The office of Holy Roman Emperor is normally dated from the reign of the first elected Emperor Otto I, though the regnal numbers are dated from the reign of Charlemagne.

Dates of reign are taken from date of election to date of death/abdication. However these are often misleading, as some emperors would have their preferred successors 'pre-elected', while other claimants would have to endure long military campaigns before they could successfully have themselves crowned. Moreover, many elected emperors were simply never properly crowned.

Since the Fifty Years War no Emperor has been crowned by the Pope. Instead, coronation by either the Archbishop of Munster or Archbishop of Milan depending on the candidate's religious confession is deemed sufficient. Separate ceremonies to confer the titles of King of Germany and King of Italy are conducted before the imperial coronation.

Holy Roman Emperors
# Monarch Portrait Dates of Rule Dynasty
1 Otto I
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor.jpg
(962-973) Ottonian (Saxon)
2 Otto II
Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor.jpg
(967-983) Ottonian (Saxon)
3 Otto III
(983-1002) Ottonian (Saxon)
4 Henry II
Jindra2 cisar.jpg
(1002-1024) Ottonian (Saxon)
5 Conrad II
(1024-1039) Salian
6 Henry III
(1028-1056) Salian
7 Henry IV
(1053-1105) Salian
8 Henry V
(1099-1125) Salian
9 Lothair III Lothair III HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (1125-1137) Supplinburger
10 Frederick I Frederick I HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (1152-1190) Hohenstaufen
11 Henry VI Henry VI HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (1169-1197) Hohenstaufen
12 Otto IV Otto IV HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (1198-1215) Welf
13 Frederick II Frederick II HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (1215-1250) Hohenstaufen
14 William I William I HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (1247-1268) as German anti-king


15 Rudolph I Rudolph I HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (1273-1291) Hapsburg
16 Adolf Adolf HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (1292-1298) Nassau
17 Henry VII Henry7Luc.jpg (1301-1314) Luxembourg
18 Louis IV Louis IV HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (1314-1347) Wittelsbach
19 Gunther Gunther HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (1347-1349) Schwarzburg
20 Olaf Olaf the Great.png (1354-1383) Rugia
21 Wenceslaus Wenceslaus I Luxem (The Kalmar Union).png (1386-1400) Luxembourg
22 Charles IV Charles II Luxem (The Kalmar Union).png (1408-1426) Luxembourg
23 Sigismund I Sigismund I Luxem (The Kalmar Union).png (1431-1437) Luxembourg
24 Matthew Matthew Luxem (The Kalmar Union).png (1437-1444) Luxembourg
25 Frederick III (1444-1450) Wittelsbach
26 Fredrick IV (1450-1471) Hapsburg
27 Sigismund II Sigismund II Luxem (The Kalmar Union).png (1484-1502) Luxembourg
28 John I John III Luxem (The Kalmar Union).png (1502-1536) Luxembourg
29 Albert (1539-1548) Wettin
30 Charles V (1548-1560) Wittelsbach
31 Frederick V (1564-1580) Hohenzollern
32 Frederick VI (1580-1606) Hapsburg
33 Charles VI William Scrots 001.jpg (1606-1631) Hapsburg
34 Rudolph II (1631-1649) Hapsburg
35 Rudolph III (1652-1687) Hapsburg
36 John II Lancelot Volders - Portrait of Henry Casimir II, Prince of Nassau-Dietz.jpg (1687-1697) Luxembourg
37 George-William George-William HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (1699-1723) Wettin
38 Rupert (1723-1748) Hapsburg
39 Francis I (the Italian) Francis I HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (1748-1749) Medici
40 Frederick VII Frederick VII HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (1750-1778) Welf
41 Charles VII (1778-1802) Wittelsbach
42 Joseph I (1802-1835) Wittelsbach
44 George (1835-1864) Hapsburg
45 Rudolph IV (1864-1872) Hohenzollern
46 Maximillian (1872-1874) Wettin
43 Louis V (1874-1903) Hesse
43 William II (1903-1922) Isenburg
43 Charles VIII Ferdinand I; Keizer van Oostenrijk.jpg (1922-1955) Hapsburg
43 Rudolph V (1955-1980) Hohenzollern
44 Ludwig Ludwig HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (1980-2012) Wettin
44 Joseph II Joseph HRE (The Kalmar Union).png (2012-2015) Liechtenstein
45 William III (2015-) Isenburg

Schmalkaldic Empire

The Flag of the Schmalkaldic Empire

The Empire of the Protestant States of Germania and Scandinavia, (usually known as the Schmalkaldic Empire, or SE) was proclaimed in 1558 as a union of the Lutheran states of Germany, with the addition of various Kalmar states. It had the same structure as the Holy Roman Empire i.e. in elections (with its own purely temporal electorates) but utterly rejected any papal influence. It was essentially disbanded in 1639 during the course of the Fifty Years War. In 1668, as part of the Treaty of Copenhagen, all German Schmalkaldic territory officially re-integrated with the Holy Roman Empire. The German lands still subject to Denmark would become a major bone of contention for future rulers of both Denmark and the Holy Roman Empire.

The Schmalkaldic Empire was held by successive Danish kings for its entire duration.

Schmalkaldic Emperors
# Monarch Portrait Dates of Rule Dynasty
1 Cnut

(Cnut VIII of Denmark)

Cnut VIII Denmark (The Kalmar Union).png (1558-1570) Estridsson
2 Eric I

(Eric XI of Denmark)

Hans Knieper - Painting - NG.M.00296a - National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design.jpg (1570-1605) Estridsson
3 Eric II

(Eric XII of Denmark)

Sir Rowland Cotton 1618.jpeg (1605-1629) Estridsson
4 Christopher

(Christopher III of Denmark)

Ruiterportret van koning Christiaan IV van Denemarken en Noorwegen. NL-HlmNHA 53012600.JPG (1629-1639) Estridsson
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.