Lucca is a nation in Europe.
A first modern Republic of Lucca was created on 4 February 1799 by Napoleonic France; it was later occupied by the Austrians, only to pass back into French control.
In 1815, the Duchy of Lucca and Piombino was formed. It lasted until 1847, when it was annexed to Tuscany.
After 98 years of Tuscan control, the territory surrounding Lucca declared independence, although it didn't form a stable government until 1948.