The Kingdom of Wales (Middle Welsh: Tywysogaeth Cymru; Scottish Gaelic: Diùcachd na Cymru), also recognized as Wales is a state located in the British Isles. TBA
John II, Count of Auvergne and Boulogne, passes away from life and Joan II, David III's wife inherits the Duchy of Auvergne and the County of Boulogne, thus the Scottish Crown Prince David III effectively rules over his wife's domain via jure uxoris rule.
In 1408 King Robert II Bruce of Scotland abdicates the Scottish throne to his son, Crown Prince David III.
In Auvergne, King David III of Scotland is known as “Duke David I of Auvergne”. His late wife Joan II of Auvergne and Boulogne is a very celebrated figure in Auvergne.
Scottish Independence Wars (1295-1362)
First War of Independence (1295-1298)
Robert the Bruce murders the English lackey King John I Balliol of Scotland in 1295 and claims the throne as Guardian of the Realm in a bid for independence. However the Scottish nobility is fractured at the moment and lacks a popularly supported candidate to stand behind.
King Robert "the Bruce" of Scotland fights valiantly against England but without the support of the Scottish nobility his cause for independence is doomed and he is eventually defeated and suffers the same fate John Balliol suffered, if not worse at the hands of the English, beheaded in a town in Northern England.
Second War of Independence (1304-1305)
William Wallace as Guardian of the Realm supports young Edward Balliol's claim to the throne. This culminates at William Wallace and Edward Balliol making a second bid for Scotland's independence from English tyranny, taking advantage of the preoccupied English army in France.
They immediately hit much resistance in their attempts at liberate Scotland from English loyalists and other indifferent subjects however, as most of the nobility cannot just make up their mind which candidate to support from the plethora of claimants to the Scottish throne to pick from, unable to present a united front against England at this time. William Wallace dies at the Second Battle of Stirling Castle, thus bringing another temporary peace in the War of Scottish Independence.
Third War of Independence (1315-1318)
Edward the Bruce, brother of Robert the Bruce, is sworn in as King of Scotland by the newly-created Scottish Parliament. This is disputed by the King of England, thus reigniting the War of Scottish Independence.
Edward Bruce wins decisively against the English at the Battle of Faughart, ensuring Scottish independence. The period of English vassalage over Scotland, however, has left a lasting legacy of Scotland adopting English institutions and customs such as a regular parliament.
The First Anti-Despensers Rebellion (1321-1324)
Growing tired of Edward II's consistent favoritism toward the Despensers, Roger Mortimer leads a rebellion across Wales and western England, with the support of the Duke of Lancaster and the Marcher Lords. Their faction has a total of 10,000 troops.
After his initial defeat at Pontefract Castle, Roger Mortimer and the March Lords calls on an alliance with King Edward Bruce of Scotland. King Edward Bruce of Scotland proceeds in 1322 to invade England with 3,000 troops against Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, while Mortimer's remaining 8,500 troops regroups at Worchester. England manages to repel the Scottish invasion.
The Earl of Lancaster is captured after the Battle of Worcester, putting an end to the Despenser's War in England for the time being. However, Roger Mortimer and the bulk of the March Lords military escapes the British Isles and is invited to the court of the Count of Hainaut. Roger appears before the Heyst Council of Brabant to plead his case for gathering support from the Lowlands to return to invade England.
After this, England moves on the offensive against Scotland but Sir James Douglas leading the Scottish forces manages to trick the English forces with his tactic of placing scarecrow at the other side of river Tyne, making the Scottish army seem like 30,000 when it's only 6,000 causing all of the English forces to flee.
Fourth War of Independence (1333-1338)
King Edward II took advantage of the fact that both the Kingdoms of France and Scotland were ruled at the time by regencies for their respective minor Kings, he struck pre-emptively with 18,500 men under the command of Henry de Beaumont as well as a separate invasion by the Lordship of Ireland, a vassal of England, on the west coast of Scotland after overrunning much of the lowlands, taking control of major burghs such as South Berwick and Glasgow, Scottish resistance is brushed aside and annihilated, effectively winning the war and taking over the Kingdom of Scotland.
Fifth War of Independence (1355-1362)
In 1354 Lord Tighearnach of the Lordship of Eiru, an English vassal, travels to the Hill of Tara in accordance with his plan and following in footsteps of his ancestors declaring himself High King of Eiru and therefore declaring war on the Kingdom of England. High King Tighearnach sends envoys to the King of Scotland and Gaelic lords of Wales encouraging them to also take back control from the European immigrants and especially the much despised Norman aristocracy in favour of a Gaelic ruled Britain.
Scotland answers his plea and revolted against English domination of their land, supporting the rebellion in Ireland. More specifically King Edward I Balliol, now old and infirm, looked upon by the vast majority of Scotsman as illegitimate, passed away without an heir while running for his life from the Scotsmen's vengeance. David II Bruce of Scotland, son of the late Robert I "the Bruce", acting as Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland, having united into a coalition the Scottish lords who endured the prolonged English occupation, as well as the common people, enjoys unprecedented popular support for the fractious nature of Scotland as of late, augmented by a streak of victories over the English. Now further bolstered by the Lothraingians assault of the English coast, he crowns himself King after popular demand, the commoners blocking his path and his troops refusing to leave the city, pressuring him to accept the honor of Kingship, as both soldiers and citizens, both commoners and lords alike rejoicing with his crowning, overtaking the streets of Edinburgh as a jubilant wave. King David II bids farewell to his family, his wife Isabella Wallace and his 11-year-old son Robert, named after his grandfather and promptly leaves the capital at the head of the detachment of his army, till he reunites with the main host, leading them into the fray against the resurgent Englishmen. He proceeds to block the English army from crossing River Tweed, laying some hasty fortifications, located somewhat close to the fortress of Edinburgh, where he could safely retreat if things go sour. The Englishmen attempt to cross the river and are repulsed suffering heavy casualties. The final engagement takes place near York where 7,000 Scotsman descend on the English camp during the night against the winded English army of 10,000, caught off guard, struggling to hold their ground against the reinvigorated Scotsman, proceeding to massacre their sleepy enemies. As the dust settles in and the sun arises the result is clear, a tremendous Scottish victory, as the bewildered Englishman experience the gruesome reprisals of the Scotsman, only the captured lords of value are spared for ransom.
Some of the march lords in Wales agree to help Ireland with roughly 1,500 troops, King Tighearnach takes 1,000 men in January of the next year and sails them across the Irish Sea from Dublin to north Wales. Tighearnach and Mortimer and the 3,000 Welsh, Irish and German troops lay siege to Caernarfon castle and town building a circumvallation of defences to pen the castle inhabitants in stopping their food while also working on constructing a trebuchet, battering rams and other siege weapons to attack it. But all their efforts aren't enough to capture Caernarfon castle and Wales is lost in the subsequent Treaty of Caernarfon, the very much drained Scotland from the black death and one-half century of devastation is unable to march forward and siege the Welsh castles to liberate Wales.
The Markings of a New Epoch (1362-Present)
Growth and Prosperity (1362-1400)
King David II Bruce is completely embarrassed that he had to give up on his Welsh allies but at least he is glad that the main objective of Scottish independence is achieved. He promises to take his revenge at some point and avenge his Welsh kindred, assisting them in to achieve their liberation. He asks his son and successor, Robert II Bruce, to take up his pledge, having him to swear an oath to assist his Welsh kindred to achieve their independence and fulfill his pledge if he isn't able to do it himself.
The Celtic Confederacy was a defensive alliance pact and a loose union aimed at containing England and keeping the Celtic states united against it, created between the states of Eiru, Scotland and Iceland, wheres an elective office of a Celtic Ameraudur was established, each state having one vote. The power of the Celtic Ameraudur was agreed to be very limited over his de jure subjects. Scotland ceded the newly established Confederacy's Imperial Capital, the Isle of Mann to the Celtic Confederacy.
Scotland becomes quite a prosperous and stable realm in the aftermath, expanding its influence over the North Sea by helping the Petty Kingdom of Iceland to secure very favourable terms from the Kingdom of Norway in the Treaty of Akranes, such as the cession of Orkney, Shetland and the Faroe islands, benefiting from the increased trade with the friendly Petty Kingdom of Iceland. Eventually the Petty Kingdom of Iceland agrees to vassalization in return for the cession of Hebrides [Inner and Outer] and Arran Island.
The infamous mercenary and claimant of the Princedom of Gwynedd and the Greater Principality of Wales Owain Lawgoch attempted an invasion of Wales with over 8,000 French troops given to him by the King of France in his attempt to strike at the heart of England to gain the upper hand in the Hundred Years War they had been fighting with them. However the landing was repulsed with heavy casualties for the French.
The same infamous person, Owain Lawgoch, was pardoned after the English started to take notice of him, his estates were restored and he was given to marry Phillipa of Lancaster, John of Gaunt's daughter, who was granted the title of Duchess of Wales, therefore ruling via jure uxoris in her name over Wales. Essentially the Welsh Prince got installed on the Princedom of Wales by Duke Lancaster, John of Gaunt, while he was ruling from the backstage when his brother, King Edward IV "The Black Prince" got very sick on his deathbed. John of Gaunt eventually ascended to the throne as King John II of England.
After some decades, when he was well in his 60s, he started to make some moves against the King of England, to utilize his ultimate goal, to gain independence for Wales.
He eventually blackmailed King John II of England to grant him 3,000 of the English troops left in England, while King John II of England was preoccupied fight against France in a resumption of the Hundred Years War, the Lancastrian phase, aiming to regain territories lost in the Louisian phase.
Our ally Owain Lawgoch finally declared the independence of the Principality of Wales from the Kingdom of England 1400, initiating the Welsh War of Independence and King Robert II Bruce of Scotland answered his call, as he had pledged to do so. The treacherous Eiru however abstained from the war putting the Celtic Confederacy's existence at stake.
England however at this point had been depleted by the successive wars against France over the past eight decades now and Scotland managed to defeat them in two impressive battles out in the open of Carlisle in Cumberland. However, they haven't been able to secure a decisive victory over their opponents thus far, since some minor setbacks with our ally, the Örebro Union, consisting of the Kingdoms of Norway, Sweden and Denmark respectively took place, however everything was settled by the Second Treaty of Akranes and allies such as Scandinavia have joined the Scottish in their struggle against England by 1402.
At the same time the disgusting English King Henry IV orchestrated the assassination of his relative and enemy Prince Owain Lawgoch of Wales, nonetheless the cause of the Welsh rebellion was further fuelled by the cruel desecration in hanging of Owain Lawgoch's dead body by a tree, like a common lowlife, causing outrage over his inhumane and despicable treatment, turning him into a martyr into the eyes of the Welsh people and reinvigorating their determination to achieve their independence after the decisive defeat that the Welsh army suffered at their excursion in Hereford. Also, as a result of the desecration of Owain's corpse the March lords put their full weight behind the Welsh rebellion and elect Edmund Mortimer as Prince of Wales, sharing de facto power with Owain Glyndŵr, Guardian of Wales.
King Robert II Bruce feeling completely sick with King John II's actions distributes pamphlets amongst his own people proclaiming that Owain Lawgoch is a hero of the Welsh and by extension the Celts and a martyr to the cause of Welsh independence, a martyr against English oppression. Owain, his relative, ally and a true friend to him, who was hideously assassinated and his corpse was desecrated on the orders of the excommunicated monstrous English King Henry IV, so that his family members, such as his daughter Catherine Ferch Owain and wife of his second son, William, could find some comfort on their grief, as well as the Welsh people now that Owain has turned into a martyr for the Welsh rebellion, an everlasting symbol of Wales itself. It also served as a really good morale booster to reinvigorate the Scottish nobility and commoners alike and make them more determined than ever to assist their kindred Welsh to achieve their independence.
The total number of forces under the command of King Robert II of Scotland were 30.000 men against the English forces, 20.000 men under the command of King Henry IV of England. Both the First and Second Battles of Carlisle and the Battle of Lancaster were resounding Scottish/Örebro Union victories against England, although it came at the high cost of over 7.500 dead soldiers for the more numberous allied side, compared to 4.500 dead for the English side.
Securing superiority over the Irish Sea, King Robert II Bruce personally leads the bulk of his army 20,000 men across the Irish Sea to Wales, seeking to decisively defeat the English forces once and for all. The King's (military) education that included the classics, enabled him to understand how his overstretched previous position was unsustainable, how progressing forward from such an exposed position, with his supplies cut off from him just to achieve some more pyrrhic victories wasn't the way to win this war. Thus with this new approach, albeit an unorthodox one that is adopted, that dictated that England must be broken into submission and wait until our superior navies of Scotland, Scandinavia and (France if they arrive) combined help us establish our clear superiority over the Irish Sea, to be able to resupply our forces in Wales directly. If the English decide to march through the scorched land all the way to Scotland and engage us in open battle anyway, William Bruce uses his military education and the knowledge he has acquired on the battlefield and fighting on the Lybian Crusade to pull a similar flanking maneuver he has witnessed his father use on several engagements so far, leaning from him.
The rest of his army consisting of 2,500 men under the command of his son William Bruce make an orderly retreat back to the safety of Scotland, while pillaging, plundering and killing everyone, including women children and generally everything (such as livestock and non domesticated animals) in their march back, scorching what they cannot keep for themselves, not just crops but settlements and even forests, even salting the scorched fields out of spite, leaving only ruin behind to deprive everything they possibly can from England, as far as the eye can see there is only scorched earth. The countryside of Northwestern England became completely depopulated.
King Robert II Bruce met up with the Welsh forces, linking up with them and following them and he lead his troops seeking a decisive engagement against the English forces. King Robert II Bruce utilizes the terrain of his chosen battlefield, such as rivers and hills who act as natural barrier for the enemy forces, takes personally charge of his intentionally overstretched centre, with his son and heir David III and William Wallace leading the right and left wings of the army and James Douglas "the Gross" leading the cavalry as our army as the English forces are surrounded in a double envelopment maneuver with our superior numbers, exhaustion from the deprivation of supplies from our scorched earth tactics playing a crucial role in this decisive engagement in Wales with the English.
Admiral Hugh Murray once again leads our fleet, leaning from his previous mistakes engaging the English in the Irish Sea, adapting our strategy to avoid such similar fatal errors, trying to avoid to be taken by surprise like the last time and get pinned down until we engage and defeat the English fleet if possible, while attempting a flanking maneuver similar to what the English pulled to us at previous battles with their numerically superior numbers, only now that he holds the numerical superiority advantage and he use it to his benefit, encircling the English fleet.
Around this time unofficially some individuals such as priests in the Celtic Lollard church encouraged by the proclamations of Owain Lawgoch as a hero and a martyr, start encouraging their congregations to add a prayer for the intercession of Owain Lawgoch in their prays. This trend also spreads to the Catholic Church of Scotland.
After a decisive victory against the English in central Wales, England was forced to sign the Second Treaty of Caernarfon, allowing the Principality of Wales to achieve its independence. Alas King Robert II's and his forefathers dream had been achieved, all their sacrifices weren't wasted for nothing.
Economy and Trade
Having between a fifth or sixth (15-20 percent) of the arable or good pastoral land and roughly the same amount of coastline as England and Wales, most of it located in the south and east marginal pastoral agriculture and fishing were two of the most important aspects of the Medieval Scottish economy. With poor communications, in the early Middle Ages most settlements needed to achieve a degree of self-sufficiency in agriculture. Most farms were operated by a family unit and used an infield and outfield system.
With difficult terrain, albeit a recently improved road network across the nation and methods of transport there was some trade but limited between different areas of the country and most minor settlements continued to depend on what was produced locally, often with little in reserve in bad years. Most farming was based on the lowland farmtoun or highland baile, settlements of a handful of families that jointly farmed an area notionally suitable for two or three plough teams, allocated in run rigs to tenant farmers. They usually ran downhill so that they included both wet and dry land, helping to offset some of the problems of extreme weather conditions. This land was divided into the infield, which was in continuous arable cultivation, and the outfield which was rotated between arable and grass. Most ploughing was done with a heavy wooden plough with an iron coulter, pulled by oxen, who were more effective and cheaper to feed than horses. Obligations to the local lord usually included supplying oxen for ploughing the lord's land on an annual basis and the much resented obligation to grind corn at the lord's mill. The rural economy had boomed in the 13th century and in the immediate aftermath of the Black Death was still buoyant, but by the 1360s there was a severe falling off of incomes, which can be seen in clerical benefices, half compared with the beginning of the era.
There were relatively few developed crafts in Scotland in this period, although by the early 15th century there were the beginnings of a native iron casting industry, which led to the production of cannon, and of the silver and goldsmithing for which the country would later be known. As a result, the most important exports were unprocessed raw materials, including wool, hides, salt, fish, animals and coal, while Scotland remained frequently short of wood, iron and, in years of bad harvests, grain. Exports of hides and particularly salmon, where the Scots held a decisive advantage in quality over their rivals, appear to have held up much better than wool, despite the general economic downturn in Europe in the aftermath of the plague.
From the reign of David I, there are records of burghs, towns that were granted certain legal privileges from the crown. They were able to impose tolls and fines on traders within a region outside their settlements and their growth was facilitated by trade with the continent. The most important exports were unprocessed raw materials, including wool, hides, salt, fish, animals and coal, while Scotland remained frequently short of wood, iron and, in years of bad harvests, grain. Coins replaced barter goods, with Scottish coins being struck from the reign of David I. Until the disruption caused by the outbreak of the Wars of Independence in the early 14th century, most naval trade was probably coastal and most foreign trade was with England, but the disruption of this era encouraged the opening up of new markers on the continent.
The main continental trading partners of Scottish burghs were merchants in Flanders. Before 1321 Scottish merchants had established a staple in Bruges. Bruges remained the major trading partner. Wool and hides were the major exports in the late Middle Ages. The disruption of the Wars of Independence meant that this fell in the period 1333–38 and then again in 1355-1362, but trade recovered to reach a peak in the 1390s.
Trade with Iceland and Greenland, such as ivory from walrus and narwhal tusks with Scotland, as well as importing rope, sheep, seals, wool and cattle hides from them. In return we export to them iron tools, wood and supplemental foodstuffs.
- 1468: 556,000
The Kingdom of Wales is a member of the Celtic Confederation (dating back to 1371). In addition, it maintains good relations with the vast majority of Continental Europe - it can ill-afford to sour relations with allies against its main rival, the Kingdom of England. Relations with the Kingdom of England, however, have been traditionally strained.
- Positive (▲) Relations
- Kingdom of Scotland: Allies and royal marriage, both members of the Celtic Confederation. The Kingdom of Scotland played a crucial role in the Welsh War of Independence (1400-1404), helping the Principality of Wales to achieve its independence in the Second Treaty of Caernarfon. Intervention in the Welsh Succession War supporting Maredudd ab Owain Glyndŵr against Duke Richard of York, preserving the independence of Wales under a native Welshman. Supported the Yorkists in the War of the Roses, fought side by side once again.
- Kingdom of Iceland: Loyal ally and royal marriage, both members of the Celtic Confederation. Had to temporarily relinquish their autonomy to the Örebro Union in the Second Treaty of Akranes to secure the Örebro Union's participation in the Welsh War of Independence, also to quell the grievances of the grumbling Norwegian nobility. Assisted them in their subsequent conflicts to regain their independence from the Örebro Union as well as retain control over the contested North Sea islands (Faroes isles, Orkney and Shetland). Supported Maredudd ab Owain Glyndŵr against Duke Richard of York in the Scottish led intervention in the Welsh Succession War, helping preserve the independence of Wales under a native Welshman. Fought side by side supporting the Yorkists against the Lancasters in the War of the Roses.
- Kingdom of France: Renewed the Auld Alliance with the Kingdom of Scotland and at their insistence, the High Kingdom of Eiru was also added in the alliance. During the Welsh War of Independence (1400-1404) the Kingdom of France answered the Scottish call to war and rejoined the fight against the Kingdom of England, opening a much needed second front in the Continent. Crown Prince David III's wife, Joan II of Auvergne and Boulogne, inherited her father's fortune, the Duchy of Auvergne and the County of Boulogne in 1404. The Crown Prince rules over them via jure uxoris rule, swearing fealty to King Louis XI of France for these possessions. Involvement in the Franco-Anglo-Hispanic War against its erstwhile ally, the King of France, outraged by his abysmal treatment of its own nobility, as Duke of Auvergne. Supported Maredudd ab Owain Glyndŵr against Duke Richard of York in the Welsh Succession War indirectly, helping preserve the independence of Wales under a native Welshman. Fought side by side supporting the Yorkists against the Lancasters in the War of the Roses.
- Swiss Confederacy: Loyal allies and royal marriage. During the Welsh War of Independence (1400-1404), the Swiss Confederacy answered our call and joined the fight against the Kingdom of England, providing us with partly subsidized mercenaries to use against our enemy. Fought side by side against the Capetian French King Louis XI in the 1410s. Fought side by side supporting the Yorkists against the Lancasters.
- Papal States: Loyal ally of the Pope, back from the time that the Council of York was held and a rebellion broke out in England, King Robert II personally escorted the Pope and the entire Council to safety inside his domain in South Berwick.
- Empire of Hispania: Allies and royal marriage. Fought side by side against the Capetian French King Louis XI in the 1410s. Fought side by side supporting the Yorkists against the Lancasters in the War of the Roses.
- Neutral (▬) Relations
- Kingdom of Portugal: Allies and royal marriage. The Portuguese King tried to assist us militarily during the Welsh War of Independence (1400-1404), by his own nobility blocked his attempts, forcing him to remain neutral. TBA
- Hanseatic League: TBA
- Kingdom of England: Fought several independence wars against them. In the last one the Kingdom of Scotland and the Lordship of Ireland combined their forces to overcome their enemy and achieve their independence from the Kingdom of England. This was followed by the Welsh War of Independence (1400-1404), the Kingdom of Scotland played a crucial role, helping the Principality of Wales to secure its independence in the Second Treaty of Caernarfon. Intervention in the Welsh Succession War supporting Maredudd ab Owain Glyndŵr against Duke Richard of York, preserving the independence of Wales under a native Welshman. Then rapprochement with his erstwhile enemy, Duke Richard of York, intervention in the War of the Roses against against the Lancasters, installing Duke Richard of York on power as King of England.
- Örebro Union: Allies and royal marriage. During the Welsh War of Independence (1400-1404) the Örebro Union answered the Scottish call to war and joined the fight against the Kingdom of England, providing much needed forces to overcome them and eventually secure the independence of the Principality of Wales. Fought a conflict with them afterwards to assist our ally, the Kingdom of Iceland, to secure its independence. Relations somewhat improved since then.
- Negative (▼) Relations
- High Kingdom of Eiru: Allies and royal marriage, both members of the Celtic Confederation. The Kingdom of Scotland and the Lordship of Ireland combined their forces to achieve their independence from the Kingdom of England. Didn't supported us in the Welsh War of Independence (1400-1404), relations soured, supported us in our intervention in the Welsh Succession War supporting Maredudd ab Owain Glyndŵr against Duke Richard of York, helping preserve the independence of Wales under a native Welshman, relations improved somewhat. Supported the Lancasters in the War of the Roses, relations soured again.
- Kingdom of Lotharingia: Supported us during the Fifth War of Independence, helping us achieve our independence a century ago. Recently fought against us, supporting the Lancasters against the Yorkists in the War of the Roses, relations soured again.
- Second Treaty of Caernarfon
- Treaty of Lirviti
- Treaty of Mann
- Treaty of Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch
Rulers of Wales
For the complete list of ATL rulers, see List of Rulers of Wales.