The Islamic emirate was established when the Taliban captured Kabul on September 27, 1996, forcing Ahmad Shah Massoud's forces to retreat to the north. Massoud would form an alliance with the northern tribes called United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan, colloquially known as the "Northern Alliance" as referred in international media.
Years Leading to 9/11
On December 24-31, 1999, Indian Airlines Flight 814 made an emergency landing on the city of Kandahar after the plane was taken hostage by Islamists who demanded the release of three Islamic militants held in India. after India agreed to release three militants – Mushtaq Ahmed Zargar, Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh and Maulana Masood Azhar. The incident was an opportunity for the Taliban regime to receive a positive spotlight on international television after they attempted to mediate the hostage crisis with the Indian government. The hostage takers were eventually ordered to leave Afghanistan within 72 hours after the end of the crisis. In March 2001, the Taliban destroyed the iconic Buddhas of Bamiyan, declaring it as a symbol of idolatry which drew worldwide condemnations.
The Emirate collapsed following the U.S. and NATO invasion of Afghanistan on September 29, 2001. This was the result of the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 Attacks on the United States. The Taliban government was suspected in aiding Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin-Laden, suspected for being the perpetuator of 9/11. They were given an ultimatum to handover bin-Laden. Since they refused, the U.S. and its allies overthrew the Taliban; supporting the Northern Alliance troops. Kabul fell on October 7, 2001 to the Northern Alliance who were backed by American and British air support and special forces. The Taliban then retreated to Kandahar.
The Taliban would hold on to Kandahar until mid-2002, when the last remnants fled to the mountains. This marked the end of the Islamic Emirate which was replaced with an interim administration to supervise the shift back to civilian democracy.