Alternative History

1122: Background: The Concordats of London and Worms

The Investiture Controversy, which had torn apart Germany since 1079, had weakened imperial control in favor of local lords, was settled by the Concordat of Worms, which was modelled on the Concordat of London (1107), between Pope ? and Henry I of England, father-in-law of Emperor Henry V. The Concordat of London distinguished between secular and ecclesiastical powers of prelates. Henry I of England was not especially weakened by the Concordat of London, since William I of England had ensured that none of his vassals had substantial local control. Henry I of England then appointed secular scholars, who had minor orders, to bishoprics so that they would depend on him and the royal power would grow stronger.

The Concordat of Worms was similar in principle to the Concordat of London. Election of bishops and abbots in Germany would occur in front of the Emperor, who would judge any disputes and ensure that there were no bribes. In Burgundy and Italy, outside the Empire, the Emperor would send symbols of authority to newly elected bishops within six months. The Emperor renounced the right to invest bishops with the ring and crosier and guaranteed free election and consecration.

The half-century of strife in Germany had diminished the royal coffers, transferred juridical rights to local lords, while lay piety had increased, setting a stage for the use of Crusade against Emperor Frederick II .

1123: The First Council of the Lateran confirmed the Concordat of Worms.

1124: Emperor Henry V impregnated Maud of England.

1125: Birth Pains

In 1125, Emperor Henry V died, leaving his wife Maud of England pregnant. If Maud bore a girl, the Imperium would be up for grabs; if she bore a boy, it would be more chancy to wrest the Imperium from the Salian dynasty.

Lothair I, Duke of Saxony, with the aid of the Archbishop of Mainz, positioned himself as a candidate for election as King of Germany if Maud’s child should be a girl. Lothair I had first aided Henry V to rebel against his father Emperor Henry IV and become Emperor, but later rebelled against Henry V.

Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, championed heredity regardless of the gender of the child. This was not mere kin-loyalty: Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, and his full brother Conrad I, Duke of Franconia, were the sons of Agnes of Germany, sister of Emperor Henry V. If the child was a girl, they could claim the Imperial dignity and possibly an imperial princess as bride; if the child was a boy, they stood a good chance of achieving guardianship and influence.

Leopold III the Holy, Margrave of Austria (a Babenberg), declined a candidacy for Emperor and supported the pro-heredity party.

Empress Maud gave birth to a boy, Henry, who was surnamed Postumus for the time being. Maud made a deal with Henry I of England and Stephen of Blois - she would relinquish her claim on England if England would support her son, Henry, as King of the Romans and later Emperor.

Empress Maud and her supporters claimed that Henry Postumus became Henry VI, King of the Germans, at his birth, since his grandfather, Henry IV, had become Emperor when he was six.

The pro-election party claimed that an Emperor ought to be able to defend his realm.

Pope Honorius II supported Henry VI in the hopes of influencing the infant emperor’s education.

In late 1125, the nobles of the Empire expressed their support for Henry VI. Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, and Conrad I, Duke of Franconia, became joint regents for Henry VI. Lothair I lost the election. The detractors chose Lothair I, Duke of Saxony, as anti-king Lothair III.

1126-9: Staufen vs. Welf

1126: Henry the Proud (a Welf) became Henry X, Duke of Bavaria upon the death of his father Henry the Black, Duke of Bavaria. The Bavarian-Saxon alliance rivaled that of the Staufen-Salian alliance.

1127: Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria, wed Gertrude, only child of anti-king Lothair III. As a result, the imperial regents stripped Henry the Proud of the Duchy and invested the Duchy on Leopold the Generous, son of Leopold III the Holy, Margarve of Austria, as Leopold I, Duke of Bavaria.

A group of nobles in Regensburg agreed that anti-king Lothair III should attempt to seize the imperial lands which the Staufen Dukes of Swabia and Franconia were holding on behalf of their cousin Henry VI, King of the Romans.

The Staufen Dukes, naturally, resisted. As result, anti-king Lothair III undertook the following actions: Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, was placed under imperial ban; Conrad was stripped of the Duchy of Franconia; the rectorate of Burgundy was passed to Conrad, Duke of Zähringen (the family remained rectors of Burgundy until 1218).

The Staufen, however, had support in their own lands, many imperial cities, Austria, and most of Lower Lorraine.

1129: Anti-king Lothair III captured the pro-Staufen cities Speyer and Nürnberg. Empress Maud fled to England, where her father King Henry I of England agreed to help in his grandson’s education. Pope Honorius II was not happy about this. The Dukes of Swabia and Franconia remained to fight anti-king Lothair III.

1130: Anacletus, The Unpopular Anti-Pope

1130: Pope Honorius II died. Although Pietro Pierleone, a descendant of Jewish converts, had more local support for the position of Pope, Pierleone’s political rivals could not condone his candidadacy and forced the election of Gregorio Paparechi as Innocent II. Pierleone’s supporters thereupon elected him as Anacletus II. Anacletus II gained the support of Roger II, new “King” of Sicily, and Duke William X of Aquitaine. Most European rulers, however, including anti-king Lothair III, supported Innocent II, whose most persuasive advocate was Bernard of Clairvaux. Anti-king Lothair III acknowledged Innocent II in October. Anti-king Lothair III even refused Anacletus II’s offer to crown him emperor. Roger II of Sicily

1131: January: Innocent II visited Henry I of England and made a favorable impression despite the presence of Empress Maud and young Henry VI, king of the Romans.

1132: August: Anti-king Lothair III announced his intention to set out for Rome to crown Innocent II. Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, and Conrad of Franconia opposed this journey, but Lothair III compelled the brothers to come with him.

1133: June 4: Lothair III crowned Innocent II, who then crowned him Emperor Lothair II. Henry I of England and Henry VI, King of the Romans, refused to recognize Anti-emperor Lothair II.

1135: Staufen Defection and Stephen's Doubt

1135: The Reichstag at Bamberg restored all non-imperial lands to the Staufen brothers, while they acknowledged Emperor Lothair II as legitimate. This was a severe blow for Henry VI, King of the Romans. Maud suspected that Stephen of Blois would renege on his agreement to support Henry VI, King of the Romans. Stephen suspected that Maud would renege on her relinquishment of her son’s title to the throne England, now that the Imperial dignity seemed out of reach. Maud asked for a ship, but Henry I of England, who had already lost an heir to the English Channel, refused and kept her under guard.

December 1: Henry I of England died and Stephen of Blois became King of England. The tension between Stephen and Maud was so great that she risked the crossing with her son and fled to her Duchy of Normandy.

Also in 1135: Eric II of Denmark (June 25 1135-September 18, 1137) became a vassal of the anti-Emperor Lothair II. Boleslaus III, Duke of Poland (r. 1102-1138), recognized Lothair II as his overlord in Pomerania, Poland, and Rügen.

1136: An Innocent In Italy

1136: Anti-emperor Lothair II led an army to Italy again to try to win Rome for Innocent II. Henry the Proud of Bavaria led a second army. The German troops rebelled against fighting in the summer, thereby ensuring the failure of the campaign.

Also in 1136, Lothair II invested the Margraviate of Lausitz on Conrad the Great of Wettin, Margrave of Meissen, permanently uniting the two Margraviates.

1137: December: Anti-emperor Lothair II died while crossing the Alps back into Germany. Before he died, he gave the Duchy of Saxony and the imperial regalia to his son-in-law Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria.

1138: Two Henrys and a Conrad

1138: January 25: Anti-Pope Anacletus II died. Bernard of Clairvaux convinced the supporters of Anacletus II to give support to Pope Innocent II.

Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, was the logical candidate to be become Emperor. Henry the Proud nearly undermined his own cause through his arrogance. The Staufen faction proposed Conrad I, Duke of Franconia, but the hesitation which Conrad had displayed on numerous occasions weighed against him. Henry, Duke of Normandy, was not even considered. Henry the Proud became anti-Emperor Henry VI.

Meanwhile, Henry, Duke of Normandy (age 13), was spending time at the French court, with the new king of France (r. 1137-1180), Louis VII the Young (age 18), and his new wife Eleanor, heiress of Aquitaine (age 14). Eleanor soon was more taken by Henry, Duke of Normandy, than her own husband.

1139: The Norman Election

1139: Oct 20: Anti-Emperor Henry VI the Proud died. Henry the Proud’s son Henry the Lion became Duke Henry III of Saxony and XII of Bavaria, but was only ten years old. The Staufen camp, having failed twice in its own candidacy, made amends with Henry, Duke of Normandy, and presented the fourteen-year-old as a candidate for King of the Romans. Since Henry the Lion was Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, and the Dukes of Franconia and Swabia were the Staufen brothers, the effective decision lay in the hands of the Archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne.

Stephen, King of England, provided money for bribing the archbishops so that he would no longer have to worry about a potential claimant to the throne of England living directly across the channel. Louis VII of France gave money to Henry, Duke of Normandy, and married him to his sister Constance of France (1124-1176) so that Henry, Duke of Normandy, would stay away from his wife Eleanor. Henry, Duke of Normandy, was confirmed as Henry VII, King of the Romans, over Henry the Lion.

Despite Henry of Normandy’s successful election, his problems were far from over. He was in debt to the Church in a way which he had hoped to avoid. Adalbert II of Saarbrücken, Archbishop of Mainz, whose predecessor Adalbert I had been instrumental in blocking the election of the infant Henry, Duke of Normandy, had been wooed to Henry of Normandy’s cause by great territorial concessions. His defeated opponent was extremely powerful in “his” kingdom, controlling two stem Duchies.

Henry VII, King of the Romans, claimed that it was illegal for tow Duchies to be held by one individual and divested Henry the Lion of both Saxony and Bavaria. Henry VII, King of the Romans, invested the Duchy of Bavaria on Leopold IV the Generous, Margrave of Austria (d. October 21, 1141). He also invested the Duchy of Saxony on Albert the Bear, the former Margrave of Lusatia, and a loyal vassal of Anti-Emperor Henry VI the Proud, provided that Albert could capture it.

Although Leopold the Generous managed to control Bavaria with the aid of his brother Otto, Bishop of Friesing, Albert the Bear failed miserably and was forced to flee to the southern duchies. Although Leopold the Generous managed to control Bavaria with the aid of his brother Otto, Bishop of Friesing, Albert the Bear failed miserably and was forced to flee to the southern duchies. Henry of Normandy, also called Curtmantle, summoned Robert, First Earl of Gloucester, from England to support him.

1141: Emperor at Last

By the end of 1141, both Adalbert II, Archbishop of Mainz, and Leopold, Duke of Bavaria, were dead. Leopold’s successor was his brother Henry XI Jasomirgott, Duke of Bavaria, Margrave of Austria. Adalbert II’s successor as Archbishop of Mainz was Markholf. Henry VII Curtmantle confirmed these men’s titles in exchange for his election as Emperor Henry VI. Henry XI Jasomirgott’s former office of Count Palatinate of the Rhine was conferred on Robert FitzRoy, First Earl of Gloucester (d. 1147).

1142: Saxon Daggers Withdrawn

Albert the Bear and Henry the Lion came to terms over the Duchy of Saxony. Albert the Bear conceded his claim to Saxony to Henry the Lion. Emperor Henry VI Curtmantle made Albert the Bear Arch-Chamberlain of the Empire, Count of Weimar and Orlemuende.

1142-44: The French Champagne War

In 1142, Petronilla of Aquitaine, sister to Queen Eleanor of France, met Count Raoul I of Vermandois, a cousin of Louis VII of France. Raoul I was so smitten that he repudiated his wife, the niece of Count Theobald II of Champagne/IV of Blois, brother to King Stephen of England. Raoul then married Petronilla. Pope Innocent II excommunicated Raoul. The religious Louis VII was outraged and sent his brother to invade Vermandois. Innocent II promised to lift the excommunication, but reneged in 1143. During this war, Louis VII burned Vitry, including the church where many people had taken refuge. On September 24, 1143, Innocent II died. His successor was Guido di Castello, a pupil of Abelard, who became Celestine II. At the Council of Reims in 1144, Celestine II absolved Louis VII of France before dying on March 8 of that year.

Papal Power Struggles

On March 8, 1144, Pope Celestine II died. His successor, Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso, had been Papal legate in Germany for Honorius II and Innocent II and had possessed influence over Anti-emperor Lothair II. Caccianemici dal Orso was crowned Pope Lucius II on March 12. He met in 1144 with King Roger II of Sicily to clarify Roger II’s duties as a Papal vassal. Roger II made unreasonable demands, which Lucius III refused. Roger then forced Lucius to accept his terms. The Roman Senate, which had assumed all temporal power under Innocent II until its dissolution by Lucius II, reconstituted itself. Lucius II appealed to Emperor Henry VI for aid, but Emperor Henry VI declined to intervene. On February 15, 1145, Lucius II died of wounds incurred in battle.

1145: Eugenius III and the Commune of Rome

After the death of Lucius II, the conclave elected Bernardo Pignatelli, an abbot of a Cistercian monastery ouside Rome and friend and pupil of Bernard of Clairvaux. Although Bernard initially objected to the appointment of Pignatelli, he used Pignatelli as his puppet after he had been crowned Eugenius III. The citizens of Rome almost immediately formed a republican commune under the influence of Arnold of Brescia, a pupil of Abelard, and barred Eugenius III from reentry.

1145-6: Preparations for the Second Crusade

On December 1, Eugenius III wrote Louis VII of France, asking him to lead a Second Crusade and providing the first mention of a plenary indulgence and Prester John. Louis VII of France, who had been planning his own crusade, and Eugenius III conferred, and on March 1, 1146, Eugenius III authorized Bernard of Clairvaux to preach crusade in France. Since no popular support for the Second Crusade had spontaneously emerged, Bernard laid emphasis on the new plenary indulgences. Many royalty were attracted to the cause. Louis VII and Eugenius III convinced Geza of Hungary, Roger II of Sicily, and Emperor Manuel I Comnenus to allow the Crusaders to cross their kingdoms. Bernard continued to preach in northwest Europe. Rudolf, a Cistercian monk, began to preach against the Jews for not contributing to the restoration of the Holy Land and incited pogroms. Bernard and the Archbishops of Cologne and Mainz took a dim view of the rabble-rousing and Bernard eventually found Rudolf in Mainz and convinced him to stop.

Since Bernard was already in Germany, on November 1146 he preached Crusade to the German nobility, including Emperor Henry VI. Henry VI declined personal participation and many of the nobles followed his lead. Bernard then headed south. On his return journey, Bernard’s method acting while orating convinced Conrad I, Duke of Franconia, Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, and Henry XI Jasomirgott, Duke of Bavaria, to go on Crusade. Frederick of Swabia, as the heir presumptive to Emperor Henry VI’s imperial lands, was the Imperial legate on the Crusade.

Raw Material

1146: Henry VI Curtmantle (d. 1181) Frederick II, Duke of Swabia (d. 1147); Conrad I, Duke of Franconia (d. 1152); Henry XI Jasomirgott, Duke of Bavaria, Margrave of Austria (d. 1156); Henry III the Lion, Duke of Saxony (d. 1180)

1147: December: Conrad III’s army arrive in Constantinople ahead of Louis VII.

1147: October 31: Robert of Gloucester dies.

1147: Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, dies.

1147: Albert the Bear, Count of Weimar, conducts the Wendish crusade as “Margrave of Brandenburg”.

1147: October 25: Battle of Dorylaeum: The Turks defeat Conrad III’s army.

1151: September 7: Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, dies.

1152 Conrad III, King of the Romans, dies. Frederick Barbarossa, however, wants to trump Henry VI by ruling Jerusalem.

1154 Stephen, King of England (1125-1154), dies. William of Blois becomes William III of England (1154-1159).

1159 William III of England dies. The throne of England passes to Theobald V, Count of Blois (1152-1191), as Theobald I of England (1159-1191)

1160 Henry, Duke of Normandy, son of Emperor Henry VI, marries Margaret of France, daughter of Louis VII of France and Constance of Castile.

1170 Henry, Duke of Normandy, son of Emperor Henry VI, is elected Henry VII, King of the Romans. His younger brother Richard becomes Duke of Normandy.

1172 Louis IV the Iron Duke of Thuringia, dies. Emperor Henry VI invests his favorite son John with the Duchy of Thuringia.

1173 Henry VII, King of the Romans, rebels with his brothers Richard, Duke of Normandy, Charles, and John against their father. They lose.

1177 Margaret of France bears William to Henry VII, King of the Romans. William dies the same year.

1181 Charles, fourth son of Emperor Henry VI, marries Constance of Brittany and becomes Duke of Brittany.

1182 Henry VII, King of the Romans, divorces Margaret of France.

1183 Henry VII, King of the Romans, dies. His younger brother Richard, Duke of Normandy, is chosen as King of the Romans.

1186 Charles, Duke of Brittany, dies. His son Arthur becomes Duke of Brittany.

1189 Emperor Henry VI dies. Richard, King of the Romans, Duke of Normandy, becomes Emperor Richard I.

1191 Theobald I of England dies. The English throne passes to his nephew, Henry II, Count of Champagne (1181-1197) as Henry II, King of England (1191-1197).

Henry, Duke of Swabia, husband of Constance of Sicily, overthrows William III of Sicily with the blessing of his cousin Emperor Richard I. Henry I of Sicily surrenders the Duchy of Swabia to his brother Otto. This is the foundation of the Hohenstaufen Kings of Sicily.

Emperor Richard I proclaims Arthur, Duke of Brittany, his heir.

1197 Henry II of England abdicates his European possessions in favor of his brother, Theobald II of England.

Henry I of Sicily dies. His son becomes Frederick I of Sicily.

1199 Emperor Richard I dies. Civil war over the Imperial throne between the supporters of Arthur, Duke of Normandy and Brittany, and John, Duke of Thuringia,

1201 Theobald II of England dies. His son becomes Theobald III of England.

1203 Arthur, Duke of Normandy and Brittany, is killed under unclear circumstances. John, Duke of Thuringia, is recognized as Emperor John, Duke of Thuringia and Normandy. The accession of John marks the shift of the Salian power base back to Germany rather than France.

1204 Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, divorcee of Louis VII of France, dies. The Duchy of Navarre passes through Eleanor’s daughter Marie de Champagne to Theobald III of England, Count of Champagne. The French king uses strife between Alice, Queen of Jerusalem, daughter of Henry II of England, Count of Champagne and his brother Theobald III as an excuse to regrant the Duchy of Aquitaine to Alice, Queen of Jerusalem, who lives far from France, and thus deprive the Kings of England of their larger French foothold while maintaining a method of embarrassing the Kings of England as a vassal of France.

1216 Emperor John dies. His elder son Henry becomes Duke of Thuringia and Emperor Henry VIII. His younger Richard becomes Duke of Normandy.

1234 Theobald III of England becomes Theobald I of Navarre.

1246 Alice of Jerusalem, Countess of Aquitaine, dies. Her son Henry I of Cyprus becomes Count of Aquitaine.

1250 Frederick I of Sicily dies. His son becomes Conrad I of Sicily.

1253 Henry I of Cyprus, Count of Aquitaine, dies. His son becomes Hugh II of Cyprus, Count of Aquitaine. Theobald III of England, I of Navarre dies. His son becomes Theobald IV & II.

1254 Conrad I of Sicily dies. His son becomes Conrad II of Sicily. Otto, son of Emperor Henry VIII, marries Eleanor of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand III of Castile and Leon.

1267 Hugh II of Cyprus, Count of Aquitaine, dies. Cyprus passes Hugh II's first cousin Hugh III, but the King of France declares the Duchy of Aquitaine a royal demesne.

1268 Conrad II, King of Sicily, Duke of Swabia, dies. Frederick I, Margrave of Meissen, becomes Frederick II King of Sicily in exchange for surrendering his German lands to the Imperial House. Emperor Henry VIII invests his younger son Edmund Crouchback as Duke of Swabia.

1270 Theobald IV of England and II of Navarre dies. His brother becomes Henry III of England & I of Navarre.

1272 Emperor Henry VIII, Duke of Thuringia, dies. His son becomes Emperor Otto IV. Richard, Duke of Normandy, dies. His son becomes Edmund, Duke of Normandy.

1274 Joan, Queen of England and Navarre, marries Philip IV of France

1296 Edmund, Duke of Swabia, dies. His son Thomas becomes Duke of Swabia.

1300 Edmund, Duke of Normandy, dies. Philip III of France invests the Duchy in his grandson Thomas, son of Margaret of France and Emperor Otto IV.

1307 Emperor Otto IV dies. His son, Otto, Duke of Thuringia, becomes Emperor Otto V.

1308 Emperor Otto V marries Isabella of France, daughter of Philip IV of France.

1314 Philip IV of France, King of England and Navarre, dies. Philip IV's three sons each take a kingdom and form an alliance. The eldest Louis, becomes King of France. The middle brother, Philip, Count of Burgundy, becomes King of England. The youngest, Charles, becomes King of Navarre.

1316 Thomas, Duke of Swabia, aids the German nobles in establishing a council to govern Germany. This is in part due to Otto V's incompetence, in part due to the alarming dynastic alliance of England, France, and Navarre.

1322 Thomas, Duke of Swabia, dies. His brother Henry becomes Duke of Swabia.

1323 Frederick II of Sicily, Margrave of Meissen, dies.

1327 Emperor Otto V is overthrown by his own son Emperor Otto VI.

1336 Thomas, Duke of Normandy, dies. The Duchy passes to John, son of his brother Edmund.

1345 Henry, Duke of Swabia, dies. His son Henry becomes Duke of Swabia.

1352 John, Duke of Normandy, dies. His heir is his sister Joan.

1360 Henry, Duke of Swabia, dies. His son-in-law, John, son of Emperor Otto VI, is invested with the Duchy of Swabia.

1361 Joan, Duchess of Normandy, marries Otto VII the Black King, King of the Romans.

1376 Otto VII the Black King, King of the Romans, Duke of Normandy, dies.

1377 Emperor Otto VI dies. His grandson becomes Emperor Richard II.

1385 Joan, Duchess of Normandy, dies. Emperor Richard II becomes Duke of Normandy.

1399 Henry, Duke of Swabia, overthrows Emperor Richard I, Duke of Thuringia and Normandy, to become Emperor Henry IX, Duke of Swabia and Thuringia. Henry IX also claims Normandy.

1412 Emperor Henry IX dies,

Triple Alliance

1314 Philip IV of France dies. Louis becomes Louis X of France, I of Navarre, and I of Navarre, as well as Head of the House of Capet. His brother Philip becomes Regent of Navarre. Charles becomes Regent of England.

1316 Louis X of France dies. His infant son John becomes John I of France and Head of the House of Capet, with his uncle Philip II of England, Count of Burgundy, as his Regent. John I of France dies. His half-sister Joan becomes Joan I of France, while her uncle Philip I of England becomes Philip V of France, Regent of Navarre, and chairman of the Triple Alliance.

1322 Philip II of England & V of France, Count of Burgundy, Regent of Navarre, dies. The chairmanship of the Triple Alliance passes to Charles, Regent of England, who becomes Charles I of England & IV of France, Regent of Navarre. Philip II’s daughter Joan becomes Joan, Countess of Burgundy, married to Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy, a maternal grandson of Louis IX of France.

1327 The Triple Alliance aids Isabella of France in overthrowing her husband Emperor Otto V in favor of her son Emperor Otto VI.

1328 Charles I of England & IV of France, Count of Champagne, dies. His uncle Philip of Valois, husband of Philip V of France’s sister, becomes Philip VI of France and chairman of the Triple Alliance. Charles I & IV's daughter becomes Mary I of England under the Regency of Philip VI of France. Philip VI of France betroths his eldest son John (b. 1319) to Mary I of England. In the betrothal document, John surrenders his right to the throne of France in favor of his brother Philip

1329 Joan II of Navarre marries Philip, Count of Evreux, paternal grandson of Philip III of France. He becomes Philip III of Navarre by right of his wife.

1332 Philip VI of France marries his son John (age 13) to Mary I of England (age 5). John becomes John I of England.

1343 Philip III of Navarre, Count of Evreux, dies. His son becomes Charles, Count of Evreux.

1346 Philip, heir to all Burgundy, dies. His widow is Princess Joan, Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne. His son Philip becomes heir to all Burgundy.

1348 Mary I of England dies. Her husband John I of England keeps the title instead of passing it off to his son.

1349 Joan II of Navarre dies. Her son Charles, Count of Evreux, becomes Charles II of Navarre. Joan, Countess of Burgundy, dies. Her grandson Philip becomes Count of Burgundy.

1350 Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy, dies. His grandson Philip, Count of Burgundy, becomes Philip, Duke and Count of Burgundy.

1360 Joan, Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne, dies. Her son Philip II of England, Duke and Count of Burgundy, becomes also Count of Auvergne and Boulogne.

1361 Philip, Duke and Count of Burgundy, Count of Auvergne and Boulogne, dies. Auvergne and Boulogne pass to a maternal great-uncle. Artois and the County Palatine of Burgundy pass to Margaret, Dowager Countess of Flanders (now Margaret I of England). Charles II of France claims the Duchy of Burgundy by primogeniture, but John I of England by proximity of blood. Charles IV of France succeeds in seizing the Duchy of Burgundy.

1368 John I of Navarre dies. His son Charles, Count of Champagne, becomes Charles II of Navarre. 1380 Charles II of Navarre dies. His son becomes Charles III of Navarre.

1382 Margaret I of England, Countess of Artois and Countess Palatine of Burgundy, abdicates in favor of her son Louis II, Count of Flanders, Nevers, and Rethel, who becomes Louis II of England, Count of Artois, Burgundy, Flanders, Nevers, and Rethel.

1383 Louis, Count of Artois, Burgundy, Flanders, Nevers, and Rethel, dies. Louis’ daughter Margaret becomes Margaret II, Countess of Artois, Burgundy, Flanders, Nevers, and Rethel. Her husband, Philip , fourth son of John I and Mary I of Navarre, becomes Philip IV of England, Count of Artois, Burgundy, Flanders, Nevers, and Rethel.

1387 Charles III of Navarre, Count of Evreux, dies. His son becomes Charles V of France.

Lists of Rulers

Emperors and Kings of the Romans

1 Conrad II

2 Henry III S1

3 Henry IV S2

4 Henry V d. 1125 S3

5 Lothair II 1133-1137

6 Conrad III (King) 1137-1152 S5

7 Henry VI 1152-1189 S4

8 Richard I 1189-1199 S7

9 John 1199-? S7

Kings of England

House of Blois and Champagne

1 Stephen of Blois 1135-1154

2 William III 1154-1159 S1

3 Theobald I 1159-1191 BS1

4 Henry II 1191-1197 S3

5 Theobald II 1197-1201 S3

6 Theobald III 1201-1253 (I ofNavarre 1234-1253)S5

7 Theobald IV 1253-1270 (II of Navarre) S6

8 Henry III 1270-1274 (I of Navarre) S6

9 Joan I 1274-1308 (I of Navarre) D8

House of Capet

10 Philip I 1274-1314 (IV of France, I of Navarre) H9

11 Philip II 1314-1322 S9/8

12 Joan II 1322-1349 D11

13 Otto I 1322-1350 H12

14 Philip III 1350-1361 GS12/11

15 Margaret 1361-1382 D11

House of Flanders

16 Louis I 1382-1383 S15

17 Margaret II 1382- D16

House of Capet

18 Philip IV 1382- H17 (son of Mary I and John I of Navarre)

Kings of France

House of Capet

1 Philip III ?-?

2 Philip IV ?-1314 S1

3 Louis X 1314-1316 S2

4 John I 1316-1316 S3

5 Joan I 1316-1349 D3

6 Philip V 1329-1343 H5

7 Charles IV 1349-1387 S6/5

8 Charles V 1387-? S7

Kings of Navarre

House of Champagne

1 Theobald I 1234-1253 (III of England 1201-1253)

2 Theobald II 1253-1270 (IV of England) S1

3 Henry I 1270-1274 (III of England) S1

4 Joan I 1274-1308 (I of Navarre) D3

House of Capet

5 Philip I 1274-1314 (IV of France) H4

6 Charles I 1314-1328 S5

7 Mary I 1328-1348 D6

8 John I 1332-1368 H7

9 Charles II 1368-1380 S8/7

10 Charles III 1380-? S9

Lists of Kings