Kingdom of Tondo
Bansa nang Tundu
Flag of Tondo (The Kalmar Union).png
Hani following the completion of the Ruson Conquests; 1602
(and largest city)
Official languages Old Tagalog, Middle Tagalog, Classical Han
Recognised regional languages Pangasinese, Bicolano, Bisaya
Government Absolute monarchy under the Lakandula
 -  Establishment 9th century 
 -  Establishment of the House of Sulayman 1500 
 -  Independence from Brunei 1578 
 -  Ruson Conquests 1580–1602 
 -  Na Coup D'état 1675 
 -  1602 estimate 7,000,000 
Currency Ginto (عينتو, )
Barter system

The Kingdom of Tondo (Old Tagalog: بانسانانعتوندو; 国的通多, tr. Bansa nang Tundu) was a Han kingdom that consisted of the island of Ruson and several adjacent islands. Its capital was located in what is now the Binondo district of Hanyang. Prior to the Ruson Conquests, it shared borders with Kingdom of Pangasinan to the north and the Madya-as Confederaiton, the Kingdom of Ma-i, and the Rajahnate of Cebu to the south. It lasted from at least the ninth century until the Na Coup D'état in 1675.

According to the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, it was established as a city-state centred on the Hanyang Bay in the ninth century, steadily expanding to encompass all land from the Central Ruson plain to the southernmost tip of the Anyang peninsula. As it capitalised on being central to regional trade routes, it became a major thalassocratic power within the region and earned the favour of Ming traders and special trading rights. While this had brought it great prosperity, it also made it prone to piracy from jealous Japanese pirates and unwanted attention from foreign powers seeking to annex it.

By 1500, Tondo had became so wealthy from trade with the Ming that the Sultanate of Brunei sought to incorporate it through the use of royal marriage. After the rejection of the offer, Brunei invaded its capital before forcing Tondo to accept the offer. The traditional rulers of Tondo, the Lakandula, retained their titles and property upon embracing Islam, but real political power was transferred to the House of Sulayman, established by Rajah Sulayman after his submission to Islam. In 1574, the Lin Feng invaded the Hanyang Bay area. While the Bruneian–led coalition would win, the death following the war would entrench the fear of pirates and foreign occupation, while simultaneously creating a hatred on the Bruneians for not being able to prevent the onslaught of pirates. After Bruneian defeat in the Bruneian–Spanish War, and prompted by Spanish expansion into Shonanmin and Borneo, Tondo would initiate the conquest of neighbouring states would that lead to the unification of Ruson, and the formation of the modern Han nation.

During its long existence, it experienced notable cultural shifts. Most notably a shift from a small city-state, to a Indianised lakanate, then later Islamicised vassal, and finally, a Sincised kingdom. The period also oversaw the increased popularity of religions such as Buddhism and Neo–Confucianism in place of local animism, the beginning of the widespread adoption of Chinese technology, methods, and architecture, and the shift in the Han language (caused by the mass-adoption of Chinese loanwords and sinification of preexisting lexicon); laying the basis of modern Han culture.


Numerous hypotheses on the origin of Tondo's name have been proposed. A common hypothesis is that perhaps the name is a reference to the presence of high-ground (which in Old Tagalog would be توندوك or 高地 tr. Tundok). Meanwhile, French linguist Jean-Paul Potet has suggested that the Old Tagalog term for the local River Mangrove, Aegiceras corniculatum, is the most likely origin of the term.

The Tagalog people, which comprises the ethnic majority, referred to themselves as تاونعتوندو or 人的通多 (tr. Taung Tundu), or تاونانعتوندو or 人的通多 (tr. Tau nang Tundu) in Old Tagalog. In Later Tagalog/Classical Han (the distinction is blurred and debated among linguists), they would refer to themselves by simply the noun 通多人 (tr. Tondojin).


Prior to Bruneian contact

Personal union with Brunei

Red Blood Incident

Spanish contact

Conquest of Ruson

Golden Age and Sinicisation

Decline and Na Coup D'état







Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.