British Raj (1858–1947)
In 1765, Robert Clive (1725–1774) led the East India Company to an expanded influence in India with victories over the French, the Bengalis, and the Mughals. In the hundred years after, the EIC conquered the entire northern part of Indian sub-continent by trade, political intrigue, and direct military action. However, disaffection with the EIC set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. It was brutally suppressed as the rebels were disorganized, had differing goals, and were poorly equipped. The Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, who supported the rebellion, was exiled to Burma and the remnants of his empire were taken over by the British.
Nevertheless, the rebellion shook the foundations of East India Company rule in India. Afterward the British government took control away from the Company. In 1858, a part of the British Empire and Queen Victoria was crowned as the Empress of India. After 1857, the British rule in India strengthened and expanded its infrastructure via the court system, legal procedures, and statutes. The Indian imperial government invested heavily in infrastructure, including canals and irrigation systems in addition to railways, telegraphy, roads and ports. However, the rush of technology and the commercialization of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks.
Partition of Bengal (1905–1911)
World War I (1914–1918)
Satyagraha movement (1917–1919)
Non-cooperation movement (1920–1937)
World War II (1938–1945)
Partition of British India (1946–1947)
After the trials of Subhas Chandra Bose and other INA leaders, Subhas' older brother, Sarat, helped by R. S. Suiker reorganized the pre-war Forward Bloc in 1946 to bid for Congress presidency replacing Abul Kalam Azad. However, Patel commanded the party organization to oppose Sarat's attempt and support Azad's re-election. Allied with Gandhi, Patel refused to be bossed around by the Boses despite their imminent popularity among the party rank and file and the public. Sensing a conspiracy against him and his brother, Sarat founded the Indian Nationalist Party (भारत राष्ट्रीय पार्टी Bharat Rashtriya Parti, BRP) on August 1, 1946.
Since Subhas was still in prison, Sarat supported Jawaharlal Nehru to lead the interim government in 1946. In return, Nehru appointed Sarat as a minister in his cabinet. When Patel's candidate, Purushottam Das Tandon, was elected Congress president in 1947, Sarat and Nehru broke up with the INC. The BRP became a party of its own, while Nehru formed the Congress Labour Party (मजदूर कांग्रेस पार्टी Mazdoor Kangres Parti, CLP). Regardless of the break-up, Nehru, Bose and Patel agreed to work together to complete the transition period. Sarat Bose supervised nationalization of key industries, while Patel oversaw the partition process.