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Ideas and proposals and development of Cromwell the Great
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Proposals

To do list

  • Colonial North America
  • Ireland (Settlement and problem) and Act of Union (legal incorporation of Ireland into the Commonwealth)
  • Lord Presidents of the Provinces of Ireland
  • Prince Rupert???
  • Charter companies.
  • British and French India
  • Brainstorming. Development and history of British North American colonies: New England, Maryland, Virginia, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Quebec, Borealia, Ohio and Tennessee). See America (Cromwell the Great)
  • South American National Independence and Liberation Wars.

Symbols of Power

Ideas for symbols of office (commonwealth mace, civic crown, sash?, and what other republican regalia or symbols?)

The installation of the Lord Protector: A robe of purple velvet lined with ermine, a Sword of state and a Scepter, and the Bible, sitting in the "Coronation Chair" or "King Edward's Chair." (source)

Other names of countries, place, etc.

  • Cromwell???

Greek States

Greek War of Independence / Greek Revolution / Aegan Crisis / Danubian Uprings
Greek Revolution
Date 1827-1833
Location Greece (including Aegean Sea), Black Sea and lower Danube.
Result
  • Partial victory of Greek Patriots and Revolutionaries
  • Ottoman Empires loses territories in the Balkans
  • Establishment of the Hellenic Republic and other minor states (Treaty of Constantinople)
  • Establishment of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia
Territorial
changes
*Several independent Greeks states established in the Peloponnese, Salonika, Saronic Islands, Cyclades, Sporades and Continental Greece, and
  • Autonomous Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia
Belligerents
National Cockade of Greece Greek Patriots and Revolutionaries

National Cockade of Greece Filiki Eteria
National Cockade of Greece European Philhellenic volunteers
Flag of Greece (1822-1978) Hellenic Republic
Flag of Moldavia Principality of Moldavia
Flag of Wallachia Principality of Wallachia


Supported by:
Flag of Russia (from 1831 military intervention) Russia
Flag of France (from 1832 military intervention) France
Flag of Avelnia (from 1833 military intervention) Italian Republic
Flag Illyria Yugoslavia South Slavic (TNE) Illyrian Provinces

Flag of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire

Flag of Egypt (1793-1844) Khedivate of Egypt


Supported by:
ATL Flag Poland-Lithuania-Ruthenia (CtG) (from 1831 military intervention) Commonwealth of Three Nations
Flag of the Commonwealth (1658-1660) (from 1832 military intervention) Commonwealth
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy (from 1832 military intervention) Austria

Ἀπόγονοι τοῦ σοφοῦ καὶ φιλανθρώπου ἔθνους τῶν Ἑλλήνων, σύγχρονοι τῶν νῦν πεφωτισμένων καὶ εὐνομουμένων λαῶν τῆς Εὐρώπης καὶ θεαταὶ τῶν καλῶν, τὰ ὁποία οὗτοι ὑπὸ τὴν ἀδιάρρηκτον τῶν νόμων αἰγίδα ἀπολαμβάνουσιν, ἦτον ἀδύνατον πλέον νὰ ὑποφέρωμεν μέχρις ἀναλγησίας καὶ εὐηθείας τὴν σκληρὰν τοῦ ὀθωμανικοῦ κράτους μάστιγα, (...)
(Greek Declaration of Independence)
The Fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the subsequent collapse of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire marked the end of Byzantine sovereignty. After that, the Ottoman Empire ruled the Balkans and Anatolia, with the exception of the mountainous districts. Orthodox Christians were granted some political rights under Ottoman rule, but they were considered subjects of lower status. The majority of Greeks were called Rayah by the Turks, a name that referred to the large mass of non-Muslim subjects under the Ottoman ruling class.

Meanwhile, Greek intellectuals and humanists, who had migrated west before or during the Ottoman invasions, called for the liberation of their homeland. However, Greece was to remain under Ottoman rule for several more centuries.

Numerous failed attempts at regaining independence took place throughout the history of the Ottoman era. Throughout the 17th century there was great resistance to the Ottomans in the Morea and elsewhere. After the Morean War, the Peloponnese came under Venetian rule for 30 years, and remained in turmoil from then on and throughout the 17th century, as the bands of klephts (brigands) multiplied.

Independence

The initial revolts that led to the Greek War of Independence or Greek Revolution were organized by the Filiki Eteria[1]. This secret society was founded with the aim of liberating Greece from the Ottoman yoke. The Filiki Eteria planned to launch revolts in the Peloponnese, the Danubian Principalities, and in Istambul and its surrounding areas.

In the first stages of the uprisings against Ottoman Empire rule various areas elected their own regional governing councils. From these several Greek States were established. Of these the most important was the one in the Peloponnese, that became the present Hellenic Republic.

The Greeks were assisted by France and Russia, while the Ottomans were aided by the other Great Powers (Commonwealth and Austria) as a matter of keeping its territorial integrity. However the Aegan Crisis, as it was know in European diplomatic circles the Greek War of Independence (1827-1833). disturbed the balance of power in the Balkans and Greece. This crisis had the European powers wrangle in negotiations.

However, in 1832 a the Russian shipconvoy of supplies and amunitions was attacked by the War Navy of the Three Nations, leading to the declaration of war between Russia and the Three Nations. France in help of the Three Nations engaged in blocked of Russia in the Black Sea and sent and expeditionary force to Morea in order to the Greeks.

The Treaty of Rome

On 1833, the ambassadors of the Commonwealth, Austria, Russia, Italy and France met on the island of Poros and prepared a protocol, which provided for the creation of an autonomous state, whose existence should be confirmed by a firman (royal mandate or decree) of the Ottoman Sultan. The negociations of the Treaty of Rome created and independant Greek State and also provided for a series autonmous protectorates under Ottoman and European supervision.


Hellenic Republic

Hellenic Republic
Ελληνική Δημοκρατία[2]
OTL equivalent: Greece
Flag of Greece (1822-1978) Greece National Emblem (TNE)
Kingdom of Greece 1917.1

Motto
Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος (Greek)
("Freedom or Death")

Anthem "Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν[3] (Hymn to Liberty)"
Capital Nafplio -> Athens
Largest city Athens
Language
  official
 
Greek
  others Turkish
Religion
  main
 
Eastern Orthodox
  others Protestantism, Catholicism, Judaism and Cult of Reason
Demonym Greeks (officially, Hellenic)
Government Unitary parliamentary republic
  legislature Hellenic Parliament (Boule)
President
Minister-President
Established 1827
Independence from Ottoman Empire
  declared 1827
  recognized 1833
Currency Greek phoenix -> Greek drachma
Time Zone GMT+2

Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically also known as Hellas, is a country on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula of Europe.

The revolts in the Peloponnese, organized by the Filiki Eteria started the Greek War of Independence (1827-1833) and were the only successful territories liberated from the Ottoman State. Delegates of the regional council meet in Nafplio and assembled in the first National Assembly. Its members declared the independence, established Nafplio as the provisional capital of the provisional government with Athens being declared the official capital until its liberation.

Greece features vast number of islands (approximately 1400, of which 227 are inhabited), including Cyprus (9,251 sq km), Crete (8,336 sq km), the Dodecanese (2,714 sq km), the Cyclades (2,572 sq km), and the Ionian Islands (2,307 sq km) among others.

Administratively, since its first provisional government, the Hellenic Republic is divided in prefectures and municipalities.

  • President of the Provisional Administration of Greece 1827-1827
  • President of the Executive Council 1827-1830
  • Governor of Greece 1830-1834
  • President of the Republic 1834
  • Minister-President 1834




Ionian Islands

Septinsular Republic
République Septinsulaire (French)
Ἑπτάνησος Πολιτεία (Greek)
Repubblica Settinsulare (Italian)
جزاييرى صباى موجتميا جومهورو‎ (Ottoman Turkish old script)
Cezayir-i Seb'a-i Müctemia Cumhur (Ottoman Turkish new scrpt)
— Autonomous republic. Protectorate of the Ottoman Empire
Timeline: Cromwell the Great

OTL equivalent: Ionian Islands
Flag of the Septinsular Republic (no year)
Capital
(and largest city)
Corfu
Other cities Argostoli (Kefalonia)
Language
  official
 
Greek and Italian
  others French, Turkish and English
Religion
  main
 
Greek Orthodox (Official)
  others Roman Catholic Church and Judaism (both recognized) and Cult of Reason
Ethnic groups
  main
 
Greeks
  others Turks and Venetian
Demonym Ionian
Government Autonomous republic. Protectorate of the Ottoman Empire under the protection of Russia, France and Britannia
  legislature Senate and Assembly
Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands (named by Ottoman Sultan from a joint list of candidates provided by Russian France and Britannia)
President (named by Lord High Commissioner)
Area 2,700 km²
Established 1833
Currency Ottoman Lira

La Repubblica delle Sette Isole Unite è una, ed Aristocratica.
The Septinsular Republic was republic of the Ionian Islands (or Heptanese). It was a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire under the protection of Russia, France and Britannia.

As all things associated to Greece and the Ottoman State it was part of a compromise, like the one of Crete between the Great Powers (Russia, France and Britannia) that attempted to cancel any possible advantage of any of the three powers, weed out Russian influence in the Balkans and Aegean Sea, stop the French wave of republicanism and hold the strategic interests of Britannia. Its stated purpose was to reconcile the interests of Greek patriots' indepencence and Ottoman territorial integrity. It keep the Ionian Islands as fictional territory of the Ottoman Empire but largely independent under the protection of the Three Powers.

As the consensus of this age it was subject to the informal alliances of the Great Powers of the Congress System. Howevert it fell thru when France the upper hand.

The Septinsular Republic was not integrated to the Greek Republic until the Treaty of Rome, following a referendum that overwhelmingly voted in favor of the union.

The seven major Ionian islands constituting the Republic, from north to south, were:

  • Corfu
  • Paxi (Paxos)
  • Lefkada (Leucada/Santa Maura)
  • Cefalonia
  • Ithaca
  • Zakynthos (Zante)
  • Kythira (Cythera/Cerigo)

These islands were administratively organized in three departments: Corfu (Corfu and Paxi), Ithaca (Ithaca, Kefalonia and Lefkada,) and Aegean Sea (Zakynthos and Kythira)


Cretan State

Cretan State
Κρητική Πολιτεία[4] (Greek)
كريد دولتى (Ottoman Turkish old script)
Girit Devleti (Ottoman Turkish new scrpt)
— Autonomous republic. Protectorate of the Ottoman Empire
Timeline: Cromwell the Great

OTL equivalent: Crete
Flag of Cretan State

Motto
Ελευθερία και Θρησκεία (Greek)
("Liberty and Religion")

Anthem "Κρητικός Ύμνος (Kritikos Ymnos / Cretan Anthem)"
Capital Chania
Largest city Heraklion
Language
  official
 
Greek and Ottoman Turkish (co-official)
  others French, Turkish and English
Religion
  main
 
Greek Orthodox (Official)
  others Sunni Islam and Judaism (both recognized) and Cult of Reason
Ethnic groups
  main
 
Greeks
  others Turks
Demonym Cretan
Government Autonomous republic. Protectorate of the Ottoman Empire under the protection of Britannia, France, Italian Republic and Russia
  legislature Assembly
Lord High Commissioner of the Cretan State (named by Ottoman Sultan from a joint list of candidates provided by Britannia, France, Italian Republic and Russia)
President (named by Lord High Commissioner)
Area 8,336 km²
Established 1833
Currency Ottoman Lira -> Cretan drachma

The Cretan State was established in 1833, following the intervention by the Great Powers (Britain, France, Italy and Russia) on the island of Crete.

In 1828, the insurrection in Crete supporting the the incipient Hellenic Republic led the Ottoman Empire to declare war, which led Britain, France, Italy and Russia to intervene on the grounds that the Ottoman Empire could no longer maintain control of its Balkan and Aegan territories. As part of the arregements of the Treaty of Rome, Crete became an autonomous protectorate of the Ottoman Empire under the protection of Britannia, France, Italian Republic and Russia.

Greek War of Independence in Crete was mildly successful but the Great Powers left the island out of the Hellenic Republic as part of a compromise between France and the Commonwealth in order to keep Russia out of the region and weaken its influence.

The Treaty of Istanbul, that led to the union of the Septinsular Republic with Greece was the prelude of the island's final annexation to the Hellenic Republic, which occurred de facto in 19XX and de jure in 19XX.


Greek states

Flag Country Regime Capital Established Notes
Flag of Greece (1822-1978) Hellenic Republic Republic

(President)

Nafplio -> Athens 1827
Flag of the Septinsular Republic (no year) Septinsular Republic Autonomous republic. Protectorate of the Ottoman Empire.

(President)

Corfu 1833-18XX Annexed by the Hellenic Republic
Flag of Cretan State Cretan State Autonomous republic. Protectorate of the Ottoman Empire.

(President)

Chania 1833-18XX Annexed by the Hellenic Republic
Rhodes Republic

(President)

Rhodes 1830-1820, 18XX Briefly independent. Reoccupied by Ottoman State. Annexed by the Hellenic Republic
Trebizond flag Principality of Salonika Constitutional monarchy

(Prince)

Thessaloniki 1833-1846 Annexed by the Hellenic Republic
TD1F Epirus Republic

(President)

Ioannina 1829-1830, 18XX Briefly independent. Reoccupied by Ottoman State. Annexed by the Hellenic Republic
Republic of Pontus Flag Pontus Republic

(President)

Amaseia->Trebizond 1827-1830 Briefly independent. Reoccupied by Ottoman State.
Flag of Ionia (TNE) Free State of Ionia Republic

(President)

Smyrna (Izmir) 1829-1829 Briefly independent. Reoccupied by Ottoman State.

Russo-Turkish Wars???

References

  1. Society of Friends (Greek: Φιλική Εταιρεία or Εταιρεία των Φιλικών)
  2. Ellinikí Dimokratía
  3. Ýmnos eis tin Eleftherían
  4. Kritiki Politia
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