Tour sponsors a tournament held at the Hualalai course in Kaʻūpūlehu, on the Big Island.