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Kingdom of Hawaiʻi
Aupuni Mōʻī o Hawaiʻi
Timeline: Principia Moderni IV (Map Game)
OTL equivalent: Kingdom of Hawaii
. 12th Century - Present
Kanaka Maoli flag.svg Royal Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Hawaii.svg
Flag (1711) Coat of Arms (1730)
Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono
"The life of the land is perpetuated
in righteousness"
Hawaiianislandchain USGS.png
Map of the Hawaiian Islands in 1726,
with individual islands labelled
PM4 Pacific 1750.svg
Map of the Pacific in 1750,
with Hawaiian territory shown in Orange
CapitalKaluahine (-1793)

Honolulu (Present)

Official languages Hawaiian
Demonym Hawaiian
Religion Roman Catholicism
Hawaiian Religion
Government Absolute Monarchy
 -  Monarch Kamehameha VI
 -  Royal House Kamehameha
 -  Kuhina Nui Paul Kaōleiokū
 -  Creation of
Aliʻi nui System
c. 1200 
 -  Unification of Hawaii Island 1530 
 -  European Contact 1718 
 -  Unification of Hawaii 1726 

The Kingdom of Hawaii (Hawaiian: Aupuni Mōʻī o Hawaiʻi) is an independent kingdom located within the Hawaiian Islands. The present day kingdom is believed to have originated around the year 1200, when the current ali'i nui system was created by Tahitian explorers and settlers. By 1530 the largest section of the kingdom, the island of Hawaii proper, was united into one consolidated kingdom, which would come to dominate the Hawaiian Islands in the centuries to come. Historians refer to this kingdom as the Chiefdom of Hawaii, to avoid confusion with the later kingdom that ruled over all the Hawaiian Islands, also known as the Kingdom of Hawaii.

The current government of Hawaii dates to around 1701, founded during the reign of the House of Keawe, or Hale o Keawe, founded by Keaweʻīkekahialiʻiokamoku, son of Queen Keakealaniwahine. The laws and reformed laid down by Keawe II around this time would lay the foundation for the current state of Hawaii, while also ushering a period of expansion, exploration, and improvement across the islands, collectively known as the Lokahi Period.

In the early 18th century the Unification of Hawaii began, sparked by the opening of conflict between the Kingdom of Hawaii and the neighboring Kingdom of Maui, in what would later be known as the Kepaniwai War. This would become the first conflict in a series of wars that would eventually lead to the foundation of a unified kingdom years later. In 1718 the Kingdom of O'ahu would be conquered by Hawaii in the Pahikaua War, and would be the last independent kingdom to contest Hawaii in battle. In 1726 the Kingdom of Kauai would be peacefully added to the king, unifying all of the Hawaiian Islands within the kingdom.


The history of Hawaii describes the era of human settlement in the Hawaiian Islands. That history is believed to have begun sometime between 124 and 800 CE, around the time of the earliest Polynesian settlement on the Hawaiian Islands. Tahitian explorers found and began settling the area around the year 1200, which began the rise of the Hawaiian civilization. Hawaii would remain largely isolated from the rest of the world for the next five hundred years.

Chiefdom of Hawaii

Historians refer to the kingdom that ruled over the unified island of Hawaii proper as the "Chiefdom of Hawaii", to avoid confusion with the later unified kingdom of all the Hawaiian Islands, also known by the Chiefdom's contemporary name; the Kingdom of Hawaii. The Chiefdom of Hawaii loosely describes the period of history from the settlement of Hawaii to the wars of unification, beginning in the 18th century. During this time Hawaii proper was unified into a consolidated kingdom.


The Mokupuni o Hawaiʻi is said to have been named after Hawaiʻiloa, the legendary Polynesian navigator who first discovered it. Other accounts attribute the name to the legendary realm of Hawaiki, a place from which the Polynesian people are said to have originated, the place where they go in the afterlife, the realm of the gods and goddesses.

Around the year 1200 a Tahitian priest named Pā‘ao is said to have brought a new order to the islands, which reformed the previously existing society, and laid the foundation for the feudal society that would rule Hawaii for the next several centuries. The social structure was divided into classes, forming the basis of the caste system, and new laws were created to govern many elements of society. The islands of Hawaii were governed by the aliʻi nui, supreme high chiefs of an island and no others above them. The island of Hawaii proper was often divided among various, usually warring, chiefs, which were not unified until around the 16th century.

Hawaii Island

ʻUmi-a-Līloa is considered the first ruler of a unified Hawaii Island, ruling around the turn of the 16th century. Under the control of ʻUmi-a-Līloa the island was divided into six districts, each ruled by aliʻi ʻaimoku, who were subordinate district aliʻi. These lesser chiefs remained largely autonomous, controlling their own respective territory, while nominally swearing loyalty to the Aliʻi nui.

ʻUmi-a-Līloa was succeeded by his son, Keli‘iokaloa, around the year 1530. As ruler of Hawaii, Keli‘iokaloa sought to further centralize his family's control over the island, while also looking toward future expansion and conquest among the other Hawaiian Islands. Up to this point the low centralization had led to constant periods of conflict, often among relatives, who held subdivisions of the kingdom at large. Keli‘iokaloa, and his successors, sought to end the period of violence, by slowly replacing the warring chiefs and lowering their control, however this process was slow to catch on.

During Keli‘iokaloa's reign the seat of the high king would also be moved to Ka-luahine, on the southern coast of the island. Keli‘iokaloa sought to create a more fortified capital for the new kingdom, that would be the center of a new centralized government. Ka-luahine became home to the kingdom's meetings of the chiefs, which would be the foundation of the modern government that eventually developed.

Lokahi Period

By the late 17th century the framework set in place by earlier rulers of Hawaii proper had developed into a loose, central government centered around the settlement of Ka-luahine, which by this time was believed to be the largest settlement on the island of Hawaii. Despite conflicts over the past two centuries the island remained unified under the House of Keawe, or Hale o Keawe, founded by Keaweʻīkekahialiʻiokamoku, son of Queen Keakealaniwahine.

In 1701 Keaweʻīkekahialiʻiokamoku, also known as Keawe II, issued a series of laws and proclamations, ultimately seeking to create a centralized kingdom based around the island of Hawaii. Ka-luahine was established as the home of semi-regular meetings of the chiefs of Hawaii, to advise the king, create legislation, and benefit the kingdom as a whole, beginning what would be known as the "unity", or Lokahi Period. Keawe II's decrees greatly reformed the way subordinate chiefs operated within the kingdom, greatly reducing their power and ability to threaten the central government. Firstly, this consisted of new codes for taxation, requiring that a larger portion of funds and manpower be directly handed over to the high chief.

This reform directly contributed to the creation of a central army, consisting of men from across the island, although primarily from the king's own retinue. Keawe II ultimately envisioned outward expansion, having personally toured the Hawaiian Islands throughout much of his life. As such the king also promoted the expansion of ports and naval capabilities, creating a modern fleet of war canoes to rival the other kingdoms of the Hawaiian Islands. Much of Keawe II's reign, however, was peaceful, leaving this fleet to help diminish crime and raiding among the islands, while also fostering trade and commerce.

The additional funds appropriated from the lesser chiefs of Hawaii went to directly benefiting the lands and people the chiefs controlled. Specifically, the king ordered a rotational system of crop harvesting, and a shared ownership of the lands, which fell under his absolute control. This ensured that no chief could amass enough power to threaten the central government. Overall this reform also led to an expansion of farmlands and an overall greater yield of crops, with the central government receiving the largest yield.

As part of the Lokahi reforms, Keeaumoku Nui became the heir to Keawe II, despite being younger in age than Kalaninuiamamao, his brother. Despite being older, Kalaninuiamamao was ruled to be minor because of the distant relationship between his father and mother, unlike his brother Keeaumoku Nui, who was the son of Kalanikauleleiaiwi. Additionally Keeaumoku Nui's supremacy was solidified by his rank as a Piʻo chief, causing the noble class of Hawaii to back him based on his prestige. Despite this, Kalaninuiamamao still swore loyalty to his father and brother, and was promised a large portion of land, principally consisting of the District of Kaʻū. This was all in an effort to enforce the new rules of succession laid down by Keawe II to limit infighting upon his descendants and across the island. Aside from the king, the two half-brothers became the two most powerful forces on the island, followed by Ahu-a-ʻI, Chief of Hilo, and father of Lonomaʻaikanaka, Keawe II's newest wife. Ahu-a-ʻI died later that year, and was succeeded by his niece, Ululani.

In 1706 King Keawe II unexpectedly fell ill. Sensing that he was close to death, he assembled the nobles once more and had them swear fealty to his son, Keeaumoku Nui. Keeaumoku Nui relinquished his title of Chief of Kona to his youngest brother, Kamehameha, in an attempt to appease the young and ambitious warrior. Kamehameha, already in possession of the valuable Waipio Valley, managed to seize control over the district of Hamakua through marriage with the new chieftess. Keawe II died in his sleep later in the year, and Keeaumoku Nui was crowned Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii. Before he died, Keawe II granted Kamehameha a prominent religious position, guardianship of the Hawaiian god of war, Kūkāʻilimoku. Although the most appropriate man for the position, due to his high prestige and mana, this led to a strain in the relationship between Kamehameha and his older brothers. Kamehameha used his new position to make a dedication to the gods instead of the new king, further worsening relations. When Kamehameha managed to lift the legendary Naha Stone, many began to flock to Kamehameha, claiming he was the fulfillment of prophecy, a notion that the king and other chiefs rejected strongly. Those who did defend the young chief, primarily his vassals and relatives, called Kamehameha the Unifier Ka Na`i aupuni.

Early Exploration

In 1704 a shipwreck appeared on the island, near Kailua, on the northern side of Hawaii. The local chief Kalani Kama Keʻeaumoku-nui sent a detachment of soldiers to investigate, and discovered to his surprise the ship was much larger than any ship ever seen in his lifetime. Of the surviving crew members of the ship, most were killed in a resulting brawl with Hawaiian men. The ship was raided and some equipment was seized, such as a few metal swords. Kalani Kama Keʻeaumoku-nui eventually pardoned the remaining survivors, who attempted to adapt to Hawaiian life. Over the course of the year most of the survivors had died or married into Hawaiian society, while some of the women in contact with the sailors began to contract lesions on their bodies (syphilis), and become outcasts of society or killed. During a religious ceremony at the end of the year the Chief of Kona presented one of the swords to Keawe II, who was immediately fascinated by the gift.

The Hawaiian Islands had been largely isolated up to this point, and this discover sparked the king's interest in exploration beyond the islands. Later that year, using traditional Polynesian navigational techniques, four groups set off in search of lands outside Hawaii. Of these groups, the most successful of which conducted a successful trade mission in Kaua'i and Ni'ihau, obtaining more information about islands to the west. The party reached Nihoa, a small island containing only a few forests, and later Mokumanamana, which they explored in search of Menehune people, but came up empty handed. They returned home by 1705, bringing this information to the king. During his lifetime the king would launch several more expeditions, a trend his successors would follow and greatly expand. By 1706 the king's expeditions had traveled to ten islands/atolls/mokupāpapa in the northwest, exploring several and trading with the other Hawaiian kingdoms on their return voyage. Around this time the Hawaiians reached Kalama Atoll (Johnston Atoll), which would later become an important stop on the way to the rest of Polyensia.

After the success of the previous expedition to the southwest, a second expedition was dispatched in 1707, although smaller due to the outbreak of war in the islands against Maui around this time. The group landed on Kalama Atoll again, before setting sail to the west. Due to the favorable currents and winds combined, the group managed to reach land (Marshall Islands) after about a month at sea. They followed an archipelago south before spending time on an island (Majuro), which they called Makana. Around this time a second group departed from Hawaii and proceeded directly south, eventually landing on an island (Kiritimati), where they rested and gather supplies. As they explored the island they found some temporary shelters and ruins already on the island, which they called Moena, before continuing south. They eventually landed on an island (Kiribati) populated by natives, and the group successfully conducted some trade before returning north, taking with them a few of the natives as emissaries.

Unification of Hawaii

The Unification of Hawaii was a civil war in the Hawaiian Islands over control of the entire island chain, beginning in the early 18th century. Sparked by the expansion of the island of Hawaii proper, this series of conflicts with the other independent kingdoms of the Hawaiian Islands would ultimately lead to the creation of a unified state; the Kingdom of Hawaii.

Kepaniwai War

The many trade missions began by Keawe II, and later continued by his sons, had made Hawaii prosperous, but it also caught the attention of the Kingdom of Maui, Hawaii's neighbor to the northwest. In 1706 a trade mission on its return voyage was unexpectedly fired upon by Aliʻi nui Kekaulike, Moʻi of Maui. The king claimed that earlier in the year Hawaiians from Kona had raided his southern shore, and his attack was in retribution. Keeaumoku Nui, unaware of any actions conducted by his more reckless brother, denied the allegations, but was also hesitant to attack his neighbor. At this time Kekaulike's uncle Kaeokulani ruled Oʻahu, Lānaʻi, and Molokaʻi, whose combined forces would be difficult for the Hawaiians to match. Unbeknownst to the Hawaiian monarch, Kekaulike had also departed on a voyage to Kaua'i to visit his wife's home, taking a large portion of his army with him. When he stopped in Waimanalo on O'ahu a fight broke out between the king and his uncle, who claimed Maui for himself. Kamehameha eventually caught word of this from allies in Maui, and launched his own invasion without the support of the king.

Kamehameha managed to capture the island, defeating the relatively small garrison left behind. Keeaumoku Nui begrudgingly raised an army to aid his brother, planning to attack O'ahu early the following year with 10,000 men and 1,000 war canoes. on O'ahu, Kekaulike successfully defeated his uncle, but not without it taking a toll on his army. Unaware of the main invasion force still on Hawaii, Kekaulike split his army in half and immediately sailed to retake Maui, landing there the following year. Initially this army managed to beat back the Hawaiian army under Kamehameha. Kamehameha feigned retreat toward the south of the island, drawing out the enemy army. En route to O'ahu, Keeaumoku Nui landed near the site of this battle and marched with the Hawaiian reinforcements to Kamehameha's aid, successfully defeating the enemy forces in a decisive battle. Kekaulike was killed and sacrificed, and Keeaumoku Nui declared himself Aliʻi nui of Maui.

The following year, with Kekaulike having been killed in battle, Keeaumoku Nui established a tentative rule over the island of Maui. This claim was contested, however, by the late king's uncle, Kaeokulani, King of O'ahu, who launched a naval invasion of Maui early in the year. Around this time word reached Maui that the king's brother, Kalaninuiamamao. had raised his forces in rebellion, allying with the King of O'ahu, with support from the District of Puna and some supporters in Hilo. With the Hawaiian army split, Keeaumoku Nui suffered a minor defeat at the hands of Kaeokulani, and ultimately choose to withdraw and regroup on Hawaii. Kamehameha, likewise withdrew to the settlement of Kawaihae in Kona, where he began recruiting more warriors and training them for a second invasion.

A respected kahuna named Kapoukahi approached the chief and suggested he build a luakini heiau (sacrificial temple) to gain the favor of the war god Kūkaʻilimoku. Kamehameha agreed, and for most of the year remained in the city, tasking his men with the creation of the Puʻukoholā Heiau, meaning "Temple on the Hill of the Whale". The temple was built with no mortar and relatively quickly, with the red stones transported by a human chain about 14 miles long, from Pololū Valley to the east.

In the meantime Kalaninuiamamao fought several skirmishes with his brother, the king. By remaining out of the fighting, preoccupied with building the temple and also guarding the north of the island from attack, Kamehameha managed to appear neutral in the conflict. In late 1708 Kalaninuiamamao traveled to Kawaihae to secretly negotiate an alliance with his brother against the king. However, when the chief arrived Kamehameha has his brother and his main supporters sacrificed. A battle broke out, however it was almost completely one sided, with the majority of Kalaninuiamamao's men coming to Kamehameha's support in the end.

A fleet from O'ahu eventually did arrive as the year was ending, but it was intercepted by the king off the coast of Kahaluu. In the ensuing Battle of Kahaluu, primarily a naval engagement between two of Hawaii's largest fleets, the technologically and numerically superior fleet of Keeaumoku Nui managed to secure victory, however, the king was wounded in the battle and ordered his men back to shore, allowing Kaeokulani to flee to Maui. Haae-a-Mahi, brother of the late Alapaʻinuiakauaua of Kohala fought for Kaeokulani in the battle and was discovered to have been killed. The king rewarded his cousin Kameʻeiamoku with the District of Puna, for his bravery shown during the naval battle.

The Hawaiian army recovered from the Battle of Kahaluu, and consolidated its forces for an invasion of Maui. As the army was preparing, Keeaumoku Nui fell ill from an infection of his wounds and died in early 1709. As a result Kamehameha was declared the Aliʻi nui of Hawaii, and took over sole command of the invasion. Kamehameha's war fleet landed in Kahului a few kilometers from the base of ʻĪao Valley. Kaeokulani army, largely consisting of loyal chiefs from Maui, blocked entrance into the ʻĪao valley, beginning the battle. In the ensuing battle so many men were killed in rapid succession that the "damming of the waters" was caused by the corpses floating in the river. Kaeokulani aws ultimately killed in battle by Kamehameha, causing his army to retreat. Those still loyal to the late Kaeokulani fled to O'ahu, where his son, Kahekili II, ascended to the throne. .

Kamehameha became Aliʻi nui of Maui, and began consolidating his rule over the island, beginning by calling the chiefs of the various districts of Maui to swear their loyalty to him. A series of skirmishes, mostly on sea, continued throughout the later half of the year, in an effort to secure control over Kahoolawe, Lānaʻi, and Molokaʻi. The skirmishes across the islands continued into the beginning of the following year, with Kahekili II targeting the islands of Kahoolawe, Lānaʻi, and Molokaʻi with numerous naval raids. The King of O'ahu was ultimately unable to launch a major invasion, and in 1710 when Kamehameha offered peace with O’ahu midway through the year, Kahekili II accepted. Kamehameha hoped to consolidate his rule over the newly conquered islands, and also give his army time to recover and replenish.

Pahikaua War

Following the conclusion of the Kepaniwai War, tensions had remained high between the Kingdom of Hawaii under Kamehameha and the Kingdom of O'ahu under Kahekili II. Kameʻeiamoku, Chief of Puna, one of the king's most trusted allies and advisers, who had been appointed the first Kuhina Nui in 1710, got into a disagreement with Kahekili II. The feud culminated in an ambush of Kameʻeiamoku while he was traveling, leading to his death and the theft of his prized metal sword. Although the king had likely been preparing and planning for war in the near future, the severity of this raid forced him to declare war immediately on O'ahu in late 1716, beginning the Pahikaua War, or Sword War.

In 1717 Kahekili II launched an invasion of neighboring Molokai, and King Kamehameha sailed for the island to repulse the invasion. Kahekili II was defeated in a costly battle and his army retreated west. Around the same time a second invasion force landed on Maui, led by Kahekili II's son, Kalanikūpule. The king's son managed to sway several chiefs of Maui to join his cause, and declared himself Chief of Maui. Throughout the rest of the year, while Kamehameha was in Molokai preparing to counterattack, several skirmishes would break out across Maui, mostly around the major cities on the island. The loyalist forces and the settled Hawaiians managed to secure Wailuku and Kahului, driving out the rebels from the capital. The rebels attempted to counterattack, but at the Battle of Wailhee a larger army from Kāʻanapali was successfully pushed back, stalling Kalanikūpule's advance. Instead the pretender secured Lahaina and declares it his capital, consolidating his forces in preparation to meet Kamehameha in battle.

Kamehameha returned to the island of Maui with the majority of his forces, capturing Lahaina and moving along the coast toward Kahului. Kalanikūpule fled east, but was caught at the Battle of Waikapu, where he aws defeated and captured, later scarified by the king. Similarly, the chiefs who had supported the rebellion were killed. Kahekili II raised an army on O'ahu, but before he has time to attack Maui, Kamehameha launched his own invasion. The ensuing Battle of Nuʻuanu began with Kamehameha's forces landing on the southeastern portion of Oʻahu near Waiʻalae and Waikiki. After spending several days gathering supplies and scouting Kahekili II's positions, Kamehameha's army advancing westward, encountering Kahekili II's first line of defense near a crater on the southern side of the island.

The king split his army into two, sending one-half in a flanking maneuver around the crater and the other straight at Kahekili II. Pressed from both sides, the Oʻahu forces retreated to Kahekili II's next line of defense near Laʻimi. While Kamehameha pursued, he secretly detached a portion of his army to clear the surrounding heights of the Nuʻuanu Valley, where Kahekili II had positioned a reserve force, hoping to ambush the Hawaiians. Kahekili II's main defense eventually fell apart, and he ordered his men through the Nuʻuanu Valley to the cliffs at Nuʻuanu Pali. Caught between the Hawaiian Army and a thousand foot drop, over 700 Oʻahu warriors either jumped or are pushed over the edge of the cliff. Kahekili II was captured soon after the battle and scarified, and Kamehameha declared himself King of O'ahu, and recovered the stolen sword, which he returned to Kameʻeiamoku's son, Kepoʻokalani.

Subjugation of Kauai

The Kingdom of Kauai would remain the last kingdom in the Hawaiian Islands independent of the Kingdom of Hawaii, ruled by the powerful and well liked king Kaumualii. By the early 1720's tensions were high between the two kingdoms, especially after it was discovered that Kaumualii had partially supported Maui and O'ahu during the earlier conflicts against Kamehameha. Kaumualii attempted to continue peaceful relations for the time being, while at the same time expanding his military to defend his kingdom, and allegedly even unsuccessfully seeking an alliance with the clans of Tahiti. By this time, however, the Kingdom of Hawaii had cultivated a vastly superior military, both in terms of manpower and technology, which was aided by the arrival of the French, who introduced rifles and cannons into the Hawaiian military.

In 1725 the French explorer and Hawaiian ally, Louis-Antoine Véron, briefly stopped in Hawaii while on his third voyage of exploration, bringing with him another stockpile of French goods and weapons, as well as numerous French people. He departed north claiming to be charting the coastline of a nearby continent, known as Arcadia. Kamehameha would gift the explorer a great deal of supplies and navigators, hoping to see him on his return voyage, however, Véron never made it to Hawaii island again, and in early 1726 the king received word that Véron had been killed on Kauai. According to the account, the French had stopped on Kauai after a storm damaged one of their ships. After a number of quarrels the locals allegedly stole one of the French longboats. Frustrated, Véron attempted to kidnap the King of Kauai, Kaumualii, and was killed in the process, along with a few French marines. Angered by the death of his ally and friend, the king prepared for war.

Sensing that he was outnumbered and outgunned by the more technologically superior Hawaiians, Kaumualii surrendered to Kamehameha without bloodshed. The terms of the surrender dictated that Kaumualii would swear fealty to Kamehameha and become a Hawaiian vassal, however Kaumualii would be allowed to rule Kauai, essentially as a governor, under Kamehameha's rule. A feast was held on Kauai to formally end any hostilities, attended by several Hawaiian chiefs and nobles. Some of the local nobility, however, angered by the surrender of the kingdom, formed a conspiracy to murder Kaumualii. The plot was discovered and stopped, but not before Pierre Baret ʻOlohana, Governor of Maui, was mistakenly killed. Baret's death shocked the king and caused him to distrust Kauai, however, not wanting to break the peaceful unification of Hawaii, he settled for having the conspirators executed.

Kingdom of Hawaii

Reign of Kamehameha the Great

In the aftermath of the Kepaniwai War, Kamehameha I of Hawaii was now the most powerful leader in the islands. His actions would ultimately lay the foundation for the modern Kingdom of Hawaii, which was gradually united in the first few decades of his reign. Following the war with Maui, the ruling class of Maui was greatly shifted, with nobles who were reluctant to support Kamehameha having their power diminished, and those who supported the Hawaiians being elevated in Maui society. A vast amount of land previously owned by dissident or now deceased nobles was seized by the king, including essentially all of Lānaʻi and Kahoolawe. The king offered his veterans sections of the land for free if they agreed to move to the land with their families, leading to a colonization of the newly conquered islands by loyal Hawaiian families, and later others, who flocked to follow the migration of the army. The farming techniques from the island of Hawaii proper were transferred west, leading to a greater harvest the following year. On Kahoolawe the settlement of Hakioawa quickly grew into a town, while on Lānaʻi, Kahemano became the largest settlement on the island. The king himself traveled to Kahemano beach to do some fishing, declaring the spot the best place in Hawaii for fishing, leading to rapid settlement of the island. On Maui, towns such as Wailuku, Kahului, Lahaina, and Hana experienced a boom in population, and the king ordered that ports be constructed in these towns in the fashion of Hawaii proper, to further facilitate trade between the islands, and to facilitate the growing and recovering Hawaiian war fleet.

Numerous infrastructural projects would be ordered or designed by the king and his advisers during this time, including a royal road, which would run all around the length of the island of Hawaii. War with O'ahu in the Pahikaua War would temporarily stall these domestic efforts, however after the war they continued with renewed vigor. The king ordered a similar policy to the one used in Maui following the conclusion of the war. Specifically the king again seized almost all of land from the local chiefs, many of whom were captured and killed, and later replaced by loyal chiefs. The land was given to veterans of the war and their families, leading to a migration to the island. On the southern end of O'ahu the king decided to stay for a time and personally oversee the construction of a new settlement, on the foundation of the many villages surrounding the harbor. Collectively known as Honolulu, the settlement became heavily populated with migrating families.

Later in 1718 the king returned to Kaluahine, where he began working on an ambitious building project, hoping to create a more orderly city. On the south end of the city he brought several thousand workers from across the islands to clear forests and level the area. The king began working with several advisers and builders to design a new type of settlement. The king claimed that he had had a dream in which massive homes lined the shore, and did not catch fire, and he ordered that chiefs from across the islands to work on this idea, beginning to invest in new building techniques and designs. The solution was to have stone formations laid down in a grid-like fashion to avoid the congestion of huts and shacks that dotted the coastline around this time.

Buildings were to be built on these foundations, allowing them to be bigger than most across the islands. The settlement also would have a new heiau on its outskirts, as well as a large square in the center of the town. Here a square building with an open area in the center was planned, which would be used as a meeting place for people living in the area, connected to a marketplace and other important structures. One of the king's builders would make an important discovery around this time, when he managed to fashion a coral brick using metal tools from Kona. The king saw the benefit of the building material, and ordered that workers begin harvesting bricks from the many beaches of Hawaii, to be used on the main building of his new town. Similarly the king ordered that a new home for himself and his family be included within the grid, made from these new materials.

With the arrival of European explorers in the Hawaiian Islands in 1719, Kamehameha I would choose to welcome the foreigners rather than oppose them, ultimately leading to cooperation between the France and Hawaii, and laying the foundation for Hawaii's eventual modernization, with French help. The king would form a group of European advisers to surround himself with and directly aid in Hawaii's modernization, including Pierre Baret, the French captain of the Boudeuse, René de Froulay, a French military officer, Gaspard Ribault, a linguist, and others. With designs and guidance from the king's French advisers, he would order the construction of a European style dock in Kaluahine, to house the Boudeuse and any other large ships that should arrive in the islands. This construction project would eventually be expanded to Honolulu, and later other major ports in the Hawaiian Islands. In 1722 forts outside the capital and Honolulu would be completed, and equipped with cannons and stockpiles of supplies.

With the king's permission Baret would construct a small, European-style house for himself within the capital city, which would become the first home of its construction in the Hawaiian Islands. With the help of some labors and basic tools, the house would be completed in 1720, and would be whitewashed with lime made from white coral fished from the sea. The Frenchmen would also lend their expertise to the designs for the city, helping to finish the coral brick buildings, while also introducing the Hawaiians to wood siding techniques. The former military officer who stayed behind on the island, René de Froulay, would continue to drill a group of Hawaiian warriors, long after his captain, Louis-Antoine Véron, departed the island of Hawaii for the last time. In 1722 Gaspard Ribault would finish a book on the Hawaiian language, including the creation of a written alphabet using the Latin script. The king began receiving tutoring in European/world history and geopolitics, which personally fascinates him, as well as lessons in writing Hawaiian and French, which would lead to his creation of the first Hawaiian scribes.

Expansion in Polynesia

The earlier expeditions begun by Keawe II and his successors had been successful in discovering several formidable locations for future settlements and trade outposts, however, they efforts had been largely small in scale, particularly once war with Maui broke out in 1706. When the war ended the newly crowned Kamehameha I hoped to continue his late father’s policies of improvement and expansion. Additionally he sent out the largest, most well armed and equipped, expedition to the southern islands to date. The group landed on Tūpai, which they called Kohola Atoll, and constructed a camp. They spent the next year exploring and trading across the islands, while also spending time on Tahiti. Here they managed to acquire breadfruit plants, which they brought back to Kohala Atoll. Hoping to create a more permanent outpost in the southern islands, they established a farm of breadfruit, taro, and other plants near their camp, becoming a popular outpost on the way south.

The next major expedition ordered by the king would set sail early in 1711, sailing to the southern islands, in which dozens of families, building supplies, and agriculture would be supplanted in the region. This group settled Moena, Nawaomoku, and Hokulea, and began construction of farms and settlements, which would be the first permanent Hawaiian settlements in the region. The islands were officially christened the Hema Pae 'Aina, and Kamanawa, one of the king's allies, traveled to the islands to be appointed chief, settling on Moena.

The accidental discovery in the southern islands, that guano was a highly effective fertilizer, would leading to a great increasing in agriculture, first in the newly founded settlements, and later in the Hawaiian Islands as well. The settlers in the southern islands began mining the substance for use in farming, leading to a boom in population within a generation across these new settlements. Recruitment and settlement in the southern islands would again drop off, however, with the outbreak of the Pahikaua War, in 1716, and would not recover until a few years after its conclusion.

Over the course of the next few decades the Hawaiian settlers in the region would open trade with many other nations of Polynesia, exploring and settling across the region. After Moena, the next island to be explored by the Hawaiians would be Tongareva (in the Cook Islands), followed by four other islands near it within the year. Around this time it was discovered that the western most island, known as Te Ulu-o-Te-Watu, or Pukapuka, was completely distinct from the others with its own unique culture, inhabited by a few families who were shipwrecked there a few decades prior.

In 1716 Chief Kamanawa of Hema Pae 'Aina returned to Hawaii for the first time in several years, and personally recruited a large number of settlers and warriors, before returning to Tongareva in early 1717. The chief fought a brief battle, in which a portion of the native population was killed, with most of the survivors being taken as brides. The Hawaiians began construction of shelters among the native settlements, before continuing to the rest of the islands in the region, which were pacified fairly easily without bloodshed. Kamanawa, for the most part, elevated the already existing rulers into chiefs in exchange for them swearing allegiance to him, allowing for a peaceful takeover. On Pukapuka, since there was no ruler, Kamanawa elected one of the strongest individuals to be leader, and married his sister to himself. He spent much of the year sorting out local disputes and occasionally fighting with dissidents, but by 1718 the islands were firmly under his control.

In late 1717 French ships were first spotted in Polynesia, near Tahiti, where they encountered Hawaiians for the first time. Around this time French traders had begun buying porcelain, ivory, lacquerware, and other goods to be sold in Laurentia and Arcadia, traveling across the Pacific. In order to maximize profits the construction of larger ships had begun (Manila Galleons) for the long voyage across the Pacific. This initial voyage had traveled from the east, landing briefly on a few of the islands for supplies and to trade with locals. The French called the largest of the islands (Tahiti) "New Cythera", after being warmly welcomed by the locals. Although this stop became the most famous along the route, numerous other islands were either spotted or briefly explored, including the Hawaiian possession of Moena, as well as the Cook Islands, Samoa, and Fiji.

The sporadic discovery of islands in the region eventually convinced the king to commission a proper expedition to chart the region and claim land for France. The expedition came together in part after constant petitioning from the French Academy of Sciences for the French government to fund a scientific voyage to the Pacific. The king accepted and appoints Louis-Antoine Véron as the captain of this joint expedition, which would depart in 1718. The Hawaiians greeted these strange ships when they stopped in Moena and other islands across Hema Pae 'Aina, as well as in Hawaii's allies/trade partners in Polynesia, attempting to trade and learn from these foreigners. Kamanawa personally met with one of the ships in 1718, making sure that his people were cordial in order to ensure trade was prosperous. The chief also recognized the metal swords they had as being the same kind the king had, and traded for one of his own.

Later in the year another ship stopped near Farerua, and the locals managed to steal a longboat, causing a violent reprisal from some of the crew members against the locals. Kamanawa and a detachment of men sailed to Bora Bora and managed to storm one of the trade ships at night. Everyone on the small boat was killed, except for two young men, Daniel Bangalter and the captain, Pierre Baret. The capture of the small French brig, the Boudeuse, led to increased favor with the native Polynesians, as well as the capture of a large cargo full of foreign objects and resources. Although the two French men initially tried to escape, they eventually were brought to Kamanawa's home and given Hawaiian wives, and cooperated with the chief in exchange for riches and luxury. Other trade ships would come and go infrequently throughout the year without incident.

Around this time war had ended in the Hawaiian Islands, and Hema Pae 'Aina received several large cargo ships constructed by the king. The king had commissioned the creation of these large ships, much larger than any canoe previously built on the islands, for the sole purpose of trade, and as such they were equip with two large hulls, as well as a large section for cargo. Also in 1718 Hawaiian traders returned to Hema Pae 'Aina with information about the islands past Pukapuka. They told the chief of a major kingdom, known as the Empire of the Tuʻi Tonga (Tonga) far to the southwest, just past where the traders had initially stopped; the island of Samoa. This would be the first encounter between the Tongans and the Hawaiians, leading to a growing relationship in the coming decades.

Following European contact Hawaiians began to incorporate European technology and knowledge, leading to an increase in settlement and influence in the southern islands in the 1720's and beyond. Hawaiian traders en route to the Tu'i Tonga Empire would successfully settle in Tokelau, to the north of Samoa, around this time. Similarly, interest in the foreigners causes some to explore directly west from the southern islands in the direction the French vessels were generally traveling. This group would reach a group of several small islands, where they constructed camps, known as the Komohana Islands. From here they traveled further west, reaching Tuvalu.

The first target of Hawaii's newly acquired influence would be the island of Bora Bora. Following the Boudeuse incident, Kamanawa found himself in a position of great influence over the island, and he offered military support to a local chief named Puni, who had ambitions of uniting the island under his rule, and in exchange essentially became a Hawaiian puppet. An alliance was cemented with the marriages of Puni to a relative of Kamanawa, and Kamanawa to Puni's sister. With Hawaiian assistance Puni would unite the island of Bora Bora in 1724, declaring the Kingdom of Bora Bora.

European Contact
By the early 18th century the Kingdom of Hawaii had already expanded beyond the Hawaiian Islands, arriving in Tahiti and other major islands in Polynesia. This expansion would ultimately lead to contact with European explorers and traders, who came into contact with Tahiti before discovering Hawaii proper. By this time one of the preeminent European powers in the Pacific Ocean was the Kingdom of France, who controlled vast territories in the east, in Laurentia, as well as in Southeast Asia and western Oceania, most notably the French East Indies. The gradual increase in trade across the Pacific, as well as the trade of spices to the west and trade with China to the north, led to the need for larger trade ships (Manila Galleons), which would be capable of making longer journeys, while also maximizing cargo capacity. French traders began buying porcelain, ivory, lacquerware, and other goods to be sold in Laurentia and Arcadia, traveling across the Pacific.

The trans-Pacific trade ultimately led to French traders sporadically coming into contact with various Polynesian islands, which they occasionally stopped at to trade for supplies, marking the beginning of contact, unofficially, for various nations. It is believed that during one such voyage from New France to the East Indies, around the year 1718, that traders first landed on Tahiti, which the French at the time called "New Cythera", after being warmly welcomed by the locals. Although this stop became the most famous along the route, numerous other islands were either spotted or briefly explored, including the Hawaiian territory of Moena, and other parts of Hema Pae 'Aina. The sporadic discovery of islands in the region eventually convinced the king to commission a proper expedition to chart the region and claim land for France. This expedition would come together in part after constant petitioning from the French Academy of Sciences, who called for the French government to fund a scientific voyage to the Pacific in order to record information about its wildlife and people. The king accepted and appointed Louis-Antoine Véron as the captain of this joint expedition, which departed in late 1718.

The expedition led by Captain Louis-Antoine Véron would be the first major expedition by a European power to reach the Kingdom of Hawaii. The expedition began with the rounding the southern tip of Laurentia toward the island of "New Cythera", where the expedition spend a few weeks resupplying, repairing, and trading with the locals, while also attempting to learn about their culture and language. French botanists and artists recorded information about much of the fauna and flora of the region, while Véron personally wrote in his journal accounts of human sacrifice, dancing, and other customs, while (incorrectly) estimating the population of Tahiti and the neighboring islands to be about 200,000. The French took note of the local trade of the region, noticing that a great deal of people and goods were moving north, and they followed the locals in this direction toward the island of Moena. Véron met with the local chief Kamanawa, who to his surprise was equipped with a French sword and other modern tools. Even more surprisingly, the Frenchman Daniel Bangalter, who also styled himself a chief, introduced himself to the captain and served as a translator.

In exchange for the supplies and information the expedition needed, Bangalter negotiated for some amenities that he desired, as well as some guns and weapons for the Hawaiians. He ultimately revealde that his captain, Pierre Baret had sailed with the natives on a brig back to their homeland, "Hawaii", directly to the north. Intrigued, Véron's expedition sailed north, before reaching the titular island. He explored around the island clockwise, before returning to the southern coast and making landfall near a city on the coast, where the lost French ship was spotted. Véron met with the king of the islands and Pierre Baret, exchanging gifts and trading. Baret detailed to the curious Véron how he was elevated to one of the highest positions in the Hawaiian court, was given wives and riches, and in exchange had been attempting to teach the king French. He claimed the king was interested in unifying the islands, and wanted more of the guns that the French had brought, which Baret had been attempting to teach them how to use.

Intrigued by the prospect of these natives using guns, Véron agreed to help Baret for a time, simply for his own curiosity's sake, and to document what happened for the French government. For the next few weeks French soldiers spent time parading with groups of native warriors, teaching them about shooting and handling guns, and other techniques. Treated as guests, the French crew were all given Hawaiian women and treated to the highest honors, with a few of the men even deserting to stay with the locals. At least one officer agreed to stay with Baret and continue training the locals, who Véron believed would become French subjects in due time. Eventually the expedition departed, charting the other islands of Hawaii mostly without incident. They traveled to the southwest, eventually reaching the French East Indies.

Louis-Antoine Véron returned to France and published his findings regarding Hawaii and the rest of Polynesia, fascinating the public and government alike. As a result Véron was promoted and by the end of 1720 was placed at the head of an even larger expedition. The French government supplied the captain with several ships, a large stockpile of arms and supplies, seeds and old world planets, and several specialists, including a linguist, botanists, and some missionaries, which the captain sought to bring to Hawaii. The second voyage continued similarly to the first, stopping first at Tahiti before continuing north to Hawaii. Véron was once again welcomed by the king and treated as a special guest. With the king's permission the French began exploring and studying the islands, recording more information about the wildlife and customs of the region.

Véron would propose a trade pact with the Hawaiians, in the hopes that a formal agreement would someday later aid a French claim to the region, as well as establish relations with a potentially crucial ally. As part of the deal Véron offered the Hawaiians his cache of weaponry, including rifles, swords, ammunition, and a few cannons. He also would begin construction of two forts, one on the southern tip of Hawaii near the kingdom's capital, and another outside the growing city of Honolulu, to guard two of the nation's most important harbors, as well as establish a French presence and location for future residency. Ultimately, however, Véron placed the forts in the possession of the native Hawaiians. Ultimately Kamehameha I would accept the agreement, laying the foundation for modernization within the nation.

The linguist brought by Véron, Gaspard Ribault, would attempt to record the native language, while also inadvertently creating a written form of the language. He worked with the king and several other officials, teaching them French in the process. The seeds and plants brought by the Frenchmen were planted across the island, and took kindly to the Hawaiian climate. After spending several months on the island Véron eventually departed taking with him a great deal of knowledge, and also a Polynesian navigator to aid him. He began the next phase of his expedition; the exploration of the alleged southern continent. Following the favorable currents and winds heading to the west, Véron reached Wake Island and headed south through the Marshall Islands. His Hawaiian navigator led him to Majuro where there was already a Hawaiian camp, and they resupplied there. He continued west and slightly south, reaching Papua New Guinea, where he made contact with the Angu-Zia Union, before continuing south to follow the coast. At the Torres Strait the expedition turned south and discovered a much larger island; the continent of Australia, which they would follow south all the way to its southern tip. From here he would turn east, exploring another set of islands off Australia's coast (New Zealand), however, the locals were found to be much more hostile, and after circling around the islands he continued to Tahiti to resupply, before heading east back to civilization in early 1721.

Law of the Splintered Paddle
In 1738 King Kamehameha I would declare the world's first national law regarding modern human rights and treatment of civilians and noncombatants, known as the Kānāwai Māmalahoe, or Law of the Splintered Paddle. The law originated when during the Kepaniwai War, when Kamehameha I was in Puna, his party encountered a group of commoners on a peach. Two fishermen attacked the king while he was trapped by a reef, hitting the king hard on the head with a paddle in defense, which broke into several pieces.

Years later those same fishermen would be captured and brought before the king, to be executed for the crime of attacking a king. The king, however, declared that the men had acted in self defense, and as such they would be granted clemency. The Law of the Splintered Paddle essentially ended the practice of raiding, one of the chief causes of violence and destruction across the Hawaiian Islands, which had been rampant and widespread for much of its history. Additionally the law would lay the foundation for future human rights legislation that would come in the following centuries, with the Law of the Splintered Paddle still embedded in the constitution of Hawaii to this day.

Polynesian Confederacy

Kamehameha II and III


At its inception, the Kingdom of Hawaii followed a similar government to that of the earlier kingdoms of the islands, known as the Ali'i Nui system, which had dominated Hawaiian life and customs since its introduction at around the 13th century. The ali'i were hereditary nobles, who served as chiefs and lesser chiefs of various districts or kingdoms across the islands, while the title of ali'i nui usually referred to a supreme high chief, i.e. the ruler of one of Hawaii's four main kingdoms; Hawai'i proper, Maui, Kaua'i, or O'ahu. When Kamehameha I took the throne as the first king of a unified kingdom, he continued to style himself Ali'i Nui of Hawai'i, as well as Mōʻī, a title that had previously been reserved for the monarchs of Maui.

Under Kamehameha I and his descendants Hawaii was considered an absolute monarchy, with the king having complete control in all state affairs. Kamehameha did make certain steps toward delegating control and rulership, however, notably by replacing the office of Kālaimoku with that of the Kuhina Nui, and also utilizing a council of chiefs as an advisory position.

The office of kuhina nui would essentially transition into the equivalent of the European position of prime minister. The kuhina nui would often serve as the second highest position in government, and would serve as a regent if the king was away from the islands or otherwise indisposed. Furthermore the king's council was formalized into an official cabinet, with the kuhina nui serving as the first member of the cabinet, in 1792 by Kamehameha IV Kīwalaʻō.

Under the rule of the House of Kamehameha, Hawaii remained a largely feudal society. At any given point the King of Hawaii only directly held a certain percentage of the islands, with most regions being delegated to chiefs who answered to the king. Originally lesser ali'i continued to govern individual islands or large areas, however, this was replaced in 1722 by the rank of Royal Governor, or Kiaʻaina. Notably the Ali'i Nui of Kauai, Kaumualii, continued to rule with that title until his death, as part of his diplomatic vassalage within the kingdom.

Below the governors of an individual island were the Aliʻi ʻAimoku, who ruled a subordinate district or petty fief within a kingdom. The majority of the islands were divided into six or more districts, meaning each governor had about six chiefs who swore fealty to them. These rulers were stylized as "Aliʻi-o-Name of District", and were the smallest division within the main Hawaiian Islands.

The first ali'i nui created outside of the main Hawaiian Islands was Kamanawa, who in 1712 was created the first Chief of Hema Pae 'Aina. Because of the more sparsely populated and vastly spread out nature of the chiefdom, the subordinates of the Chief of Hema Pae 'Aina notably controlled entire islands or chains of islands throughout the chiefdom's history.

Throughout the late 18th and 19th centuries the Kingdom of Hawaii would codify a number of constitutions which would alter the government of Hawaii. The most notable was in 1818, when a legislative assembly was created as a bicameral system; the existing House of Nobles, and a House of Representatives, the second being limited to male Hawaiians who meet a certain property requirement and other specifications, elected under particular requirements as well. This change became the first in a shift toward a constitutional monarchy.

Royal Family

The House of Kamehameha (Hawaiian: Hale O Kamehameha), also known as the Kamehameha dynasty, is the reigning Royal Family of the Kingdom of Hawaii, beginning with its founding by Kamehameha I, who was born around 1680. Under the House of Kamehameha the Hawaiian Islands would be unified for the first time, and would be ushered into the modern era following European contact and the beginning of modernization.

Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii
(1610 - 1655)
Aliʻi Nui of Oahu
Kanaloa-i-Kaiwilena Kapulehu
Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii
(1630 - 1685)
Keawe II
Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii
(1655 - 1705)
See House of Keōua
Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii
(1657 - 1698)
Alii nui of Molokai
(1660 - 1702)
Chief of Puna
(1674 - 1708)
Ahia of ʻI of Hilo
Keeaumoku Nui
Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii
(1677 - 1709)
Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii
Chief of Kohala
(1679 - 1703)
Aliʻi Nui of Maui
(1694 - 1729)
Kalanikupuapaʻīkalaninui Ahilapalapa
(1699 - 1717)
House of Kamehameha
House of Kekualike
Aliʻi Nui of Molokai
(1681 - 1704)
Alii nui of O'ahu
Kuhina Nui
Chief of Kohala
Aliʻi Nui of Molokai
(1681 - 1704)
Alii nui of O'ahu
House of Kekaulike

House of Keawe

  • Keakamahana (1610 - 1655) - Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii
    • Keakealaniwahine (1630 - 1685) - Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii - Kanaloa-i-Kaiwilena Kapulehu
      • Keawe II (Keaweʻīkekahialiʻiokamoku) (1655 - 1705) - Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii
        • Kalaninuiamamao (1674 - 1708) - Chief of Puna - Ahia of ʻI of Hilo (1675)
          • Kalaniʻōpuʻu-a-Kaiamamao (1694 - 1729)
            • Kīwalaʻō (1714 - 1770) - Kuhina Nui of Hawaii (1756)
            • Kalaipaihala (1716)
              • Keliʻimaikai (1751) - Chief of Vanua Levu
            • Pualinui (1717)
          • Keawemauhili (1698)
            • Kapiʻolani (1714)
            • Keaweokahikiona (1719)
            • Elelule Laʻakeaelelulu (1719)
            • Koakanu (1721)
        • Keeaumoku Nui (Kalani Kama Keʻeaumoku-nui) (1677 - 1709) - Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii (1705), Chief of Kona (-1705), Chief of Kohala
          • Kalanikupuapaʻīkalaninui Ahilapalapa (1699 - 1717)
        • Kamehameha (1680 - 1757) - Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii (1709), Chief of Kona (1705), Chief of Hamakua (1705 - 1709), Guardian of the God of War
          • House of Kamehameha
      • Keōua (1657 - 1703)
        • Kameʻeiamoku (1679 - 1716) - Kuhina Nui of Hawaii (1710), Chief of Puna (1708)
          • Kepoʻokalani (1690 - 1761) - Chief of Puna (1716)
            • Kamanawa II ʻŌpio (1712 - 1794) - Chief of Puna (1761)
              • Kapaakea (1744 - 1808) - Chief of Puna (1794)
                • Aikanaka (1769 - 1822) - Chief of Puna (1808)
                  • Kalākaua (1796)
                    • House of Kalākaua
              • Kekahili (1747)
              • Mahoe (1752)
            • Aikanaka (1715)
            • Kulinui (1719)
          • Ulumāheihei Hoapili (1692 - 1756) - Kuhina Nui of Hawaii (1745 - 1756), Royal Governor of Maui (1726 - 1745)
            • Kuini Liliha (1712)
            • Kalaniulumoku (1714)
              • Kaelemakule (1752) - Chief of Savai'i (1802)
            • Namaile (1718)
            • Kamaile (1723)
          • Hoʻolulu (1693 - 1745) - Royal Governor of Oahu (1722)
            • Kaiheʻekai (1714)
            • Kinoʻoleoliliha (1715)
            • Moʻoheau-nui-i-Kaaiawaawa-o-ʻUlu (1717)
            • Kahinu (1720)
          • Loe-wahine (1695 - 1727)
          • Kekikipaʻa (1697) - Keohohiwa (1691) - Chief of Hilo
            • Keʻelikōlani (1720)
    • - Kaneikauaiwilani
      • Kalanikauleleiaiwi (1657 - 1698) - Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii - Kauaua-a-Mahi
        • Alapaʻinuiakauaua (1679 - 1703) - Co-chief of Kohala
        • Haae-a-Mahi (1680 - 1708)
        • Kekuʻiapoiwa (1681) - King Kekaulike of Maui
      • -Lonoikahaupu - Aliʻi of Kauaʻi
        • Keawepoepoe
        • Kanoena
      • - Kanealai (1660 - 1702) - Alii nui of Molokai
        • Kekelakekeokalani (1681 - 1704) - Alii nui of Molokai - Kaeokulani - Alii nui of O'ahu
        • Kumukoa (1683 - 1690)
        • Kaliloamoku (1684 - 1741) - Kuhina Nui of Hawaii (1716), Chief of Kohala (1709) - Kauhiokaka (1686)
          • Peleuli (1700) - Koalaukani of Maui (1694)
            • Kalilikauoha (1717)
            • Kaloa (1719)
            • Kahekilinuiahunu (1722)
            • Manonokauakapekulani (1726)
          • Keʻeaumoku II Pāpaʻiahiahi (1701 - 1750) - Kuhina Nui of Hawaii (1741 - 1745), Chief of Kohala (1741), Royal Governor of Oahu (1745)
            • Keeaumoku III (1718) - Chief of Kohala (1750)
            • Kalākua Kaheiheimālie (1720)
            • Kuakini II (1721 - 1782) - Royal Governor of Maui (1745)
            • Kekuaiaea (1723)
          • Kanuha (1707)
        • - Malaeakini (1689)
          • Kauhiololi (1705)
          • Keliʻimaikaʻi (1709)
        • Kamanawa (1684 - 1754) - Chief of Hema Pae 'Aina (1712) - Kekuʻiapoiwa (1680)
          • Kuakini (1704 - 1767) - Chief of Hema Pae 'Aina (1754)
            • Leleiohoku (1739) - Chief of Hema Pae 'Aina (1767)
              • Kiliwehi (1762)
              • Keolaloa (1765)
              • Paul Kaōleiokū (1765) - Kuhina Nui of Hawaii (1802)
                • Laure Kanaholo Kōnia (1785) -- David Lot Kamehameha VI Kapuāiwa (1775)
                • Pier Kalaniʻōpuʻu (1787)
                • Marie Kānekapōlei (1791)
            • Liliulani (1742) - Royal Governor of Maui (1782)
          • Namahana Piia (1705)
          • Kekauʻōnohi (1707)
        • - Kekelaokalani (1685)
          • Koahou (1704)
          • Jean Naukane (1706 - 1777) - Minister of the Navy (1745)
            • Pierre Kekuamanoha (1740) - Ambassador to the Mehican Empire (1800)
          • Amamalua (1707)
          • Keliimaikai (1712)
          • Kaikoʻokalani (1719)
        • - Tukiongo of Pukapuka (1700)
          • Keaoua Kekuaokalani (1717)
          • Kamakaimoku (1721)
          • Kiliwehi (1723) --Thomas Motierd de Beaumont (1719)
            • Charles César de Beaumont (1749)
              • Toma-Lui de Beaumont (1782) - First Ambassador to New Granada (1826)
        • - Ai-mata of Bora Bora (1706)
          • Maheha Kapulikoliko (1722)
          • Kahōʻanokū Kīnaʻu (1724)

House of Kamehameha

  • Kamehameha I (1680 - 1757) - Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii (1709), Chief of Kona (1705), Chief of Hamakua (1705 - 1709), Guardian of the God of War - Kaʻahumanu (1682)
    • Kamehameha II Liholiho (1701 - 1766) - Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii (1757)
    • Kamehameha III Kauikeaouli (1702 - 1779) - Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii (1766), Chief of Kona (1757) - Kalama (1706)
      • Keaweaweʻulaokalani II (1737 - 1770) - Chief of Kona (1766)
      • Kamehameha IV Kīwalaʻō (1740 - 1806) - Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii (1779), Chief of Kona (1770 - 1790)
        • Kekūāiwa (1775 - 1804) - Minister of the Interior (1800), Chief of Kona (1790)
        • Helekunihi (1780-1837)
        • Keohokālole (1783-1863)
        • Kamaʻeokalani (1787-1847)
    • Nahienaena (1708-1789) - Kiʻilaweau (1690)
      • Kaʻahumanu II (1728-1808)
      • Kekūanāoʻa (1730 - 1802) - Kuhina Nui of Hawaii (1778), Royal Governor of Oʻahu (1770 - 1778), Minister of War (1765 - 1770)
        • Alexandre Kamehameha V ʻIolani Liholiho (1767 - 1826) - Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii (1806)
        • Marie Antoinette Kamāmalu (1770-1837)  -Charles Kanaʻina (1774-1829)
          • Charles René Lunalilo I  (1802-1884)- Ali'i Nui of Hawaii (1841)
        • David Lot Kamehameha VI Kapuāiwa (1775-1841) - Aliʻi Nui of Hawaii (1826)
        • Marie-Thérèse Kahoowha (1780-1860) - Hippolyte Nicolas of Medici-Brésil (1778)
    • Kamāʻuleʻule (Boki) (1711 - 1778) - Kuhina Nui of Hawaii (1770), Royal Governor of Oahu (1750 - 1770)
      • Kiliwehi (1735-1819) - Lucien Nicolas Véron (1734)
    • Kamakahukilani (1715-1766)
      • Haalou (1749-1808) - Chief of Tongatapu (1802)
      • Pier Kamaile II (1752-1827) - Chief of Viti Levu (1802) - Marie-Matilde Véron (1754)
        • Lui-Anakoni Kamāʻuleʻule (1779-1845) - Second Ambassador to Brésil (1822)
        • Charles Kekūāiwa (1782-1837) - Minister of War (1810)
  • -Kalilikauoha (1677-1750)
    • Kamāmalu (1709-1768)
    • Kekikipaʻa (1711 - 1738)
  • -Kalolaa-kumukoa (1683)
    • Keaweaweʻulaokalani I (1703 - 1720)
    • Kekāuluohi (1705-1746)
    • Manono (1710-1795)

House of Kalākaua

  • David Kalākaua (1796-1866) - Chief of Puna (1822)
    --Kapiolani (1798)
    • Lui Leleiohoku (1818-1870) - Chief of Puna (1866)
    • Lydia Liliʻuokalani (1819- ) Chieftess of Puna (1866-84) - Kahuna Nui of Hawaii (1880-85)- Ali'i Nui of Hawaii(1884)
    • Caesar Kapaʻakea (1821-) Chief of Puna (1884)
    • Rene Lunalilo (1823-1886) - Kahuna Nui of Hawaii (1885)
    • Anakoni Kamanawa Hapakolu (1825-1879)
    • Pier Liholiho (1828-) - Kahuna Nui of Hawaii (1886)

Caste System

In ancient Hawaii, and continuing into the early 18th century and the early years of the kingdom, Hawaii was divided by a societal caste system. The system was developed around the early 13th century and is similar to Polynesian customs found elsewhere in the Pacific. The main classes were as follows:

  • Aliʻi - A class of hereditary nobles, who became kings, chiefs, and other high ranking officials in the various Hawaiian kingdoms. They governed with divine power called mana. This class was additionally divided into various classes depending on the circumstances of one's birth or their rank within the class, e.g. the Ali'i Nui were the supreme high chiefs of an island.
  • Kahuna - Priests who were responsible for conducting religious ceremonies, at the heiau and elsewhere. Professionals included master carpenters and boatbuilders, chanters, dancers, genealogists, physicians and healers.
  • Makaʻāinana - Commoners who farmed, fished, and exercised the simpler crafts. They labored not only for themselves and their families, but to support the chiefs and kahuna.
  • Kauwā - They are believed to have been war captives or the descendants of war captives. Marriage between higher castes and the kauwā was strictly forbidden. The kauwā worked for the chiefs and were often used as human sacrifices at the luakini heiau. (They were not the only sacrifices; law-breakers of all castes or defeated political opponents were also acceptable as victims.).

The adoption of Christianity and the breaking of the Kapu system by Kamehameha II in the 1750's largely did away with many of the more specific divisions of the caste system. For one the Kauwā class largely disappeared, as wars, raiding, and other conflicts had been largely phased out or eventually made illegal, and with the end of the Hawaiian religion there was no longer a need for human sacrifices. Instead the former Kauwā became a sort of lower class, marrying or otherwise ascending into the Makaʻāinana class.

Additionally many of the individual practices of the kahuna were outlawed or otherwise made defunct by Christianity. Various ranks or categories of the kahuna, such as those who preformed the sacrifices and other pre-Christian religious practices died out, while the "craft" kahuna, those who specialized in certain jobs, such as shipbuilding and navigation, grew. Even as the official ranks of the kahuna died out, later monarchs would encourage the kahuna to preserve and compile their prayers, remedies, customs, histories, and traditions, as a way to preserve native Hawaiian heritage.

The ali'i class continued on well into the kingdom's history. The ali'i served as important council members and vassals to the king, and with the official creation of a Hawaiian legislature, exclusively staffed the House of Nobles. All the Hawaiian monarchs, and most of their families, would continue to marry within their caste, while most high-ranking positions in government would remain ali'i-dominate, however, in theory anyone could be appointed by the king to a position, and in practice many westerners and Hawaiians of a particular skill served in government.


The Kingdom of Hawaii is divided into numerous chiefdoms, each ruled by a high chief, or Aliʻi nui. Initially referring to the ruler of an independent kingdom within the Hawaiian Islands, the term Aliʻi nui eventually came to mean "governor" following the Unification of Hawaii. Additionally the title of Mōʻī was a special title for the highest chief of the island of Maui, but was later used solely by the reigning king of Hawaii, beginning with Kamehameha I, and continuing with his successors.

Hawaii in PM4 1720
Map of the Kingdom of Hawaii, its territorial possessions, and its immediate neighbors, in the year 1720.
Chiefdoms of Hawaii
Primary Islands
Flag CoA Name Capital Ruler Dynasty
Hawaii Kaluahine Kamehameha Kamehameha
Maui Lahaina Ulumāheihei Hoapili Keawe
O'ahu Honolulu Hoolulu Keawe
Kauai Waimea Kaumualii Kekaulike
Secondary Islands
Moloka'i Kaunakakai
Lānaʻi Lānaʻi City
Northwestern Islands Mokumanamana
Other Territories
Hema Pae 'Aina Moena Kamanawa Keawe
Tu'i Tonga Mu'a


The island of Hawaii is the largest of the Hawaiian islands and the namesake of the kingdom. Originally the base of power of the House of Keawe and Kamehameha I, the island spearheaded the unification. It is also the one of the most populous islands, with several well developed cities, including Kaluahine, which was the original capital of the kingdom. The island is divided into six districts, each ruled by a lesser chief.

Island of Hawaii
Flag CoA Name Capital Ruler Dynasty
Ka'ū Ka-luahine Kamehameha Kamehameha
Puna Kepoʻokalani Keawe
Hilo Waiakea Ululani ʻI
Kona Kailua Kamehameha Keawe
Hamakua Waipio Valley Keeaumoku Pāpaiahiahi Kekaulike
Kohala Kaliloamoku Keawe


Historic Mokus of Maui Map

Districts of Maui

The island of Maui is the second largest of the Hawaiian islands. The island was annexed into the kingdom in 1710 as a result of the Kepaniwai War. The island is divided into 12 districts, each ruled by a lesser chief. While independent the Kingdom of Maui also held the lesser Kingdom of Moloka'i, Lānaʻi, and Kaho'olawe at various points in its existence, and after being annexed the island of Maui continued to exert control over these islands. Moloka'i and Lānaʻi, however, would later be separated into independent chiefdoms.

Hema Pae 'Aina

The chiefdom of Hema Pae 'Aina corresponds to all territories controlled by the Kingdom of Hawaii but outside the islands of Hawaii proper. The territory is roughly south of Hawaii, and consists of numerous islands across Polynesia.

Hema Pae 'Aina
Flag CoA Name Capital Ruler Dynasty OTL
Lalani Pae 'aina Moena Kamanawa Keawe Line Islands, Cook Islands, Tūpai, various US territories
  • Kalama Atoll (Johnston Atoll)
  • Lalani Pae 'aina (Line Islands)
    • Moena (Kiritimati) (1707)
    • Palama Atoll (Palmyra Atoll) (1708)
    • Nawaomoku (Tabuaeran) (1708)
    • Hokulea (Teraina) (1708)
  • Lui-anakoni Pae 'aina (Cook Islands)
    • Tongareva (Penrhyn) (1714)
    • Pukapuka (1714)
    • Luimoku (Rarotonga) (1727)
    • Piermoku (Aitutaki) (1727)



Before contact with the outside world the population of Hawaii consisted solely of Hawaiian natives. The introduction of the Lokahi Reforms and better agricultural practices caused the population to rise to an estimated 800,000 people by 1720. With European contact came disease which caused the indigenous population to drop considerably. The overall population would drop to almost half what it had been before European contact.

The mandatory inoculations in the 1770's, and other medical practices imported to the islands from Europe, would help to end the sharp decline in the nation's population, as did a steady stream of foreign immigrants from Europe, Asia, and Laurentia/Arcadia over the coming centuries. By 1820 this was estimated to account for about 70,000 people throughout the entire kingdom.

Additionally the many colonies of the kingdom established throughout the Pacific continued to grow, and by the 19th century encompassed a considerable part of the nation's population. The number of native Hawaiians who had settled the southern islands grew from about a few hundred in 1720 to approximately 10,000 by 1825, due to a large rate of natural growth, as well as a steady supply of immigration. The Lalani Pae 'aina (Line Islands), Kalama Atoll, and other early territories in Hema Pae 'Aina notably had no native population.

In addition to the Hawaiian population that settled the Lui-anakoni Pae 'aina (Cook Islands), Komohana region, approximately 70,000 natives inhabited these territories. The non-Hawaiian population would drop to approximately 30,000 by 1770, while by 1825 approximately 90,000 indigenous and mixed people inhabited these territories. Including all Hawaiians, natives, and mixed peoples, an estimated 130,000 people were subjects of the southern islands by the early 19th century.

The populations of the Kingdom of Tahiti, and the main kingdoms of Polynesia was estimated to be about 200,000 by the late 18th century, with an additional 100,000 or less distributed throughout the other few hundred islands in the region. The total Polynesian, non-Hawaiian population of the region would rise to approximately 250,000 by the early to mid 19th century.

Estimated Populations of Hawaii

(Hawaiian Population in parentheses if applicable)

1720 1770 1825
Hawaii 850,000 390,500 775,742


Lalani Pae 'aina 700 1,500 7,753


Lui-anakoni Pae 'aina 30,000






Komohana 40,000






Polynesia 320,000 80,000 250,000


Tonga 500,000 100,000 300,000


Total Population 1,449,295



Racial Breakdown of Hawaii and all Territories
Racial composition 1770 1825 1850 1875 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000
Native Hawaiian and


Non-Hawaiian Polynesian 28.4%


Melanesian/Micronesian 8.3%


Asian 3.5%


White/European 2.6%


Black/African 0.03%



The primary religion of the Kingdom of Hawaii is Christianity, particularly Roman Catholicism, with other sects, such as Orthodox Christianity, being a minority. Christianity was first introduced to the islands with the voyages of Louis-Antoine Véron, and several missionary attempts, primarily French, in the early 18th century.

The breaking of the Kapu system in the 1750's, spearheaded by Kamehameha II, led to the de facto adoption of Christianity, although it would not be made official until years later. This severely weakened the native Hawaiian religion, and led to a major shift toward Christianity. Kamehameha III would be the first Hawaiian monarch to officially convert to the religion, and with the exception of a minor revolt of reactionaries and traditionalists on Hawaii island, this led to its full adoption fairly quickly.

The Apostolic Prefecture of Hawaii and Polynesia was created in 1770, as a subject of the Bishop of Edo, Giapan, the closest Catholic authority to the region. The newly completed Kawaiaha'o Church was selected as its Prefectural Seat, and the first Prefect Apostolic was Alexandre Bachelot, a member of the Immaculata Order. In 1819 the territory was officially elevated to a diocese, known as the Diocese of Honolulu.

Before the adoption of Christianity, the islands followed the ancient Hawaiian religion, which by the 18th century had begun to lose its popularity. Many of its practices were outlawed by this time, although some lived on because of their utility, such as the practices of shipbuilding and navigation, while others survived by integrating in Christian traditions or hiding in more isolated communities. By the mid-19th century the Hawaiian religion remained a very small minority in the Hawaiian Islands. In the rest of the kingdom, such as the isolated territories to the south, the religion lived on in greater numbers. Similarly, variants of the religion, practiced by other Polynesian peoples throughout the kingdom and nearby regions, lived on in greater numbers. Other minority religions include Buddhism, which spread to the islands in the late 18th century, and is popular among many of the nation's Asian immigrants.

Religion in the Hawaiian Islands
Religious composition 1750 1770 1825 1850 1875 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000
Roman Catholicism 15%





Other Christianity 1.1%





Traditional Hawaiian










Other -- -- 0.9%




Kanaka Maoli flag

Flag first flown by Kamehameha during the Unification of Hawaii

At the time of the Kingdom of Hawaii's founding it had no official flag, although beginning in 1707 the banner first flown by Kamehameha began to be unofficially used as a flag for the state during the Kepaniwai War. In 1711, following the conclusion of the war and Kamehameha's ascension, it was officially adopted as the flag of Hawaii.

In the center of the flag is a kahili (symbol of the ali'i), surrounded by paddles. The colors: green for the 'aina (land), red for the koko (blood), and yellow the colors of the feathers used in sacred capes of the 'ali'i.

Foreign Relations

The Kingdom of Hawaii has formal diplomatic relations with many nations of the globe, including many European powers, since its discovery by Louis-Antoine Véron of the Kingdom of France in the early 18th century. Likewise the nation's expansion into the surrounding territories of the Pacific Ocean have led to diplomatic relations with many neighboring nations.


The Hawaiian economy became complex over time. People began to specialize in specific skills. Generations of families became committed to certain careers: roof thatchers, house builders, stone grinders, bird catchers who would make the feather cloaks of the aliʻi, canoe builders.


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