Alternative History
Khaganate of Khazaria
ח'אגנתיה, ח'זריה (Hebrew)
Timeline: Jews of the Steppe
OTL equivalent: parts of Ukraine, Caucasus regions of Russia, parts of Russia, Central Asia region
Flag Coat of Arms
"Perseverance to Prosperity"
"The Call"
Royal anthem: 
"The Lion of God"
Largest city New Jerusalem
Official languages Hebrew
Regional languages Russian, Ukrainian, Uyghur, Kazakh, Uzbek, etc.
Religion Judaism (state religion; majority)
Sunni Islam (minority)
Demonym Khazar
Government Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 -  Khagan Elijah IV ben David
 -  Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
Legislature Knesset
 -  First Khaganate 650 - 1242 
 -  Conversion to Judaism 740 (traditionally) 
 -  Formation of the second Khazar Khaganate 1 May 1400 
 -  Modern constitution adopted 29 February 1908 
 -  Total 7,248,601 km2 
2,798,700 sq mi 
 -  2021 estimate 167,380,246 (9th)
GDP (PPP)  estimate
 -  Total $10,116 trillion 
 -  Per capita $60,437 
GDP (nominal)  estimate
 -  Total $7,856 trillion 
 -  Per capita $46,935 
Currency Khazar shekel (KZS)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .kz

Khazaria, formally the Khaganate of Khazaria, is a federated sovereign transcontinental state, spanning territory in Eastern Europe, Northern and Central Asia. It is the seventh largest country in the world by area. It spans five time zones and borders nine different countries. Its population of over 160 million people is the 9th largest in the world. Due to its mixed Jewish-Turkic culture, it is considered both the largest Jewish and Turkic country in the world. Its capital is Atil, while its largest city is New Jerusalem. Having acquired religious significance to the countless Jews, fleeing persecution in Western Europe, the state has sometimes been referred to as the New Israel.

The Khazars were a semi-nomadic Turkic people that in the late 6th-century CE established a major commercial empire covering the southeastern section of modern European Russia, southern Ukraine, Crimea, and Kazakhstan. They created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate. Astride a major artery of commerce between Eastern Europe and Southwestern Asia, Khazaria became one of the foremost trading empires of the early medieval world, commanding the western marches of the Silk Road and playing a key commercial role as a crossroad between China, the Middle East and (the then) Kievan Rus'.

The Khazars adopted Judaism under Khagan Bulam, founder of the Bulanid Dynasty, which ruled the first Khaganate. His son, Ariel I, dubbed "The Lion" due to his name and character, would go on to centralize Khaganate and spread Judaism among the population more vigorously. Khazar historians argue that Ariel created the first centralized state in the region of North Asia. The First Khaganate would collapse under the pressure of the Golden Horde in 1242. A rump Khazaria would remain governing Atil and the northern Caucasus for 158 years until Isaac I "the Liberator" would go on to stage a massive revolt against the then weakened Horde and restoring Khazaria.

The Khazars would reestablish their empire, going further into Central Asia, reaching as far east as China and breaking the power of the Mongol remnants and various Turkic warlords. Thousands of Jews, banished from Western Europe, would travel to "the new Israel", where they would greatly contribute to the enrichment of the Second Khaganate. Judaism would spread into Central Asia due to these conflicts, which would lead to clashes with the Muslims in the region, ultimately leading to the "Pragmatic Sanction of 1796", which decreed equality before the law of all subjects of Khazaria, regardless of religion. Khazaria would rival both the Russians and British for domination in the region, ultimately persevering through the conflicts.

During the 19th century, Khazaria would rapidly industrialize, following Western European trends caught on to by travelling Khazarian merchants. The absolute monarchy would gradually give way to a constitutional one with the establishment of the Knesset in 1742 and the adoption of a formal constitution in 1908.

Khazaria is a constitutional monarchy with a federal structure. The Khagan (often translated as Emperor abroad) holds a symbolic, yet powerful spiritual and cultural role as the head of state and symbol of national unity and is held in high regard by the people. The current monarch is Khagan Elijah IV (born Elijah ben Abraham). The monarchy of Khazaria enjoys wide domestic support, with a poll conducted in 2018 showing over 90% support. The government is formed by the largest party in the Knesset, currently the Conservative Party, with its leader acting as Prime Minister of Khazaria, currently Benjamin Netanyahu.

Khazaria is a great power, and is considered a potential superpower. It is ranked 52nd in the Human Development Index, with a universal healthcare system, and a free university education. Khazaria's economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and by PPP. It is a recognized nuclear-weapons state. Its economy is bolstered by its powerful and influential banking institutions as well as the country's mineral wealth, which is one of the largest in the world.


First Khazar Khaganate

Conversion to Judaism

Wars with the Rus and the Arabs

Collapse to the Golden Horde

Second Khazar Khaganate

The rise of the second Khazar state was led by a Khazar named Isaac. Claiming descent to the Khagan David VIII, he managed to rouse the Khazars into open revolt against the weakened Golden Horde in 1400, which lead to its full disintegration and the reestablishment of the Khaganate under Isaac.

Conquest of Central Asia

Building of New Jerusalem

In 1614, Khagan Abraham IV built New Jerusalem forty miles east of Atil. The city was centered around what would become the cornerstone of his reign - the Third Temple, built not in the old Jerusalem, but the new. New Jerusalem rapidly expanded and was populated primarily by Jewish migrants from Western Europe. It would go on to become the largest city within Khazaria.

Khazar-Russian conflicts


Modern Era

Khazaria maintained neutrality during World War I. However, during the Second World War, the Khaganate aggressively fought Germany due to the latter's genocidal ideology against Jewish people. In the Cold War Era, Khazaria was wary of its Russian neighbor, which together with China, had become the Union of Communist Confederated Republics, and maintained political neutrality, although it heavily favored NATO, despite never being an official member. Following the collapse of the UCCR in the aftermath of the Communist Civil War, Khazaria provided humanitarian aid to Russia and the two nations have been allied since. Khazaria's ever growing economy has become strong enough to compete with the USA, the sole recognized global superpower as well as the emerging economic powerhouse that is China. In recent years, relations with the US have began to cool down and Khazaria has since created the Global Prosperity Alliance, alongside various countries like China, Brazil, South Africa and Russia.