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James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth
Timeline: Cromwell the Great

James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth
Portrait of James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth

Chancellor of the University of Cambridge
1674 – 1682

Predecessor George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham
Successor Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle
vice-Chancellor

Member Commonwealth Council of State
1682 – 1696

Lord President of the Commonwealth Council of State
1691 – 1695

Predecessor John Somers, 1st Baron Somers
Successor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

British Army (Commissioned Officer)
1666 – 1696

Member of the Senate for Scotland
1687 – 1696

3rd Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
March 1696 – July 1718

Predecessor Henry Cromwell
Successor William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire
Born 9 April 1649
Rotterdam, Dutch Republic
Died 15 July 1718 (aged 69)
London, Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
Spouse Anne Scott, 1st Duchess of Buccleuch (11 February 1651 – 6 February 173, married April 1663)
Political Party Cromwellian -> Moderate Whig
Religion Church of England -> Church of Scotland
Profession Politician, soldier

It's guid to be merry and wise,

It's guid to be honest and true,
It's guid to support Caledonia's cause
And bide by the buff and the blue.
Robert Burns Here's a Health to Them That's Awa', st. 1

James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch (9 April 1649 – 15 July 1718) was a politician, soldier and the third Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1696-1718, 46th to 69th Year of the Commonwealth).

Life and military

Originally called James Crofts or James Fitzroy, took his wife's surname upon marriage. James was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the eldest illegitimate son of Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his mistress Lucy Walter. Kidnapped and briefly living in France (1658-1659) and brought by his mother to England. Started his military career when he joined a horse company in 1666, becoming captain of cavalry two years later.

He served and commanded British and Dutch troops in the Franco-Dutch War (1672-1678) and Nine Years' War (1688-1697). Due to the later he was named Lord President of the Council of State (1691-1695) by [Henry Cromwell in order to direct military campaign more effectively having already shown his efficiency in field.

Named Lord President of Scotland (1683-1686) due to his success in crushing the Scottish Jacobite rebellion of 1683. This furthered his links to Scotland due to his peerage of Scotland (duchy of Buccleuch) and its large grants of lands. In accordance to his presbyterian sympathies and leanings he joined the Church of Scotland. Elected senator for Scotland (1687–1696) becoming an ally of Scottish interest well into his Protectorship.

Lord Protectorship

Appointed by Henry Cromwell in his succession letter (1696), it was clear that his immediate task was direct the British Armed Forces and see the peace settlement of the Nine Years' War in the Treaty of Ryswick. Having the sum of military power as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces.

As Lord Protector James Scott fully employed the powers of his office and considered Parliament an advisory body and backing his policies and those of the Council. With the exception of Scottish demands that he hold in first place, the policies as draw out by Lord Protector-in-Council were to be supported by Parliament.

To the annoyance of the Whigs, the same group he belonged, Scott filled many times the Council of State with his courtiers and advisors. Displeasure to the politics of Council of State and a clash of personalities within it was mostly expressed during the leadership the Council by Penn the Younger (1700-1703 and 1708-1712) having twice to call for early elections of the House of Commons in order to reshuffle its composition.

Lords Presidents of the Council of State under James Scott, Duke of Monmouth

Lords Presidents of the Commonwealth State Council under James Scott. All named by the Lord Protector.

Name Mandate
(Start-End)
Political
affinity/faction/party
Commonwealth Parliament
Legislature
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough 1695-1700 Moderate Whig 11th (1692-1697)
William Penn the Younger
the Old Radical
1700-1703 Dissident Whig 12th (1697-1702), 13th (1702-1703), 14th (1703-1708)
Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax 1703-1706 Whig Junto 14th (1703-1708)
Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer 1706-1708 Tory and Country-Whig Coalition 14th (1703-1708)
William Penn the Younger
the Old Radical
1708-1712 Dissident Whig 15th (1708-1712), 16th (1712-1717)
Charles Talbot, 1st Duke of Shrewsbury 1712-1722 Whig Junto 16th (1712-1717), 17th (1717-1722)

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