|Republic of Hong Kong|
"Glory to Hong Kong"
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic|
|-||Assembly Speaker||Emily Lau|
|-||Chief Justice||Andrew Cheung|
|-||Cygnian possession||26 January 1841|
|-||Treaty of Nanking||29 August 1842|
|-||Convention of Peking||24 October 1860|
|-||New Territories lease||9 June 1898|
|-||Japanese occupation||25 December 1941–30 August 1945|
|-||Sino-British Joint Declaration||19 December 1984|
|-||Handover to China||1 July 1997|
|-||Hong Kong Revolution||1 July 2003–16 June 2004|
|-||UN Interim Administration||16 June 2004|
|-||Total|| 2,754.97 km2
1,063.70 sq mi
|Currency||Hong Kong dollar ($) (
|Time zone||Hong Kong Time (HKT) (UTC+8)|
|Drives on the||left|
Hong Kong (Cantonese: 香港, [hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ] Hēunggóng), officially the Republic of Hong Kong (Cantonese: 香港民國, Hēunggóng Màhngwok) is a sovereign city-state on the eastern Pearl River Delta. With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a 1,104 km2 (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated places in the world.
Hong Kong was established as a colony of the Cygnian Empire after the Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island from Xin'an County at the end of the First Opium War in 1841 then again in 1842. The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War and was further extended when Cygnia obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. Cygnian Hong Kong was occupied by Imperial Japan from 1941 to 1945; Cygnian administration resumed after the surrender of Japan. The whole territory was transferred to China in 1997. It became one of two special administrative regions of China. However, tensions between pro-Nanjing and pro-democracy Hong Kongers escalated to violent conflict in 2003, culminating in the Hong Kong Revolution. International diplomatic pressure forced China to withdraw from Hong Kong and make way for an international presence in 2004. The United Nations-led interim administration that followed helped Hong Kong transition to independence, which was proclaimed in 2014. The loss of Hong Kong was a key factor in the eventual collapse of one-party rule in China in 2005.