As per tradition the kingdoms of Austria and Bohemia are held in personal union. Bohemia's crown dates (officially) from 1212. Austria's a more recent 1898.


Austria was originally a march (margraviate) within Bavaria.

House of Babenberg
Leopold I (976-994)
Henry I (994-1018
Adalbert (1018-1055)
Ernest (1055-1075)
Leopold II (1075-1095)
Leopold III (1095-1136)
Leopold IV (1137-1141)
Henry II (1141-1156)

The 1156 Prviliegium Minus elevates the March to a Duchy, making it independent of Bavaria.

House of Babenberg
Henry II (1156-1177)
Leopold V (1177-1194)
Frederick I (1195-1198)
Leopold VI (1198-1230)
Frederick II (1230-1246)

After Frederick's death Austria is disputed between various claimants, the longest lasting being Ottokar II of Bohemia (1251-1278). He is eventually defeated by Emperor Rudolph I who would divide his lands between his sons.

House of Hapsburg
Rudolph I Rudolph I HRE (The Kalmar Union) (1278-1282)
Albert I (1282-1308)
Rudolph II (1282-1283)
Rudolph III (1282-1307)
Frederick I (1308-1330)
Leopold I (1308-1326)
Albert II (1330-1358)
Otto I (1330-1339)
Frederick II (1339-1344)
Leopold II (1339-1344)
Rudolph IV (1358-1365)
Albert III (1365-1379)

Albert's three sons divide the duchy (the title of Archduke was a 1359 fabrication which was only confirmed in 1513 when Austria was reunited). The death of his cousins without heirs allows Sigismund, duke of Inner Austria, to reunite the lands over the course of his rule.

House of Hapsburg
Sigismund (1513-1524)
Maximilian I (1524-1543)
Maximilian II (1543-1569)
Albert IV (1569-1580)
Frederick III

Emperor Frederick VI

Charles I

Emperor Charles VI

Rudolph II

Emperor Rudolph II

Rudolph III

Emperor Rudolph III

Charles II (1687-1702)

Emperor Rupert

Maximilian III (1748-1750)
Frederick III (1750-1769)
Leopold III (1769-1800)
Maximilian IV (1800-1816)
Charles III (1816-1842)

Emperor George

Leopold IV (1864-1896)
Charles IV (1896-1898)

After much bartering in the Imperial Diet the title of King of Austria is finally bestowed on the Archdukes in 1898, though this came with the provision, occasionally contested, that they should not pursue an additional electorate for Austria.

House of Hapsburg
Charles I (1898-1905)
Leopold I (1905-1908)
Leopold II (1908-1920)
Charles II

Emperor Charles VIII

Leopold III (1955-1987)
Leopold IV (1987-2009)
Leopold V (2009-)


The Kings of Bohemia are usually dated from 1212 when the title was confirmed by the Sicilian Bull, though an illustrious line of Dukes stretches back to the early 9th century. Previous dukes did claim the title of king however it was not a hereditary title.

House of Premyslid
Ottokar I (1198-1230)
Wenceslaus I (1230-1253)
Ottokar II (1253-1278)
Wenceslaus II (1278-1305)
Wenceslaus III (1305-1306)
House of Meinhardiner
Henry I (1306, 1307-1310)
House of Hapsburg
Rudolph (1306-1307)

John of Luxembourg marries Elizabeth, the last heir of Wenceslaus II.

House of Luxembourg
John I John I Luxem (The Kalmar Union) (1310-1346)
Charles I 75px (1346-1374)
Wenceslaus IV

Emperor Wenceslaus

Wenceslaus I Luxem (The Kalmar Union) (1374-1400)
Charles II

Emperor Charles IV

Charles II Luxem (The Kalmar Union) (1400-1426)
Sigismund I

Emperor Sigismund I

Sigismund I Luxem (The Kalmar Union) (1426-1437)

Emperor Matthew

Matthew Luxem (The Kalmar Union) (1437-1444)
John II John II Luxem (The Kalmar Union) (1444-1478)
Sigismund II

Emperor Sigismund II

Sigismund II Luxem (The Kalmar Union) (1478-1502)
John III

Emperor John I

John III Luxem (The Kalmar Union) (1502-1536)
Wenceslaus V Wenceslaus II Luxem (The Kalmar Union) (1536-1540)
Henry II of Prague

Queen Joanna as regent


The death of Henry of Prague before he can reach his majority gives the Bohemian magnates, an opportunity to break with Luxembourg rule. Maximilian II of Austria is elected. From that date the King of Bohemia is also Archduke of Austria.

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