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The Kazakh Khanate (Kazakh: Kazak Hanlığı; Қазақ Хандығы; قازاق حاندىعى, Uzbek: Qozog Xonigli, Russian (inter-communication language): Казахское ханство (Kazahskoe hanstvo), also called South Kazakhstan) is a city-state located in the southern half of the former Kazakh SSR.
The Kazakh Khanate was originally founded in the late XV century in the southeastern part of what was the Kazakh SSR. It is considered to be the ethnogenesis of the modern Kazakh ethnic group. Eventually, the Khanate spread to the point of stretching from the Nogai Horde in the west to Moghulistan in the east and from Sibir in the north to the Khanate of Bukhara in the south. Although it wasn't the most advanced of the countries in the region, the Kazakh army was by far the strongest; it defeated Bukhara and seized Samarkand (later given back) and Tashkent. However, eventually the power of the Khanate subsided and it became a part of the Russian Empire. It gained increasing levels of autonomy (first becoming the Kirghiz A.S.S.R after the Russian Revolution and eventually the Kazakh S.S.R in 1936).
The large amounts of steppe in Kazakhstan and the nomadic nature of the Kazakhs encouraged the Soviet government to send settlers to the regions and forcefully settle down the Kazakh tribes. Eventually, Kazakhstan became highly populated by foreigners; close to 8% of the population was German (the highest concentration in the USSR) and a huge minority was either Russian or Ukrainian.
Kazakhstan was hit with several nuclear warheads in Doomsday, in many important cities such as Almaty (the capital) and Baikonur (home to a cosmodrome). Besides, several nuclear installations and resource mines were also targeted.
Even though the region of Southern Kazakhstan was spared from the nuclear apocalypse, it quickly descended into chaos due to its isolation from the rest of Kazakhstan and the construction of command chains both in Almaty and Moscow as well as the closer center in Tashkent.
Turkistan and South Kazakhstan fell into complete chaos. With the exception of a small militia formed around Turkistan, the people of the region was completely unprotected from crime and anarchy. Besides, immigrant communities from worse-off regions in Central Asia (mostly Uzbeks from Navoiy and Kazakhs from the easternmost regions of Kazakhstan) flooded the city crushing the local infrastructure. The militia attempted to block immigrants; however, no way could finally be found since Turkestan was considered a holy city; many Muslims in Central Asia attempted to travel to Turkestan (as the hajj to Mecca became practically impossible after Doomsday). The militia ended up placing strict measures on immigration; however, the flow of refugees was not truly stopped.
The militia begun wishing for more organization after officially being able to "slow down the refugee flow", and eventually in 2004, established the Provisional Government of Kazakhstan, led by Askar Myrzakhmetov, a naturalised refugee from Turkistan's early years.
Askar later forced the members of the Government to resign and unanimously declared himself Khan Aksar I and claimed descent from the ancient Kazakh Khanate and the Golden Horde in 2009.
Turkistan's population has always been mostly Uzbek, not Kazakh; however, huge immigration has made the originally nearly homogeneous population (75% of the population being Uzbek), to plurality, with only 45% of the population being Uzbek whilst 35% is Kazakh and 20% is Russian.
Turkistan is not more than a city-state, with its effective area of control being a range of 40 km around the city center.
The Khanate's government is an absolutist monarchy with Khan Askar I holding all three executive, legislative and judicial powers of government as well as being the chief of the armed forces.
The Kazakh Militia composes of 25,000 people, who protects the area of control around Turkestan.