|Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant|
|لدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام |
Participant in Military intervention against ISIL
Black Standard Flag
|Leaders||Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi|
|Originated as||Jamāʻat al-Tawḥīd wa-al-Jihād|
|Allies||Boko Haram; Ansar al-Sharia; Jund al-Khilafah; Mujahideen Shura Council in the Environs of Jerusalem; Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid; Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan; Jundallah (Pakistan); Caucasus Emirate; Sheikh Omar Hadid Brigade; Khalifa Islamiyah Mindanao; Jemaah Islamiyah; Abu Sayyaf; Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters; Ansar Khalifah Philippines|
|Military intervention against ISIL|
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, ISIS, IS; also Da'esh) is a jihadist and terror group, mainly located in the Middle East, specifically Iraq, Syria and, more recently, Kurdistan.
The group originated as Jamāʻat al-tawḥīd wa-al-jihād in 1999, as part of al-Queda, before splitting from the group and declaring a global caliphate in 2014, after which it rapidly gained territory in Iraq and Syria, eventually resulting in the Fall of Mosul, Iraq's "second city". In addition to waging war in this area and parts of North Africa, it has also been involved in and claimed responsibility for several terror attacks around the world.
While the group at first proved very able to adapt, and with media tried to establish a feeling of legitimacy, in late 2014, the Erbil Conference created an independent Kurdistan, which now has much foreign backing, particularly from Russia, whom are preparing to send over military equipment and training, and Scotland, who are providing Medical and relief work. Kurdistan has effectively started to oppose ISIL in many areas, causing it to lose much land.
On the 8th March 2016, the Pershmerga, using Russian equipment, such as T-72s and 2A65-Msta-Bs, launched a majaor assault and retook Tal Afar from ISIL. By the 9th they had secured offensive positions around the city, and on the 10th they besieged the city. On the 14th, Major gains were made by the Peshmerga, pushing ISIL forces to the centre of the city. This dealt a major blow to ISIL, with one of it's main strongholds being defeated.
Furthermore, from April UN forces started to arrive in Syria, Kurdistan and Iraq. While their main aim was to protect civilians and provide medical help, specifically to refugees, the forces have fired against Da'esh forces when under attack.
In July 2017, ISIL suffered a severe blow when Iraqi security forces, backed by Kurdish and U.S. Air Force fighter jets, reclaimed Mosul. The city previously fell within the Islamic State in June 2014. The Iraqi government declared victory in Mosul on July 9, 2017. With ISIL forces losing ground in the Middle East, they have encouraged jihadists to travel to Southeast Asia in nations like the Philippines, in which they plan to establish caliphate in the island of Mindanao.