Libertà, Virtù, Eguaglianza (official motto of the Piedmontese Republic)
Il voler tutto riformare è lo stesso che voler tutto distruggere (Vincenzo Cuoco)Italy, or more properly the Italian Peninsula, during and after the Revolutionary Wars changed its political makeup in the establishment and merge of new states. As in Germany French revolutionary armies deeply change the social and political landscape. Bringing with them the revolution they were equally happily cheered or sorrowfully regretted.
War and Revolution
The French armies under Napoleon Bonaparte rapidly established sister republics in northern Italy but they could not advance farther than Rome where they established for a brief time a Roman Republic before being be retaken by royalist Neapolitan and Austrian troops. Italian republicans proclaimed independently or with the help of French troops, sister republics (repubbliche sorelle). This enthusiasm of enlightening liberty (entusiasmo per l'illustrazione della libertà or entusiasmo for short) as it was called by Italian republicans spread the ideals of the French revolution and its goals.
However, not all worked well and the briefly established Neapolitan Republic was crushed in a violent bloodshed and political repression. Its short life and defeat would make it a symbol of heroism and remembrance in Northern Italy, along the martyrdom of Eleonora Fonseca Pimentel. The Neapolitan republic was proclaimed by local republicans forcing the King to flee. However, the republic had no real local support, and existed solely due to the power of the French Army. The republic's leaders were men of culture, high character and birth, but they were doctrinaire and impractical, and they knew very little of the lower classes of their own country. The defeat was helped by British blockade and the uprising of the lazzaroni (the lowest class of the people). The lazzaroni were devoted to the Bourbon dynasty and ready to defend it. With violence in both sides, Terror promoted by republicans to defend the new state and rural violence of the lazzaroni against republicans. French troops would retrieve from an unsustainable position leaving the city to its luck. Naples would be mercilessly crushed by the lazzorini and troops royal to the King. Neapolitan republicans leaders and followers would be exiled or executed, so ending the revolutionary cause in Southern Italy for decades to come.
Italian Sister Republics
Repubbliche sorelle (in French: Républiques soeurs) or Sister Republic were states established in the Italian Peninsula and Switzerland by invading French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the French Republic during the European Revolutionary Wars. Some were short-lived and other became the modern states of northern Italy.
The Sister Republics established by or during the Directory borrowed ideas and values from British republicanism, Enlightenment philosophers and Revolutionary France in their founding. For example legal and political equality and freedom, abolition of feudalism and guilds, adoption of the French Civil Code, conscripted and professional armies, male suffrage and republicanism, establishment of public education, promotion of science and industry, freedom of trade and commerce, freedom to engage or practice any craft or trade, usage of the metric system and French Republican Calendar.
The first constitutions of the sister republics copied the French directorial executive and bicameral legislative and independent judiciary. Later some adopted a more presidential or consulate styled executive. Most of them explicitly guaranteed public rights and freedoms to its citizens. The control of the clergy established in France by means of Constitutional Clergy — the so-called Gallican Constitutional Church — was not enforced and Italian republics declared Catholicism the official religion. However, anti-clericalism was promoted in the more liberal circles and became a means to keep the Church away from its political and social influence.
The downside, however, was that they were French client states under oversight of French military commanders, and were obliged to provide manpower to the armies, subordinate their economies and international affairs to France. The liberation of French political control was vaguely stated in the Peace of Vienna and was effective by the end of the 1810s in part from internal and external (i.e., Britannia and Austria) pressures.
After the Revolution and War
The after effects were politically and socially lukewarm and uncertain in all of Italy. One fact of reality was that the Peninsula was divided in two halves, the republican new regimes and monarchical old regimes, with the Papal States serving as a neutral buffer state between these two worlds. Complete victory was not assured as most states had internal dissension that in time could lead to revolutions. The possibility of a political and diplomatic arbitration were not enthusiastically taken by the French and British. Leaving it to be resolved by Italians themselves that blockaded or were left in idle or noncommittal declarations. Fluid alliances and loyalties made uncertain longstanding alliances within and outside Italy, even in members of the same camp.
Several peace treaties organized the territory of the Peninsula and the boundaries of each republic and monarchy. The most notable being the Treaty of Sienna that ceded the Italian department of Tronto to the Papal States in order to remove the frontier between the the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the Italian Republic after the brief occupation of Ancona and Tronto by the former.
Italian unity, one of the main goals of Italian republicans and revolutionaries and radical French was frustrated by the lack of enthusiasm from both France and Britannia. This despite, or because of, Italy being one of the main land and naval war theaters between the two great powers of Europe. For example Britain gained Malta, acquiring an important naval enclave in the Mediterranean Sea, and France neutralized possible territorial gains of Austrian Habsburg and Spanish Bourbon gaining foothold in the Balkans thru the Illyrian provinces and a permanent grateful ally, the Corsican Republic.
An Italian League?
The idea to establish and Italian League in the same way as the Confederation of the Rhine has part of the arrangements of a future Pax Gallica in the Peninsula after the Revolutionary Wars had no immediate reception in the Italian sister republics.
It became, however, after the Peace of Vienna, a divisive issue of the unity of Italy as some wanted a League under the leadership of the Pope and others assembled under the call for Republican League of equal states under the tricolored Milanese flag. Behind either scheme was the evasive and pusillanimous policies of France and Britain on the Italian issue. Neither of the two European powers favored one idea over the other - if any at all.
This debate would be carried out further by the Risorgimento of when and how the Italian peninsula would merge into a single state based on the legacy of the Revolutionary Wars, that could be either a unitarian or federal state.
Notable Italian States
Republic of Etruria (Repubblica di Etruria) is located in the region of the old Gran Duchy of Tuscany. It took its name from Etruria, the old Roman name for the land of the Etruscans. Etruria is considered a repubbliche sorelle (Sister Republic).
It is a constitutional democratic and unitary republic. The head of state is the Presidente della Signoria (President of the Signoria) elected for five years. He is assisted by the Signoria a council of high state officers and ministers. A bicameral elected Parliament compromising the Senate and the Council. The judiciary is organized in tribunals of first instance, courts of appeal, courts of revision and a court of cassation. Etruria as a National Guard, a National Gendarmerie, and a finance police; the metric system was introduced as in all of North Italy. It replaced the French Republican Calendar in March 1814 with the Italo-Iberian Civil Calendar.
Etruria's economy is very varied, ranged from wine-making to heavy industry, passing through textiles, fashion, food industry, mining and tourism. However, its economy is in a close second place in regard to the Italian Republic and above the one of Piedmont.
Etruria known for its landscapes, traditions, history, artistic legacy and its influence on high culture. It is regarded as the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance and has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science. Due to its rich cultural heritage and production it is apart from most of the Italian Peninsula often characterized as the cradle of Italian civilization. A huge quantity of resources have been thrown to enlarge, improve and give access to all of the schools, universities, polytechnics, scientific and literary academies, research centers and art schools.
The territory is divided in departments, districts and communes. The departments of the Etrurian Republic are:
- Arezzo (Arezzo)
- Firenze (Firenze)
- Grosseto (Grosseto)
- Isola d'Elba (Elba)
- Livorno (Livorno)
- Pisa (Pisa)
- Pistoia (Pistoia)
- Siena (Siena)
- For more details see Italian Republic
The Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana) is located in Northern Italy consisting of the territories of Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna and Veneto.
The Italian republic is considered a repubbliche sorelle (Sister Republic). It is a constitutional democratic and unitary republic. The head of state is the president elected for ten years. He is assisted by the Consulta (Consulta di Stato) a commission of eight ministers. A bicameral elected legislative body (Corpo Legislativo) compromising the Senate and the Chamber of speakers (Camera degli oratori). The judiciary is organized in tribunals of first instance, courts of appeal, courts of revision and a court of cassation. The republic created a National Guard, a National Gendarmerie, and a finance police; the metric system was introduced. It replaced the French Republican Calendar in March 1814 with the Italo-Iberian Civil Calendar.
The Italian republic also administers the former republic of Ragusa as an Italian department. From the former Austrian and Venetian territories of the Adriatic Sea become part of the General Government of the Provinces of Illyria.
Its economy was based on cereal agriculture and cattle, plus flourishing small industries, notably the production of silk. With the introduction of steam engines business started to quickly change to factory system and build railways and roads becoming in a short time the industrial center of the Italian Peninsula. However, it could not surpass the scientific and artistic achievements of Etruria.
The territory is divided in departments, districts and communes. The departments of the Italian Republic are:
- Adda (Sondrio)
- Adige (Verona)
- Adriatico (Venezia)
- Alto Adige (Trento)
- Alto Po (Cremona)
- Bacchiglione (Vicenza)
- Basso Po (Ferrara)
- Brenta (Padova)
- Crostolo (Reggio nell'Emilia)
- Lario (Como)
- Mella (Brescia)
- Metauro (Ancona)
- Mincio (Mantova)
- Musone (Macerata)
- Olona (Milano)
- Panaro (Modena)
- Passariano (Udine)
- Piave (Belluno)
- Ragusa (Ragusa)
- Reno (Bologna)
- Rubicone (Forlì)
- Serio (Bergamo)
- Tagliamento (Treviso)
- Istria (Istria) ceded to Illyria
- Tronto (Fermo) ceded to Papal States by the Treaty of Sienna
- General Government of the Provinces of Illyria.
- Adelsberg (Adelsberg /Postojna)
- Bouches-du-Cattaro (Cattaro /Kotor)
- Carinthie (Willach /Villach)
- Carniole (Laybach (Ljubljana)
- Croatie (Karlstadt /Karlovac)
- Dalmatie (Zara /Zadar)
- Fiume (Fiume /Rijeka)
- Istria (Istria/Trieste)
The Ligurian Republic (Repubblica Ligure) is a State that consists of the lands of the old Republic of Genoa which covers most of the Ligurian region of Northwest Italy. Liguria is considered a repubbliche sorelle (Sister Republic).
The Republic was briefly occupied by the Austrian forces , but Napoleon soon returned with his army. A new Constitution was published, establishing institutions more similar to those of the previous Genoan Republic, with a Doge who was president of a Senate.
Besides adopting the metric system it replaced the French Republican Calendar in March 1814 with the Italo-Iberian Civil Calendar.
With trade routes shifting to the New World and away from the Mediterranean, Genoa's political and economic power went into steady decline. However, after the European Revolutionary Wars, it saw a rebirth as it became the chief port of the landlocked industrial Piedmont and the western part of the Italian Republic.
The territory is divided in departments, districts and communes. The departments of the Ligurian Republic are:
- Genova (Genova)
- Imperia (Imperia)
- La Spezia (La Spezia)
- Savona (Savona)
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Italian: Stato della Chiesa, Latin: Status Ecclesiae), are territories in the Italian Peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the pope. They were among the major states of Italy and cover most of the Italian regions of Lazio and portions of Umbria and Marche. These holdings are considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy.
The Papal States as a whole were invaded by French forces, who declared a short-lived Roman Republic (1800-1802). Neapolitan and Austrian troops restored the rule of the Pope.
The Papal State is subdivided geographically into ten apostolic delegations (delegazioni apostoliche) for administrative purpose. The Treaty of Sienna ceded the Italian Republic's department of Tronto to the Papal States.
The apostolic delegations are:
- Tronto (Fermo) ceded by Italian Republic by the Treaty of Sienna
The Piedmontese Republic (Repubblica Piemontese) a state located on the territory of Piedmont. It is a constitutional democratic and unitary republic. Piedmont is considered a repubbliche sorelle (Sister Republic).
The head of state is the Consulate, a triumvirate elected for a 6 year terms. They are assisted by the Council of State and the Tribunate. A bicameral elected Parliament compromising the Senate and the Legislative Body. The judiciary is organized in tribunals of first instance, courts of appeal, courts of revision and a court of cassation. The republic as a National Army, a National Gendarmerie, and a finance police; the metric system was introduced. It replaced the French Republican Calendar in March 1814 with the Italo-Iberian Civil Calendar.
Lowland Piedmont is a fertile agricultural region. The main agricultural products in Piedmont are cereals, including rice, maize, grapes for wine-making, fruit and milk. Piedmont contains major industrial centers, the main of which is Turin. Although in third place, below Etruria and the Italian Republic, Piedmont is a major industrial center.
The territory is divided in departments, districts and communes. The departments of the Piedmontese Republic are:
- Agogna (Novara)
- Doire (Ivrea)
- Marengo (Alessandria)
- Pô (Turin)
- Sesia (Vercelli)
- Stura (Cuneo)
- Tanaro (Asti)
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
- For more details see Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Regno delle Due Sicilie) is the largest of the states of Italy. It was formed as a union of the kingdoms of Sicily and Naples, which collectively had long been called the Two Sicilies (Utraque Sicilia).
Throughout their history Naples and Sicily had been separate kingdoms since the partition of the medieval Kingdom of Sicily in 1282. Later Naples and Sicily under joint direct rule of the kings of Spain - House of Habsburg and later the Bourbons - keeping their separate administration, legal system and treasury.
The peace treaties of the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the wars of the Spanish Succession (1702–1715), of the Austrian Succession (1740–48) changed several times hands between Spain, France and the Holy Roman Emperor.
Sicily was briefly governed by Victor Amadeus II Duke of Savoy (1713-1715), but he was forced to exchange this title and instead became king of Sardinia. Under his reign a system of intendants, based on the French model, responsible for collecting taxes and law enforcement was established. He began a land survey, the Perequazione, to examine the land holdings and privileges of the Church and nobility.
The claims of the House of Savoy over Sicily were part of the negotiations of Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748). This antecedent and to keep a balance of power in the Mediterranean, an idea pushed by Commonwealth diplomacy, Sicily was awarded to a senior member of the House of Savoy and Naples was given to a cadet line of the Bourbons. Both kingdoms had also the prohibition of having the same king as Spain (Bourbons) or Sardinia (Savoy).
The European Revolutionary Wars (1790-1810) also shock the basis of Naples and Sicily, being the former occupied by French armies and had a briefly established sister republic, the Neapolitan Republic in 1800. Recaptured in six months with Ferdinand IV of Naples resuming his throne. Austrian and Neapolitan troops later recaptured Rome dissolving the Roman Republic and re establishing the sovereignty of the Pope over the Papal States.
The dynastic union of both kingdoms came after the end of the European Revolutionary Wars (1790-1810) as an agreement between Victor Emmanuel of Sicily and Ferdinand IV of Naples. On the death of Victor Emmanuel a regency under Ferdinand IV sealing the union.
- Kings of Naples
- Ruled by the King of Spain until 1715
- Ruled by the House of Habsburg (Holy Roman Emperor) 1715-1748
- Luis IV of Bourbon (1727-1785) 1748-1785
- Ferdinand IV (1759-1825) 1785-1800
- Neapolitan Republic 1800-1800
- Ferdinand IV (1759-1825) 1800-1819
- Kings of Sicily
- Ruled by the King of Spain until 1713
- Victor Amadeus II (House of Savoy) 1713-1715
- Ruled by the House of Habsburg (Holy Roman Emperor) 1715-1742
- Occupied by France 1742-1748
- Victor Amadeus III of Savoy (1699–1763) 1748-1763
- Charles Emmanuel (1726–1796) 1763-1796
- Victor Emmanuel (1751-1819) 1796-1819
- Kings of the Two Sicilies
- Regent Ferdinand IV of Bourbon (1759-1825) 1819-1825
- Francis of Bourbon-Savoy (1777–1830) 1825-1830
- Ferdinand I (1810–1859) 1830-1859
- Victor Emmanuel (1836-1880) 1859-1880
The kingdom is heavily agricultural, unlike the other Italian states, with exception of the Papal States, the church owned the majority of the land.
Naples is divided into 15 provinces and Sicily into seven provinces. The island itself has a special administrative status, with its base at Palermo. The provinces are:
- Reali Dominii al di qua del Faro (naples)
- Provincia di Napoli (Napoli)
- Terra di Lavoro (Caserta, fino al 1818 Capua)
- Principato Citra (Salerno)
- Principato Ultra (Avellino)
- Basilicata (Potenza)
- Capitanata (Foggia)
- Terra di Bari (Bari)
- Terra d'Otranto (Lecce)
- Calabria Citeriore (Cosenza)
- Calabria Ulteriore Prima (Reggio)
- Calabria Ulteriore Seconda (Catanzaro)
- Contado di Molise (Campobasso)
- Abruzzo Citeriore (Chieti)
- Abruzzo Ulteriore Primo (Teramo)
- Abruzzo Ulteriore Secondo (Aquila)
- Reali Dominii al di là del Faro (Sicily).
- Palermo (Palermo)
- Messina (Messina)
- Catania (Catania)
- Girgenti (Girgenti)
- Noto (Siracusa)
- Trapani (Trapani)
- Caltanissetta (Caltanissetta)
Italy after the Revolutionary Wars
|Flag||Coat of Arms||Country||Regime||Capital||Established||Notes|
|Corte||1795 to date||Member of the Italian League.|
|Republic of Cospaia
(Repubblica di Cospaia)
|Republic||Cospaia||1440 to date.||Member of the Italian League.|
|Republic of Etruria
(Repubblica di Etruria)
(Presidente of the Signoria)
|Florence||1797-1799, 1800 to date||Repubbliche sorelle. Member of the Italian League.|
|Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana)||Directorial republic (1798-1808) Presidential republic (1808 to date)
|Milan||1798 to date||Repubbliche sorelle. Member of the Italian League.|
|Genoa||1797-1799, 1800 to date||Repubbliche sorelle. Member of the Italian League.|
|Governor-general||Laibach||1802 to date||Administered by Italian Republic|
|Republic of Lucca
(Repubblica di Lucca)
|Lucca||1160 to date||Member of the Italian League.|
|Kingdom of Naples
(Regno di Napoli)
|Naples||1282-1800, 1800-1819||Dynastic union with K. of Sicily in 1819|
|Directorial republic||Naples||1800-1800 (6 months)||Short live Repubbliche sorelle|
|Rome||1800-1802||Repubbliche sorelle. Briefly existed after the disestablishment of the Papal State and the Pope exiled. Abolished after the return of the Pope to Rome helped by Austrian and Neapolitan troops.|
(Stato della Chiesa)
|Theocratic absolute elective monarchy
|Rome||754-1800, 1802 to date|
|Piedmontese Republic (Repubblica Piemontese)||Directorial republic
|Turin||1797 to date||Repubbliche sorelle. Member of the Italian League.|
|Republic of Regusa
(Repubblica di Ragusa)
|Ragusa||1358–1803||Annexed by Italian Republic|
|Republic of San Marino
(Repubblica di San Marino)
|San Marino||1600 to date||Member of the Italian League.|
|Kingdom of Sardinia
(Regno di Sardegna)
|Cagliari||1324 to date||Ruled by the House of Savoy|
|Republic of Senarica
(Repubblica di Senarica)
|Senarica||1343-1810||Annexed by K. of the Two Sicilies|
|Kingdom of Sicily
(Regno di Sicilia)
|Palermo||1282-1819||Dynastic union with K. of Sicily in 1819|
|Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
(Regno delle Due Sicilie)
|Absolute monarchy -> Constitutional monarchy 1826 to date
|Naples||1819 to date||Dynastic union of the Kingdoms of Sicily and Naples|