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Holy Roman EmpireTimeline: Knightfall
Heiliges Römisches Reich
Imperium Romanum Sacrum
OTL equivalent: Holy Roman Empire
|Capital||no official capital; imperial seat cities varied throughout history|
|Other cities||Berlin, Munich, Hamburg, Frankfurt|
|Official languages||German, Latin, Italian, Czech, Polish, Dutch, French, Frisian, Slovene, Sorbian and others|
|-||Otto I is crowned Emperor of the Romans||2 February 962|
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe during the medieval period, and one of the largest medieval kingdoms of Europe. The Holy Roman Empire was centered around the kingdom of Germany, but also included the kingdom of Bohemia, the kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.
The Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800, in which he received the title of Roman Emperor in Western Europe, after three centuries of inactivity. Charlemagne's descendants ruled over his empire until 888, when a civil war erupted among several rulers of Italy, which would not end until 924 with the death of the last claimant, Berengar. The title was used again in 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, and began a continuous succession for centuries to come.
Prior to the arrival of the Mongols the Holy Roman Empire had been in disputes with the Roman Catholic Church. The Holy Roman Emperor's rival Pope Gregory IX died on 22 August 1241, and Emperor Frederick II purposely withdrew his forces as a sign that his feud extended only against the previous pope, not against the church itself. The already established relationship between the papacy and the empire remained cold however, and a back and force conflict ensued into 1242. The Holy Roman Empire was therefore caught unprepared when the Mongols destroyed Vienna.
The first Mongol invasion of Europe can be seen in some respects as a large war between the Holy Roman Empire and a Confederation of Nomadic Warriors. Frederick II led the war effort of all Catholics against the invasion though some of his vassals also waged their own campaigns. Successful resistance to the Mongols involved protracted guerrilla or cases where the Mongols could not use their speed to their advantage.
Late Middle Ages