The League of Nations (abbreviated as LoN), sometimes called the New or Neo-League of Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, nuclear disarmament, human rights, and achieving world peace. The LoN was founded in late fall 2008 in order to replace the United Nations, which was disbanded after World War III. Its name originates from the original League of Nations (now just called the "Old League of Nations") which lasted from 1919 to 1946. Despite having similar goals to these older organizations, the structure and methods used by the new League of Nations are markedly different.
Origins and Initiative
In the face of the increasing formation of new blocs, alliances, and rising tensions in some corners of the world, John Howard, the ANZC Prime Minister in 2007 presented his concept of a revived worldwide UN-like organization to a selected handful of members of Parliament. The idea was treated as highly secret since a spontaneous proclamation of such an idea might have led to distrust and tensions - especially between the rivaling ANZC and SAC blocks caused by the presence of the vestigial "American Provincial Government" in Canberra and South American anger over piracy, terrorism, and hijackings from Florida, East Texas and West Texas. It was instead decided to secretly invite the SAC leaders to personally discuss this matter and carefully prepare an agreement acceptable to both sides.
Through diverse diplomatic channels, especially with the discrete help of the Portuguese Government in the Azores, an acceptable path to a public proclamation was found by November 2007. The arrangement was that the ANZC Head of State, General Governor Sir Aaron Tusking, and the SAC General Secretary would publicly proclaim the invitation of the founding of a new UN-like organization in their New Year addresses to the respective international groupings. Until then, the plan was to be kept top secret.
Provisional League Council
In order to prepare the foundation and to work out a charter and possible organizational structure a “Provisional League Council” was installed comprising representatives from ANZC and the SAC and the Portuguese Government – and also including former US President George Bush.
As the main point of debate between ANZC and SAC - the future location of the talks - nearly ended the whole League creation process - they held a first meeting in February 2008 in the royal residence at Nuku'Alofa, Tonga, following the kind invitation of King George Tupou V. The meeting went on for nearly a week as several times the talks had nearly been canceled as the ANZC and SAC showed partly diametrical positions. But, thanks to the mediation of King Taufa’ahau and especially the High Commissioner of French Polynesia – as the "French" quickly took the neutral, mediation role in the discussion - this was overcome.
Heavily discussed points enveloped both primary issues like the sharing of power in the League High Council and minor topics like the translation guidelines and working languages chosen.
So the first meeting and two further ones – held in March in Pape'ete and again in April in Nuku’Alofa - finally proved successful in delivering the organizational structure of the League of Nations and the foundation charter.
The initial proposal of the PM to simply name the organization the NUN (New United Nations) was turned down by the SAC leadership, as they did not believe their people would somehow trust an organization that would have the same name as the one that was not able to avoid a nuclear threat and the destruction of Doomsday within its 39-year existence.
So the compromise was to revive the 1920's League of Nations name. This was accepted by the ANZC because of their steady support of this institution in 1920s and 30's. The risk of lacking trust as the first League was not able to avoid WWII was thought of as being very low.
The foundation ceremony for the LoN was held on September 26th 2008 in Nuku’Alofa, Tonga, during the 25th "anniversary" of the devastating Doomsday. This date was first proclaimed in the SAC and ANZC New year addresses on January 1st 2008. It is also public holiday in many survivor nations,
Basic Principles and Competences
The way to the now well-established organizational structure and power-sharing in the various institutions was planted with obstacles, and more than a few times the negotiations were very close to being canceled and failing. Especially, the South American Confederation insisted on gaining large influence – throwing in on their population being the highest in the organized, "democratic" world provoked heavy opposition by mainly the Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand and the associated territories. This immediately brought the Europeans – namely the Portuguese, the French and the Nordic Union - into the mediation responsibility as the third, neutral, factor in the power game.
An intensely contested topic was the initial ANZC intention to establish a “one vote” principle (one vote per country) in all decisions of the league - but it quickly became clear that this would not be feasible. Mainly, this was due to the obvious ANZC and SAC predominance and the latter one insisting on a power sharing scheme. After intense debates and a joint French-Portuguese-Canadian-Tongan mediation initiative, a satisfying solution was found.
So as a result, the "New" League of Nations was modeled on principles belonging to both the "Old" League of Nations and United Nations, including some special elements to address specific interests and issues.
The primary task as assigned by the Charter of the League is to secure worldwide peace by all appropriate means (sanctions, peacekeeping missions, etc. if needed) and the co-ordination of humanitarian aid worldwide. The most crucial point is to prevent any nuclear warfare from happening again. To achieve this the LoN is assigned the mandate to collect and destroy all nuclear weapons, though it is recognized that in this, their actions will likely be futile.
Headquarters and Secretary General
The location of the League Headquarters was also a heavily contested issue in the preparing meetings. With both Montevideo and Canberra not acceptable by either side, the solution was to continue the tradition of neutral countries hosting International Organizations by establishing the official headquarters jointly in Nuku’Alofa, Tonga and Pape'ete, Tahiti, the locations of the three Preliminary Council Meetings.
As with both organizations before it, the LoN's main representative and administrative head is the Secretary General. He represents the League officially, presides in Council Meetings, and is head of the administration and all diplomatic missions. Unlike his predecessors, the Secretary General is only elected for a three-year term and can not be re-elected.
As the ANZC and the SAC claimed the position to be filled in by someone of their choice, the topic was resolved in the last minute of the third Committee Meeting in Tonga. Finally, both sides accepted the European compromise that for the first ten years (until 2018) neither ANZC nor SAC politicians would be allowed to become Secretary General of the League. So the Committee assigned the Tongan King, George Tupou V to be named the Secretary General of the League of Nations for the first three-year term in honor of his surprising diplomatic key role in the foundation negotiations. He was followed up by the High Commissioner of French Polynesia, Cedric Wairafea, in 2011, who was replaced as Commissioner by Edouard Fritch. Cedric's term will expire on November 18th, 2014. A European or African is likely to be the next head of the League after that date.
League of Nations High Council
The highest institution of the League of Nations is the “High Council”. In its role, it is similar to the old UN Security Council. As described, the ANZC intention to avoid this two-class system proved not at all agreeable to the SAC. So, there is a well-balanced system of approvals, vetoes, and unanimous votes in place.
The Council itself – to avoid the “veto power” problem of the United Nations - is based on the “All Continents” Rule, which establishes that the Council is to consist of formally one representative of each continent with equal votes. The definition of “continent” was changed multiple times to establish “Oceania” as an official continent. A second problem was that this increased the number of continents to six which would result in possible three - three votes. Finally the number of council members was set at seven, with the Secretary General being assigned the presidency in Council sessions and given the seventh decisive vote in the event of a draw occurring.
Furthermore, the UN standard of abstention from voting was excluded by making the casting of a vote mandatory. These, along with the Secretary General being given more influence, are the major differences from what the UN organization consisted of before the events of Doomsday.
The Council representatives, however, do all retain absolute vetoes over the questions of applications for membership, and the removal or suspension of it as well.
The Continental Representatives: Oceania/South Pacific
- Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand
- Union of Sovereign Socialist Republics (USSR), also known as Socialist Siberia
- Nigeria (Appointed by the ambassadors of the member-states of the West African Union)
- Nordic Union (Appointed by the ambassadors of the Celtic Alliance, the Greek Federation, the Republic of Spain, and Portugal)
- Canada, better known as Canadian Remainder Provinces
- Brazil (Appointed by the members of the South American Confederation)
The General Assembly
The other governing body of the League, in addition to the High Council, is the League of Nations General Assembly. This assembly holds meeting at least three times a year, with one of these sessions being held on September 26th in memorial of the events of Doomsday. The Assembly is composed of a representative from each member state of the League. It has the right to propose resolutions, just like the High Council. Compared to the United Nations, the power of the assembly is significantly higher in the League. The General Secretary is elected by the assembly’s non-HC members and directly responsible to the Assembly thus de facto providing a Council vote to the body.
The Assembly has the power, with Council approval, to both expel, admit and suspend members to the League. However, this is the sole matter where the Council retains its absolute veto power from the United Nations, which has led to many deserving nations to be blocked from the League.
Checks and Balances
The rights for resolution initiative are shared evenly by the High Council and the General Assembly. There are no limitations in this initiative, apart from those decisions directly affecting the sovereignty of one of the current Council representatives. These can only be decided by the High Council itself.
Both institutions have vetoes against the other, but with varying degrees. The Assembly can suspend all decisions made by the Council with a normal majority vote. This veto can only be overridden by a unanimous vote of all six Council members or a "four plus one" vote (a Council majority plus the Secretary General's vote).
In the other direction, the Council veto against Assembly decisions on most matters can be overridden by a second vote, with three-quarters of the Assembly voting to overrule it. For Peacekeeping missions, this amount jumps to 90%.
The third power in this complicated system is the Secretary General, who has a "passive decision vote" in most situations. In the Council decisions resulting in a three - three draw, their voice gives the final decision. Also in the Council veto "four plus one" (see above) and in all unsolved situations they have the final vote which has to be accepted and is final.
Finally, all decisions must be reviewed once by the General Assembly in the Annual Meeting if the Secretary General and one-third of the members of either the Council or the Assembly petition it.
However, none of these cases apply to those of new membership, or matters having to do with expulsion or suspension, where the members of the High Council retain absolute vetoes over new applications.
An independent International Court is to be set up later, when a larger number of member states are admitted into the League of Nations.
In the League of Nations, like in the United Nations prior to Doomsday, applications must go through the High Council and be approved by a majority of its members, after which they will be passed on to the General Assembly for a vote.
Unlike normal operations, this is the once instance where the High Council has retained its vetoes, at the demands of Canada, the ANZC, and the Siberians, as all had some potential applicants occupying parts of their claimed territory and felt that any successful application on the part of these nations would constitute a de facto recognition of their infringement upon their sovereignty.
In practice, these vetoes have been extended by the powers on the council towards those with territorial disputes with their allies, such as Canadian and Nordic Union activities with Greece and other ADC members as well as ANZC moves among Pacific nations.
As with the United Nations, this extends to expulsion, too - the members carry vetoes on this subject as well. This matter has not come up yet, though the General Assembly, with the approval of the High Council, has suspended several nations, and voted to decline the applications of others on its own on several occasions.
The following organizations are put under the authority of the League of Nations:
- World Census and Reclamation Bureau
- International Committee of the Red Cross and Red Crescent
- The Authority for Space Operations
- League of Nations World Heritage Sites
More recently, the League of Nations has begun plans to establish regional headquarters outside of Tonga. So far, the following locations have been considered (along lines of stability and significance):
- Alpine Confederation - Old League of Nations Headquarters (Palace of the Nations), Geneva/Genf
- Celtic Alliance - Old Government House, Derry
- Nordic Union - Stockholm
- Confederation of Greece - Skyros
- Republic of Spain - Cartagena
- Philippines - Intramuros Centre, Manila-NCR
- Brazil - Brasilia
- French Guiana
- Canadian Remainder Provinces
- North American Union
- RZA-South Africa
- Republic of Spain - Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
- Alpine Confederation
- Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand
- Canada - also known as Canadian Remainder Provinces
- Celtic Alliance
- Chumash Republic
- Costa Rica
- Dominican Republic
- East Caribbean Federation
- East Timor - associated territory with the ANZC
- Faroe Islands
- Republic of Florida
- France - represented by the R.T.A - Republic of French Southern Territories - comprising of most 1983 French colonial possessions
- Republica de Galicia
- Guyana Cooperativa
- Free State of Hawaii
- Confederación Ibérica
- Islamic Indonesian Islands League - Federation of Indonesian Provinces, temporary capital Yogyakarta
- MSP - Municipal States of the Pacific - several city-states on the former US west coast.
- Empire of Japan
- Netherlands Antilles
- North Germany
- Papua New Guinea
- Puerto Rico
- Republic of Rif
- Republic of San Juan
- Saudi Arabia
- Socialist Siberia/USSR
- South Sudan
- Republic of Spain
- Sri Lanka
- Republic of Texas
- Union Interim Parliament
- United American Republic - Unification of Argentina, Uruguay and Falkland Islands
- United Arab Emirates
- Vanuatu - associated territory of ANZC
- Commonwealth of Victoria
- Virginian Republic
- West Texas
These countries will become “stand-by members” with officially ‘’’observer status’’’:
- Realm of New Britain - Suspension of the observer status because of its former occupation of KwaXhosa's territory
- The member-states of the North American Union have all applied for separate membership.
- Zaire - Joint Kinshasa-Brazzaville Self-Defense Council (urban area of the twin cities)
- Commonwealth of Kentucky - No applications as of 2009. However, Kentucky is debating whether or not to send an application.
- Blue Ridge
- East Tennessee
- Outer Banks - Rejected full membership due to isolationist policy
- Botswana - Applicant
- Kingdom of Prussia - Applicant following resolving of issue with the Nordic Unión.
- Guangxi - Applicant
These countries have either been expressively excluded from League Membership by any means until further notice for a variety of reasons, e.g., sparking a war, brutal dictatorship government or unsolved territorial disputes, or declined joining:
- Santa Cruz
- Sicily Republic
- Sultanate of Aceh
- Sultanate of Brunei & Sarawak - Sabah border dispute with Philippines; no applications as of 2011.
- Bougainville & Solomon Islands - Not acknowledged due to violent annexation by Bougainville
- Portugal - Refusing to join the League until dispute with Brazil is resolved
- Cocos Islands - Unrecognized microkingdom claimed by ANZC
- Friesland - Not interested in foreign relations with any other nation
- Ambazonia - Application forthcoming
- Belarus Membership blocked by the USSR
- Iran - Pariah state, denied membership in the LoN due to connections with global terrorism
- Russian Confederacy - Application blocked by the USSR and the ANZC.
- Kuban People's Republic Membership blocked by the USSR
- Don Republic Membership blocked by the USSR
- Ossetia Membership blocked by the USSR
- Azerbaijan Membership blocked by the USSR
- Armenia Membership blocked by the USSR
- Dagestan Membership blocked by the USSR
- Kalmykia Membership blocked by the USSR
- Crimea Membership blocked by the USSR
- Northwest Alliance Refuses to join as a single entity
- Georgia Membership blocked by the USSR
- Gansu No applications (China Remainder state)
- Isiro Denied due to extreme dictatorship, as well as the annexation of Dungu
- Karelia Membership blocked by the USSR
- Emirate of Bukhara Membership blocked by the USSR
- People's Republic of China No applications as of 2011.
- Tamil Nadu Denied due to dictatorship
- Second Empire of Trabzon
- Bangladesh - No applications as of 2011.
The provisional flag of the League of Nations was an attempt to unify elements of the previous flags of both the United Nations and the 1920's League, as well as to integrate appropriate new elements.
In 2008, the WRCB Heraldic Office - quickly nicknamed "the Flag Heroes" by the ANZC press, who deeply questioned the sense and use of such an institution - was founded after an intense debate in the ANZC Parliament.
After a few heated debates they found a compromise for a first design: The background color was chosen as to be a deep ocean blue, rather than the brighter UN blue. This was decided due to the now even increased importance of Earth's ocean as most states were island-bound or had long coastlines.
The Southern Hemisphere Countries, especially ANZC and SAC, insisted on the shift of world’s political epicenter to the South to be represented in the flag, through resistance from Canada, Portugal and the Pais del Oro. So it was decided to take a five-pointed star formation pointing southward, consisting of 23 white stars - the prospective number of founding members of the League of Nations at the time the flag was created - with an increased density in the lower half of the star (as only seven members were located north of the equator). The number of stars was to be increased as more states were admitted to the League of Nations. This aspect of the design, however, was dropped as more member states joined, for the mere concept of it became too unwieldy to be at all practical.
As the central element, a slightly converted United Nations symbol was introduced. It comprised the traditional olive branches symbolizing peace. The azimuthal equidistant projection world map was kept as well, just rotated slightly. The circle with a single cross was derived from the traditional symbol for Earth.
Instead of using any religious symbols - as demanded by the mainly Catholic SAC - the committee decided the four principal languages to be integrated. So the Organization's name was inserted in English (top), French (lower left), Portuguese (lower right) and Spanish (lower central). Nevertheless, the Celtic Alliance was opposed to the perception of English still being the major language of the north, with Gaelic, Norwegian, etc., being more in use.