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Joseph Stalin
Иосиф Сталин (Russian)
იოსებ სტალინი (Georgian)
President Stalin.png
1947 portrait
1947 portrait
4th President of Russia
In office
26 May 1927 – 26 May 1951
Preceded by Leon Bronstein
Succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev
3rd Vice President of Russia
In office
27 January 1924 – 26 May 1925
President Leon Bronstein
Preceded by Leon Bronstein
Succeeded by Vyacheslav Molotov
Minister of Agriculture
In office
26 May 1919 – 27 January 1924
President Leon Bronstein
Chairman of the State Duma
In office
13 May 1913 – 13 May 1919
Preceded by Julius Martov
Succeeded by Alexei Rykov
General Secretary of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
In office
26 May 1925 – 26 May 1951
Preceded by Leon Bronstein
Succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev
Personal details
Born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili
18 December 1878
Gori, Tiflis Governorate,
Russian Empire
Died 5 March 1953 (aged 74)
Kuntsevo Dacha, Kuntsevo,
Russia
Political party Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
Spouse(s) Ekaterina Svanidze (1906–07)
Nadezhda Alliluyeva (1919–32)
Children Yakov Dzhugashvili
Vasily Dzhugashvili
Svetlana Dzhugashvili
Religion Atheism, formerly Georgian Orthodox

Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвили, trans. Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953), more commonly known by his pseudonym Joseph Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Сталин, trans. Iosif Stalin), was a Russian politician who served as the 4th President of the Russian Democratic Federative Republic from 1933 to 1951.

Stalin was one of the earliest members of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (today the United Russia Party), and actively participated in the 1905 Russian Revolution. After the establishment of the Republic in 1906, Stalin was appointed to lead the RSDLP's representative caucus in the Russian Constituent Assembly by Vladimir Ulyanov, and as a result he was one of the leading writers of the Russian Constitution. He was thereafter elected to the State Duma, and became its Chairman in 1913. Following the death of Ulyanov in 1921 and the succession of then-Vice President Leon Bronstein to the Presidency, Stalin was selected by the party and confirmed by the State Council as Bronstein's successor. Bronstein did not seek election in 1924, and so Stalin ran instead, winning by an overwhelming majority.

Under Stalin's administration, Russia entered a period of industrialisation that resulted in the rapid transformation of Russia from an agrarian society into an industrial power. However, he was also responsible for the attempt to collectivise farming, a policy which contributed to disruption in food production and the subsequent Russian famine of 1932–33.

In August 1939, in an attempt to secure the Finnish border with Sweden, Stalin entered into a non-aggression pact with Sweden. However, Sweden ended the pact when in June 1941, in collaboration with the Fascist League, it invaded Russia. Despite heavy human and territorial losses, Russian forces managed to halt the Fascist incursion after the decisive Battles of Moscow and Tsaritsyn. After defeating the Fascist powers on the Eastern Front, the Russian Army moved through Europe, capturing Rome in July 1945, and then Paris with the assistance of the Allied Powers. Russia subsequently emerged as one of three recognised world superpowers, the others being Germany and Cygnia.

Stalin continued to lead Russia following the war, and presided over its post-war reconstruction phase. During this period, Russia became the third country in the world to successfully develop a nuclear weapon. In the years following his death, Stalin has been lauded as one of the best presidents in Russian history, although critics often point out the struggles faced by Stalin's administration in its early years.

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