Ice hockey tournaments have been staged at the Olympic Games since 1920. The men's tournament was introduced at the 1920 Summer Olympics and was transferred permanently to the Winter Olympic Games program in 1924, in France. The women's tournament was first held at the 1998 Winter Olympics. The Olympic Games were originally intended for amateur athletes until 1988, and the National Hockey League (NHL) did not allow its players to compete until 1998. From 1924 to 1988, the tournament started with a round-robin series of games and ended with the medal round. Medals were awarded based on points accumulated during that round. The games of the tournament follow the rules of the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF), which differ slightly from the rules used in the NHL.

In the men's tournament, Canada was the most successful team of the first three decades, winning six of seven gold medals. Czechoslovakia, Sweden and the United States were also competitive during this period and won multiple medals. Between 1920 and 1968, the Olympic hockey tournament was also counted as the Ice Hockey World Championship for that year. The Soviet Union first participated in 1956, and until 1992 they overtook Canada as the dominant international team, winning six of the ten tournaments in which they participated. Czechoslovakia won gold medals in 1956, 1976 and 1998. The United States won gold medals in 1960 and in 1980, which included their "Miracle on Ice" upset of the Soviet Union. Canada went 50 years without a gold medal, before winning one in 2002, and following it in 2010. Other nations to win gold include Great Britain in 1936 and Sweden in 1994 and 2006. Other medal-winning nations include Switzerland, Germany and Finland.

In 1986, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) voted to allow all athletes to compete in Olympic Games starting in 1988. The NHL was initially reluctant to allow its players to compete because the Olympics are held in the middle of the NHL season, and the league would have to halt play if many of its players participated. However, NHL players were allowed to compete starting in 1994. In 1998 and 2002, the format of the tournament was adjusted to accommodate the NHL schedule; a preliminary round was played without NHL players or the top six teams — Canada, Czechoslovakia, Finland, the Soviet Union, Sweden and the United States — followed by a final round which included them. The tournament format was changed again in 2006; every team played five preliminary games with the full use of NHL players.

In July 1992, the IOC voted to approve women's hockey as an Olympic event; it was first held at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. The Nagano Organizing Committee was hesitant to include the event because of the additional costs of staging the tournament, but an agreement was reached that limited the field to six teams, and ensured that no additional facilities would be built. The Canadian and American teams have dominated the event, typically losing only to each other. The United States won the first tournament in 1998, while Canada won in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014.

Medal winners

Year Host Gold medal game Bronze medal game Teams
Gold medal Gold
medalists
Score Silver medal Silver
medalists
Bronze medal Bronze
medalists
Score 4th place
finishers
1920 Belgium
Antwerp
Canadian Red Ensign (1921–1957).svg
Canada (1)
Bergvall system US flag 48 stars.svg
United States (1)
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia (1)
Bergvall system Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden
7
1924 France
Chamonix
Canadian Red Ensign (1921–1957).svg
Canada (2)
Round robin US flag 48 stars.svg
United States (2)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Great Britain (1)
Round robin Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden
8
1928
St. Moritz
Canadian Red Ensign (1921–1957).svg
Canada (3)
Round robin Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden (1)
Flag of Switzerland.svg
Switzerland (1)
Round robin Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Great Britain
11
1932
Lake Placid
Canadian Red Ensign (1921–1957).svg
Canada (4)
Round robin US flag 48 stars.svg
United States (3)
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
Germany (1)
Round robin Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg
Poland
4
1936 Nazi Germany
Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Great Britain (1)
Round robin Canadian Red Ensign (1921–1957).svg
Canada (1)
US flag 48 stars.svg
United States (1)
Round robin Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia
15
No Olympic tournaments were held in 1940 and 1944 due to the outbreak of World War II (1938–1945).
1948
St. Moritz
Canadian Red Ensign (1921–1957).svg
Canada (5)
Round robin Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia (1)
Flag of Switzerland.svg
Switzerland (2)
Round robin Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden
9
1952 Norway
Oslo
Canadian Red Ensign (1921–1957).svg
Canada (6)
Round robin US flag 48 stars.svg
United States (4)
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia (2)
Round robin Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden
9
1956
Cortina d'Ampezzo
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union (1)
Round robin US flag 48 stars.svg
United States (5)
Canadian Red Ensign (1921–1957).svg
Canada (1)
Round robin Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden
10
1960
Squaw Valley
US flag 49 stars.svg
United States (1)
Round robin Canadian Red Ensign (1957–1965).svg
Canada (2)
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union (1)
Round robin Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia
9
1964 Austria
Innsbruck
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union (2)
Round robin Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden (2)
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia (3)
Round robin Canadian Red Ensign (1957–1965).svg
Canada
16
1968 France
Grenoble
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union (3)
Round robin Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia (2)
Flag of Canada.svg
Canada (2)
Round robin Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden
14
1972 Japan
Sapporo
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union (4)
Round robin Flag of the United States.svg
United States (6)
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia (4)
Round robin Flag of Canada.svg
Canada
12
1976 Austria
Innsbruck
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia (1)
Round robin Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union (1)
Flag of Germany.svg
West Germany (2)
Round robin Flag of Canada.svg
Canada
12
1980 United States
Lake Placid
Flag of the United States.svg
United States (2)
Round robin Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union (2)
Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden (1)
Round robin Flag of Finland.svg
Finland
12
1984
Sarajevo
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union (5)
Round robin Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia (3)
Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden (2)
Round robin Flag of Canada.svg
Canada
12
1988 Canada
Calgary
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union (6)
Round robin Flag of Finland.svg
Finland (1)
Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden (3)
Round robin Flag of Canada.svg
Canada
12
1992 France
Albertville
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union (7)
3 – 1 Flag of Canada.svg
Canada (3)
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia (5)
6 – 1 Flag of the United States.svg
United States
12
1994 Norway
Lillehammer
Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden (1)
3 – 2 GWS Flag of Canada.svg
Canada (4)
Flag of Finland.svg
Finland (1)
4 – 0 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union
12
1998 Japan
Nagano
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia (2)
1 – 0 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union (4)
Flag of Finland.svg
Finland (2)
3 – 2 Flag of Canada.svg
Canada
14
2002 United States
Salt Lake City
Flag of Canada.svg
Canada (7)
5 – 2 Flag of the United States.svg
United States (7)
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union (2)
7 – 2 Flag of Norway.svg
Norway
14
2006
Turin
Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden (2)
3 – 2 Flag of Finland.svg
Finland (2)
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia (6)
3 – 0 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union
12
2010 Canada
Vancouver
Flag of Canada.svg
Canada (8)
3 – 2 OT Flag of the United States.svg
United States (8)
Flag of Norway.svg
Norway (1)
5 – 4 Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia
12
2014 Soviet Union
Sochi
Flag of Canada.svg
Canada (9)
3 – 0 Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden (3)
Flag of Finland.svg
Finland (3)
5 – 0 Flag of the United States.svg
United States
12
2018 South Korea
Pyeongchang
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union (8)
4 – 3 OT Flag of Germany.svg
Germany (1)
Flag of Canada.svg
Canada (3)
6 – 4 Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Czechoslovakia
12
2022 Norway
Tromsø
12

See also


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