Alternative History

Norman England

On August 1, three sons of Henry the Conqueror lived; on August 6, only one survived. On William I Rufus of England died in a hunting accident. According to the treaty between William II and his brother Robert Duke of Normandy, Robert should have succeeded immediately to the throne of England. Since Robert was returning from the First Crusade, Robert's youngest brother Henry Beauclerc compelled the barons to swear fealty to him on August 5. Henry Beauclerc died in his bed that night, which many attributed to divine punishment. On August 6, the English barons recognized Robert as King of England. The Scots, however, recognized their elderly kinsmen Edgar Atheling as King of England. The Scottish claim passed to David I of Scotland in 1125.

In 1128, William Clito, son of Robert I of England, died, leaving the House of Normandy without a male heir. Robert I appointed his nephew Theobald of Champagne as his heir to England and Normandy. In 1134, Robert I of England died. Theobald of Champagne and Boulogne now claimed the Duchy of Normandy and the Kingdom of England, but David I, King of the Scots and Earl of Northumbria, insisted that the Papal decree issued to Henry the Conqueror applied only to the House of Normandy. Therefore the King of Scotland was ruler of Scotland and England. David I of Scotland controlled Scotland and Northumbria, while Theobald I controlled England south of the Humber.

Scots England

In 1201, Theobald II, king of England, duke of Normandy, count of Champagne and Boulogne, died, leaving a pregnant wife and ambitious relatives. The ensuing fracas enabled William III of England and I of Scotland to conquer England south of the Humber.

In 1234, Theobald, duke of Normandy, count of Champagne and Boulogne, formerly Theobald III of England, became Theobald I, King of Navarre.

Scottish domination of England ended forever in 1290 when Margaret, Maid of Norway, Queen of Scots and English, perished in a sea-crossing. The fourteen claimants to the Anglo-Scottish throne fought a civil war that allowed Franco-Navarrese forces under Joan I, Queen of Navarre, to seize all England. At this time, female succession of the crown was acknowledged in England.

Navarran England

In 1314, Louis I of Navarre and England became Louis X of France. This triple crown lasted only until 1328, when the similarities between the inheritance of the English and the Navarran crown led to their continued unification until 1795, excepting 1441-1479. The Navarran dialect and culture had great impact on the cultured strata of the English language.

[1328 would be a good secondary POD if Salic law is held to apply in England and the Valois become kings of both lands. Then English and French monarchists would trace the same line to the present day.]

In 1441, John II of Aragon declared himself King of England for life and maintained this position until 1471 except for 1457-1461, when John's son Charles Prince of Viana, was Charles IV of England.

Henry II of Navarre and VI of England (1512-1555) was a moderate supporter of the Huguenots in both his realms. His daughter Joan III of Navarre and England (1555-1572), however, was a staunch Calvinist and declared Calvinism the religion in both her kingdoms. Her son, Henry III of Navarre and VII of England (1572-1610) was raised as a Calvinist and became Henry IV of France in 1589. Henry converted to Catholicism, but issued the Edict of Toleration, which allowed Protestantism in Navarre and England.

In 1610, Henry II of Navarre, VI of England, and IV of France died. His son became Louis II of Navarre and England and XIII of France. Under the influence of his mother and Cardinal Richelieu, Louis revoked the Edict of Toleration and persecuted the Huguenots. Many fled to the Calvinist court of James VI of Scotland or to Scots colonies in the New World. Louis also eliminated Navarre as an independent kingdom, incorporating it into France.

In 1643, Louis II of England and XIII of France died and was succeeded by his son Louis III and XIV. An pro-Protestant revolt in England led by one Oliver Cromwell in 1643 sputtered out in 1645 with Cromwell's execution. Louis III of England then promoted centralization of both France and England until his death in 1715, leaving two direct male descendants on the thrones of Spain and France-England respectively. Louis III and XIV's successor was his great-grandson Louis IV and XV. In 1774, his son Louis V and XVI became king of England and France.

Anglo-French Revolutions and Counterrevolutions

In 1776, all thirteen Anglo-French colonies in North America rebelled. The Confederation of American States was not recognized until 1789, when the burgers of France overthrew Louis V and XVI and proclaimed a French Republic. A Confederate attempt to invade the seven Anglo-French colonies of New Scotland to the north in the name of liberty failed. Although the Bourbons did not escape France, England continued to recognize Louis V and XVI and his son Louis VI and XVII.

After 1795, however, the Anglo-French monarchy was divided. The French throne passed to Louis V and XVI's brother Louis XVIII, but the English throne passed to Louis V and XVI's daughter Mary I.

Foundation of Jacobia and Jacob's Land

In 1682, the Scottish colony which in theory extended down the Royalmount and Mississippi Rivers was divided in the northern portion of New Scotland and the southern portion of Jacobia, although the first settlement in Jacobia was not established until 1699. New Edinburgh, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, became the official capital of the large and sparsely populated land in 1722. In 1762, Scotland was forced to cede New Scotland to France-England and Jacobia to Spain. Both the victors were Catholic, but their new subjects were Protestant. This religious divide prevented any sense of unity between Jacobia and its western neighbor Alto Mexico.

When Napoleon invaded Spain, the citizens of Jacobia greeted him as a liberator, but resented his attempt to sell Jacobia first back to Scotland, then to the CAS. In 1803, a Jacobian politician named Alexander Hamilton led a revolt to create an independent state of Jacobia, or Jacob's Land.

Between 1810 and 1821, the Mexican Revolution created a neighboring large republic, the Republic of Mexico. Spain had ceded its last North American territory, Florida, to the CAS in 1819. Unfortunately, Jacob's Land found itself between two fervently Catholic states.

Bourbon Restoration

In 1814, Louis VII and XVIII recovered the throne of France. In 1824 his brother became Charles X of France, but Charles X of France was forced to abdicate in 1830 and took refuge in his niece's court. Mary I of England recognized the exiled King of France as her heir presumptive. Charles X of France died in 1836, and his son became Louis XIX. Louis XIX's nephew became Henry V of France in 1844 and in 1851 he became Henry VII of England. Henry VII and V was the last ruler of both France and England, even in name. In 1883, the heir of the King of Spain (then a Republic) became the French pretender John III, while Felix, the son of the last Duke of Parma and grandson of Henry VII's sister, became Felix I of England.

The North American War (1861-65)

Since the Jacobian state required that each man work by the sweat of his brow, slavery soon became illegal in Jacob's Land. The slaves of the southern CAS, therefore, often fled to Jacob's Land. When the owners led recovery raids into Jacob's Land, the government of Jacob's Land complained to the dominant northern CAS, which then arrested the owners for provoking international war. The southern CAS decided to break away as the Confederation of Southern American States (CSAS). Jacob's Land rallied round its Moderator Jock Browne and supported the northern CAS. After the North American War, many freedmen moved to Jacob's Land, triggering a brief but vitriolic nativist campaign.

Bourbon-Parma England and Luxemburg

After World War I, Felix I of England married Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxemburg. Charlotte abdicated in 1964, but Felix delayed until his death in 1970 to pass the English throne to their son John, King of England (as John III). In 2000, John passed the Grand Duchy to his son Henry, but kept the English throne. Grand Duke Henry will in time become Henry VIII of England.