The History of the Republic
The Repubblica Italiana was formed the 2 June of the 1922, after the riots of 1919-1921, the Kingdom of Italy lived years of crisis. Established the 2 June of the 1922 with a referendum, were the people have coosed between the Kingdom or the Republic, the people finally vote for the Republic with 12,717,923 votes in favor. After a constitutional assembly and after the creation of the Constitution. The Italian Parliament voted the first president of the republic, who was Ivanoe Bonomi and after seven years Palmiro Togliatti. In 1936 the Parliament have voted Benito Mussolini as new president of the Republic. During the Spanish Civil War Italy have send the Corpo Truppe Volontarie Italiane in Spain, for fight against the Nationalism supported by Hitler. During the Winter War Italy have supply with weapons the Finnish Army, and with the help Swedish, Norwegian and Danish volonteers for protect Finland, Finland have give Karelia, Salla and Rybachi Peninsula at the USSR.
The Geography and the Territory
To the north it bordered France, Switzerland, Austria and Jugoslavia along the Alps. To the south it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia – the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea – and many other smaller islands. The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy, whilst Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. It also had colonies in Africa of Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia.
The Government and their duty
Formally and according to the Italian Constitution (Costituzione Italiana) was organized in the following way:
- President of the Republic (Presidente della Repubblica), elected by the Parliament every seven years. The post was held by Benito Mussolini.
- The Parliament has a perfect bicameral system, and this are compose of the Chamber of the People and the Italian Senate.
- The Chamber of the People is elected by the people every five years. There are 130 deputies, twelve of which are elected in the overseas constituencies.
- The Senate is nominated by the President of the Council. There are 100 senators, six of whom are elected in the overseas constituencies. There are also a number of senators for life, such as former Presidents or citizens appointed by the President, during his term in office, for having brought honor to the nation with their achievements.
- President of the Council (Presidente del Consiglio), nominated by the President of the Republic. They were responsible for the administration of the Republic. Alcide De Gasperi is the new President of the Council.
- The Constitution establishes the Government of Italy as composed of the Prime Minister (President of the Council) and Ministers. The President of Italy appoints the Prime Minister and, on his proposal, the Ministers that form its cabinet. The appointee can be the leader of the majority coalition that won the election, or it can be a person instructed by the President to form a national unity government in times of crisis for the nation. Either way, the government must receive the confidence of both Houses, so the Executive derives its legitimacy from the Parliament and the great number of political parties forces the Prime Minister to bend to their will. If the majority coalition no longer supports the government.
- The Constitution states that justice is administered in the name of the people and that judges are subject only to the law. So the judiciary is a branch that is completely autonomous and independent of all other branches of power, even though the Minister of Justice is responsible for the organization and functioning of those services involved with justice and has the power to originate disciplinary actions against judges, which are then administered by the High Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the President.
- There is only partial judicial review of legislation. Judicial review exists under certain conditions, established by the Constitutional Law, in the Constitutional Court, or Corte Costituzionale, which can reject anti-constitutional laws after scrutiny. When the Court declares a law unconstitutional, the law ceases to have effect the day after the publication of the ruling.
- The Constitutional Court is composed of 15 judges, one of which is the President of the Italian Constitutional Court elected from the court itself. One third of the judges are appointed by the President of the Italian Republic, one-third are elected by Parliament and one-third are elected by the ordinary and administrative supreme courts.
- According to the Constitution, any citizen that is fifty on the day of the election, and enjoys civil and political rights, can be elected President. The President cannot hold office in any other branch of power, and the office's salary and privileges are established by law.
- In addition to powers inherent in being a member of the cabinet, the prime minister holds specific powers, most notably being able to nominate a list of cabinet ministers to be appointed by the President of the Republic and the countersigning of all legislative instruments having the force of law that are signed by the President of the Republic.
- Often the Prime Minister's activity consists more in mediating between the various parties in the majority coalition, rather than directing the activity of the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister's supervisory power is further limited by the lack of any formal authority to fire ministers, although a cabinet reshuffle, or sometimes even an 'individual vote of no confidence' on the part of Parliament, may in practice provide a surrogate measure.
- The Ministers are 10
|Ministers with vallet|
|Minister of the Interior||Sandro Pertini|
|Minister of the Foreign Affairs||Galeazzo Ciano|
|Minister of the Defense||Italo Balbo|
|Minister of the Justice||Emilio di Bono|
|Minister of the Economy, Development and Finance||Nicolò Bombacci|
|Minister of the Colony||Guido Jung|
|Minister of the Infrastructures and Transports||Giuseppe Saragat|
|Minister of the National Education||Giovanni Gentile|
|Minister of the Tourism and Environment||Giuseppe Sirianni|
|Minister of the Public Health||Giacomo Matteotti|
The Administrative organization
Italy was divided into Provinces and communes. The Provinces are in charge of a Prefect, named by the Ministry of Interior, who was in charge of all aspects of the state administration and public order. The chief magistrate of a commune is a Mayor, named by the citizens of a city or in special case by a prefect. He was assisted by a Municipal Consul, composed of six councilors named by the Mayor. Rome has a Mayor, named by the Citizens of Rome, assisted by a consult of Rome of 10 councilors named by the Mayor.
Each of the Italian African territories were in charge of a General Governors, named by the Minister of the Colony. In Libya, the districts are in charge of a Prefect. The districts of Eritrea and Somaliland are in charge of Governors. All political chiefs are named by the Citizens. The large cities or the capital have a Mayor, who is elected by the Citizens in Libya, Eritrea and Somaliland.
The Mass Media
All news media are licensed by the Ministry of the Interior (Ministero del Interno). The most reading newspapers was the Corriere della Sera, the Repubblica, the Sole 24 ORE, the Messaggero, the Gazzetta dello Sport, Tuttosport and the Secolo XIX. Printed media of the Catholic Church is free to publish. The official news agency was Agenzia Stefani.
The radio is a state monopoly of the Radio Televisione Italiana (RAI), but they are some local radio or regional radio.
The Armed forces and internal security
The Italian Armed Forces (Forze Armate Italiane) are organized in:
- Italian Army (Esercito Italiano, or E.I.) : 401.794 Military
- Italian Military Marine (Marina Militare Italiana o M.M.I.) : 51.989 Military
- Italian Military Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana or A.M.I.) : 42.117 Military
- Army of the Carabinieri (Arma dei Carabinieri or A.C.) : 303.893 Carabinieri
- Financial Guard (Guardia di Finanza or G.d.F.) : 102.335 Guard
The internal security and police were in charge of:
- Army of the Carabinieri (Arma dei Carabinieri or A.C.) : 103.893 Carabinieri
- Police of State (Polizia di Stato or P.S.) : 102.400 Policemen
- Financial Guard (Guardia di Finanza or G.d.F.) : 102.335 Guard