Welcome to Magna est bellum, a map game set in 1898 before the start of the Great War.


MeB 1898


Important Pages

Rules Page

The Game

1898 - January to March

The Macedonian Struggle between ethnic Bulgarians and Greeks continues in Ottoman-controlled Macedonia. Greek Andartes clash violently with Bulgarian Exarchist committee members who have murdered Greek clergy and teachers in the region. Ottoman Authorities are unable to control the violence in the rough terrain of Macedonia.

The USS Maine explodes in harbor in Havana Cuba. The disaster creates an atmosphere of animosity removing the option of peace between Spain and the United States.

The Cretan Intervention continues as Austrian, German, Russian, French, Italian, and British troops remain deployed on the island to find a peaceful solution to the revolt on the island. Greek forces continue to provide support to the rebels, though intermittent conflict between the international forces and those of the rebels suppresses most of their attempts. (Each of the major powers should consider their position on this issue and weigh in where appropriate)

The deaths of two German missionaries in 1897 and the subsequent dispatch of the German East Asia Squadron to Jiaozhou Bay sparks a scramble for concessions. German, British, French, Russian, Italy, and Japanese all attempt to secure concessions from China. (Great Powers submit your demands negotiations will span until 1901 and no later.)

  • German Empire: The German East Asian Fleet carries out a blockade of the Jiaozhou Bay sending Demands to the Qing Government to provide reparations for the Dead Preachers, and to concede an Economic Zone to Germany for them to conduct Business under German Law, and protection. German Industrialization in The Ruhr Valley, and in Silesia. With Chemical and steel industries in particular growing at a massive rate. The new Gewehr 98 rifle is issued to replace the 88 model. Berlin offers to mediate the growing crisis in Crete, and in Macedonia.  In the Reichstag the Conservatives continue to combat the growing influence of the SPD who continue to gain traction in the Ruhr region, and in the Cities. Investment into Public education continues. In Colonial affairs development of railways, and economic activities in the colonies continue.
  • Liberia: The nation of Liberia continues to do Liberian things and generally things are pretty Liberian as they always have been. This year, in the early months, it is slightly hotter on average when compared to the average high temperatures of other past years, which were written down as of late. In fact, it is quite hot, and the people of Liberia notice this and the heat and everyone is generally pretty aware how it's hotter than usual. There was a decline in production of Liberian goods in the late 19th century, and the government struggled financially, resulting in indebtedness on a series of international loans. On July 16, 1892, Martha Ann Erskine Ricks met Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle and presented her a handmade quilt, Liberia's first diplomatic gift. Born into slavery in Tennessee, Ricks said, "I had heard it often, from the time I was a child, how good the Queen had been to my people—to slaves—and how she wanted us to be free." The nation continues to build infrastructure, specifically a paved road from the capital to an important mining town, with the hopes that goods mined in the mine within the mining town will be able to be transported along the mining road to the capital, where it could be transported by ship perhaps to other places for the exchange of money for the mined goods, in a sense, creating a trade good, that can be bought and sold. Mined resources can be bought and sold, and the nation seeks to do this, in fact, it begins selling goods that were produced from the mine.
  • Kingdom of Italy: The government of Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudinì collapses early in the year as the Left pushes through a vote of no confidence. With the approval of Umberto I, Giuseppe Saracco, is installed as Prime Minister. With the support of the Left and other left-leaning elements such as the socialists and others he is able to pass legislation reducing taxes on grain, bread, and other food products, alleviating pressure that had been building under the government of Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudinì. Giuseppe Saracco, utilizing his new powers to the fullest, institutes massive reforms of the police system to both fight corruption better and expand personal and civil freedoms. The brunt of the reforms will take effect over the coming months. In an effort to appease the Right and Imperialist Left, Prime Minister Saracco supports and passes a bill to expand future shipbuilding efforts. The bill extends the development of Guglielmo Marconi’s Radio technology and offers him a luxurious and well funded laboratory to refine and further expand his work for the Regina Marina. He is offered a significant tax break and government support if he shifts his company, Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company, to a base in Italy. With such a tempting offer and the promise of support in his homeland, Marconi sets up shop in Milano, establishing the UK branch of the Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company as a subsidiary of his Italian business, the Marconi Company. The contract also establishes the Marconi Company’s first sale, installing wireless radio transmitters retroactively on all Regina Marina vessels over 8,000 tons and built after 1890. Additionally, the government issues a new review of Italian shipbuilding to identify challenges to rapid naval construction citing the excessively slow progress on the Ammiraglio di Saint Bon-class battleships. The report will present its findings to parliament within the year, with preliminary findings suggesting that the government focus investment on the nascent Terni Steel industry, a new major shipyard in Venezia, and a review of national priorities when it comes to ship design. In regards to the situation in China, Italian imperialist supporters pressure the Saracco Government into requesting a concession in Zhejiang Province, consisting of Hangzhou and its associated hinterland, and the sale of the Zhoushan Archipelago to Italy. This request is accompanied by a flotilla of 6 warships and several transport vessels, led by the Re Umberto and the Italia Ironclads. The force carries 1,500 marines to support and enforce Italian demands. (Mod Response) Meanwhile, in Crete, Italian forces are bolstered by the addition of 1,500 men, increasing Italian say in the matter. In an effort to build goodwill with the Greeks, Vice Admiral Felice Napoleone Canevaro is instructed to frame the talks around the transition of Crete to Greece over the next few decades, rather than any outcome where Crete would remain a part of the Ottoman Empire. In exchange, Greece is secretly asked to permit an Italian base on a renewable 99 year lease. (Mod/Player Responses)
  • United States of America: After an investigation, the Sampson Board has reached the conclusion that the sinking of the USS Maine was caused by the explosion of a mine which reached its magazines. Many Americans are quick to point fingers at Spain for the explosion with much of Congress favoring aggressive action against Spain. Despite mounting pressure for war, McKinley proposes that Spain grant independence to Cuba which will remain as a client state to the United States (Spanish Response).
    • Spain refuses and attempts to mobilize under the assumption that the United States will intervene. 
  • Liberia: The nation of Liberia continues to do Liberian things and generlaly things are pretty Liberian as they always have been. This year, in the early months, it is slightly hotter on average when compared to the average high temperatures of other past years, which were written down as of late. In fact, it is quite hot, and the people of Liberia notice this and the heat and everyone is generally pretty aware how it's hotter than usual. There was a decline in production of Liberian goods in the late 19th century, and the government struggled financially, resulting in indebtedness on a series of international loans. On July 16, 1892, Martha Ann Erskine Ricks met Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle and presented her a handmade quilt, Liberia's first diplomatic gift. Born into slavery in Tennessee, Ricks said, "I had heard it often, from the time I was a child, how good the Queen had been to my people—to slaves—and how she wanted us to be free." The nation continues to build infrastructure, specifically a paved road from the capital to an important mining town, with the hopes that goods mined in the mine within the mining town will be able to be transported along the mining road to the capital, where it could be transported by ship perhaps to other places for the exchange of money for the mined goods, in a sense, creating a trade good, that can be bought and sold. Mined resources can be bought and sold, and the nation seeks to do this, in fact, it begins selling goods that were produced from the mine.
  • Kingdom of Sweden-Norway:King Oscar II visits Oslo where he holds a meeting with the Norwegian parliament where he proposes a new legislature for the nation.A parliament which would be composed of 50 Norwegian and 50 Swedish politicians which would be elected for two years each.Meanwhile after arriving home King Oscar II suffers a dangerous sickness and spends the rest of the year in bed.
  • United Kingdom: Following the controversial incident in China last year, regarding the two German missionaries, the British Empire decides to take action to secure concessions from China, demanding Weihaiwei, and is also interested in leasing the New Territories opposite Hong Kong. The Mahdist War continues, with the Anglo-Egyptian army advancing down into Sudan. The Admiral's Council in Crete tightens its grip over the island, following the Ottoman Empire's persistent claims of sovereignty, and plans the imminent creation of the Cretan State. A number of members of the British royal family visit the German Empire, including several young princesses, including Beatrice of Edinburgh, Alice of Albany and Margaret of Connaught, who are hoped will be possibly candidates to marry the heir to the German throne, Crown Prince Wilhelm, as they are around the same age. The British Government subtly expresses support for the United States in the dispute over Cuba, but remains neutral and attempts to mediate.  
  • Ottoman Empire: To stop the Macedonian struggle,ottoman sent 1,000 infantry and 500 cavalry. Ottoman also found it necessary to lower the illiteracy rate. The nation built schools all over the empire. It also wants to speed up the Hejaz railway and Berlin-Baghdad railway's construction. Diplomats were sent to Germany to help Ottoman finish the job. (Germany response needed). And due to its recent victory in Greek-Ottoman war, Ottoman declared it is the owner of Crete and that Greece will leave the island.(mod response needed)
    • The Ottoman Declaration is largely ignored by the International Squadron of British, French, Italian, German, Austrian, and Russia forces. 
    • Germany agrees.
  • Liberia: The nation of Liberia continues to do Liberian things and generally things are pretty Liberian as they always have been. This year, in the early months, it is slightly hotter on average when compared to the average high temperatures of other past years, which were written down as of late. In fact, it is quite hot, and the people of Liberia notice this and the heat and everyone is generally pretty aware how it's hotter than usual. There was a decline in production of Liberian goods in the late 19th century, and the government struggled financially, resulting in indebtedness on a series of international loans. On July 16, 1892, Martha Ann Erskine Ricks met Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle and presented her a handmade quilt, Liberia's first diplomatic gift. Born into slavery in Tennessee, Ricks said, "I had heard it often, from the time I was a child, how good the Queen had been to my people — to slaves — and how she wanted us to be free." The nation continues to build infrastructure, specifically a paved road from the capital to an important mining town, with the hopes that goods mined in the mine within the mining town will be able to be transported along the mining road to the capital, where it could be transported by ship perhaps to other places for the exchange of money for the mined goods, in a sense, creating a trade good, that can be bought and sold. Mined resources can be bought and sold, and the nation seeks to do this, in fact, it begins selling goods that were produced from the mine.
  • Revolutionary Philippines: Luzon-based Organization: It has been almost two years since the Filipinos have launched an armed rebellion against their Spanish overlords and it is no surprise that the revolutionaries are able to win several major victories against Spanish armies since the Luzon-based nationalist secret society; the Kataas-taasang Kaggalangalangang Katipunan nang Anak ng Bayan or Supreme and Venerable Association of the Children of the Nation in English have already prepared this grand plan to oust their Spanish overlords for 5 years which the other ethnicities from the south noticed their accomplishments and planning to overthrow the Spanish as well. Now to the present day, the Central Executive Committee under a provisional insurgent government which controls most of Luzon except Manila, begins a series of military conscription throughout the island starting at the age of 16, only male to train them on the fight for freedom against the Spaniards. The roads heading to Manila are heavily defended by the revolutionaries who are well-equipped by Spanish weaponry that are also led by Criollo and Spanish officers who defected to the revolution. It is only the matter of time until the Revolution launches a major offensive to kick out the Spaniards in Manila once and for all. [//] Visayas-based Organization: While the revolution at this moment is centered on Luzon, their southern brothers haven’t launched a full-scale armed rebellion just yet. The Visayas-based organization are headed by disgruntled military officers in Bacolod who also want independence from the colonizers despite being consists of Spaniards, Criollos and Filipinos. The Spanish governor Isidro de Castro who is part of the secret organization calls for the Spanish governor in Manila to supply them weaponry due to the rising tensions in the region. (Spanish/Mod response needed). [//] Mindanao-based Organization: Although Mindanao has two secret rebellious organizations; the Muslims and the Chavacanos who are descendants of Spanish priests that colonized the Zamboanga Peninsula, not much has been going on in the southernmost island although they are well aware on what is happening in the North, only time will tell on when will they rebel against the overlords. As for now, they are just observing to see who will win this game of war.
    • Spain decides to send small amount of weapons.
  • Brazil:In the Presidential election the right wing parties unify to prevent the Liberals getting re-elected and Eduardo Prado is elected President. The Icelanders that emigrated to Brazil 28 years earlier all group together and form a village named “Nýja Akranes”. Prado offers Queen Victoria to visit Brazil after her mediation some years earlier(United Kingdoms response needed).
    • British diplomacy: Queen Victoria does not visit in person, as Brazil is still judged to have too dangerous a political environment, but sends several ambassadors and members of the royal family, including Prince Alfred, Victoria's second son, who meet Prado and are impressed with him. They discuss many things.
  • Denmark - In the aftermath of the war with the German states/Germany some time ago, the Kingdom of Denmark seeks to prevent that from happening again. Defenses are built along the border with Germany, including extensive fortresses and modern defenses. Artillery is stationed at these defenses, and key locations are supplied by railroads. The army seeks a slight increase in budget and this is approved.
  • Japan - In the Situation in China, Japan demands Qing to surrender Dai Lan or Port Arthur to the Japanese Government.(Mod Response Needed) In Korea, Japan decides to build some infrastructure and make Japanese mandatory. Japan also begins to mobilize the IJA in case if the Qing refuses. Japan sends some students to study abroad in the United Kingdom. Japan also asks if the British Government is willing to help improve the Japanese Navy. (British Response Needed) The Japanese Minister, Itō Hirobumi, begins to write the Meiji Constitution which is modeled after the British and German Constitutions. Primarily, the Prussian Constitution of 1850. Another diplomat is sent to Berlin and Washington to ask if they could recognize Japan's claim over Korea (German and American Response needed)
    • United States of America: The United States recognizes Japan’s claim over Korea.
    • United Kingdom: The British send naval experts to help reform the Japanese Navy.

1898 - April to June

The Guangxu Emperor is found dead in his palace where he recently been placed under house arrest and now seeing no other option his mother takes the throne and the name Empress Dowagger Cixi

The Ottoman attempt at suppressing the violence in Macedonia quickly turns into a series of increasingly violent clashes. Greek and Bulgaria nationalists put aside their differences and engage in guerrilla warfare against the Ottoman forces resulting in losses on both sides.

The Tyrant king Carol I of Romania is shot and killed by a unknown assailant his grandson Ferdinand attempts to take the throne but nobility do not want a people’s king and reach out to the biggest dynasties in Europe to take the throne on their behalf but Ferdinand has the backing of the People of Bucharest

The militarization of the Denmark-Germany border draws concern from the populace of Germany regarding the intent behind it leading to a decline in public opinion for Denmark within Germany

Thousands of Chinese scholars and Beijing citizens seeking reforms protest in front of the capital control yuan. In Sweden, many Swedish are discontent with the proposed parliament reforms which would give their Norwegian counterparts equal representation despite a lesser population

  • Kingdom of Sweden-Norway:The king travels to Stockholm where he addresses the Swedish parliament about their concerns about the upcomming parliamentary reform"If we want the union to continue, the Norwegians must have the same rights as the swedes, they might have a lesser population that Sweden does,but that does not mean that they are any bit less valuable,they are brothers and sisters and deserve the same rights as we do."After this speech,parts of the parliament begins to shift in favour of the reform, while several representatives criticise it.After this speech the king's popularity in Norway skyrockets while his popularity in Sweden remains the same due to the divided nature of the reform.
  • Japan: As the IJA mobilizes, Japan gets worried about the protestors in Beijing. Japan sends diplomats to the other great powers wondering if they should intervene. (Great Power Response)Japan begins to fortress their holdings in China. Japan sends some of the Japanese Expeditionary Force to Korea, Ryojun, and Taihoku. Japan continues to modernize its navy and army. Emperor Meiji appoints Kodama Gentarō as the fourth governor-General of Taihoku.
  • United States of America: Following Spain’s rejection of McKinley’s effort to pursue a more diplomatic resolution to the tensions in Cuba, McKinley signs a joint Congressional Resolution demanding Spain withdraws from Cuba with the use of military force authorized (Spanish/Mod Response). In Congress, the Teller Amendment is passed by both chambers by majority stating that the US will not annex Cuba and will not retain permanent control of Cuba. Should Spain Refuse: The United States declares war on Cuba and dispatches the Navy to blockade Cuban Ports as well as seize any merchant vessels attempting to access the waters around Cuba. In preparation for the conflict, the Army was intent on recruiting 50k but instead received 220k from volunteers to National Guard units being mobilized. Commodore George Dewey and the US Asiatic Squadron departs from Hong Kong for Subic Bay and onto Manila Bay if the enemy were to withdraw (Algo Needed). If Dewey is successful in securing Manila Bay, an offer is to be made to Emilio Aguinaldo who remains in exile in Hong Kong. In exchange for US support and transportation, he would permit the US to assume control over Subic Bay and the port located there (Mod/Filipino Response). En route to the Philippines, Captain Glass with a fleet comprised of his cruiser and 3 transports are redirected to Guam where they are to demand the surrender of the island or capture it (Mod Response/Algo possibly). If they manage to capture the island than a garrison of 200 men is to remain behind to hold the island in the absence of any central authority before proceeding onto the Philippines. The Fifth Army Corps under William R. Shaftner is to land at Daquieri and Siboney to establish a base for operations with General Joseph Wheeler moving in pursuit of Spanish forces engaging their rearguard at Las Guisamas (Algo Needed). US forces with 3900 marines invade Guantanamo Bay and land unopposed proceeding inland (Algo Needed).
    • Revolutionary Philippines response: Emilio Aguinaldo respectfully declines the American offer; 1.) as he doesn't need help from US in terms of support for the revolution and transportation going back to the homeland. 2.) Subic Bay was once under Spanish control that have defected to the Revolution months ago before the new year's eve which is now theirs by right.
    • The Guam Garrison surrenders the island.
  • Kingdom of Italy: Prime Minister Giuseppe Saracco’s term continues as reforms to civil liberties, policing, and taxation are implemented. These reforms pacify much of the country, while the continuation of imperialist policies are enough to sate the right for now. Work begins on a series of new, modern, and very large drydocks around Venezia. These shipbuilding facilities make use of the cheap, low swampland around the city to allow for drydocks that can compete in size with those available in the United Kingdom and United States, and which can be built on a tight budget. A steel and naval armor plant at Terni is sponsored by the government. Rather than totally nationalize the industry a consortium of Italian steel-makers and industrialists is invited to assist the government in developing the plant. The result is the beginning of a large factory for producing naval-steel to improve Italy’s shipbuilding capacity. Meanwhile, a general review of national defense procurement is conducted. Flaws in the procurement process are identified and addressed where possible. After a pause in January, work resumes on the Ammiraglio di Saint Bon-class battleships with change to design requirements. The ships are re-classes as the Ammiraglio di Saint Bon-class armored cruiser. Thus, the armor requirements are reduced and expected speed increased based on the reduced displacement. With the new thinner armor within the capabilities of Italian industry the ships are expected to be ready for service as slow armored cruisers by 1900. Plans for a new paradigm in Italian shipbuilding are drawn up. The Italian high admiralty is asked to plan out the 1900-1910 decade of Italian shipbuilding. Strategically, the emphasis of the admiralty is placed on well armed, well armored, and modestly mobile ships capable of cruising a lowly 1,500 miles. This design choice supports Italian national goals, and allows Italy to construct powerful ships for relatively cheaper than France and the United Kingdom which must invest in ships of greater size to allow for greater endurance. The expedition in Crete is reinforced by the men of 10th Bersaglieri Regiment, a total of 4,000 men. In Crete, Admiral Felice Napoleone Canevaro adopts a policy of pacification. Seeing support from the United Kingdom for securing the intervention’s control over the island he redoubles his efforts to both root out Greek partisans and disarm Turkish soldiers so that a peaceful solution might be found. To the east in China,a request is sent to the Chinese Government to allow an expansion of the Italian Legation as well as standing guard force for the delegates numbering 250 men. They smuggle several quietly acquired and modified Extra Light Maxim Guns into the legation to provide greater firepower to any defense. (Mod Response)
    • Italian Diplomatic Offer: Sales of the Carcano 1891 Rifle are offered to any and all powers that seek a reliable, simple, and modestly priced firearms solution. Though less refined than Mauser, Mannlicher, and Enfield Rifles, Carcanos are a cheap and effective alternative, perfect for poorer nations. Greece in particular is offered a trial where a full Greek regiment will be outfitted free of cost to prove the superior utility of the rifles.(Mod Responses/Submit requests for rifles as you please) 
  • Brazil: President Prado starts to increase Monarchist propaganda in Brazil which becomes somewhat popular but not many people want a woman on the throne so Prado starts to look somewhere else. Prado also holding deep national pride starts to make big chunks of the Amazon a national park but gives it the name Prado Parks. Joaquim Cavalcanti is appointed Cardinal for Brazil. A special constituency is made for Nýja Akranes which share the name and receive 1 Senator and its first Senator is Bjarni Pétursson for the Liberal Party. A Grand Synagogue is planned to be built somewhere in Fortaleza. The President sends a formal diplomatic request to Portugal for them to sell Brazil, Cabinda in exchange for 35% ownership in the sugar industry for 50 years.The Order of the Amazon is created and it’s first recipient is Prado but in May a medal is shipped to Prince Alfred of Great Britain. After a long search Emanuele Filiberto of Aosta is offered to become Emperor of Brazil, he’d be a constitutional Monarch and Prado would still be President.(Italian response needed)
    • Umberto approves and Emanuele accepts the generous offer.
  • Ottoman Empire: Ottoman gathered information about this rebel and found out they are supported by Greece. To punish the Greeks, Ottoman sent 50,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry, and 20 canons to Teselya. Algo needed. Ottoman also sent diplomats to Bulgaria to send 20,000 soldiers, and if they win, Ottoman will grant them independence. Mod response needed. Ottoman saw a significant decrease in the illiteracy rate and built more schools. The Empire built more factories around the nation. Thanks to German support, Ottoman was able to finish the Berlin-Baghdad railway and Hejaz railway. Sultan showed its sorrow that such a terrible thing like assassination happened. He attended the funeral of Carol I. He said that as one of the biggest dynasties and formal ruler of Romania, he is willing to take the throne. Mod Response needed. Ottoman asked Britain to sell 2 battleships. Britain's response needed The Caliphate also sent diplomats to Japan asking for an alliance. Japan's response needed.
    • Japan accepts the Ottoman's request.
    • The Bulgarians Refuse.
    • United Kingdom: Britain sells the Ottomans 2 battleships at a high price, while warily guarding Crete from Ottoman forces. 
  • Deutsches Reich: Kaiser Wilhelm II gives his formal support to Ferdinand Hohenzollern to become the next King of Romania and offering to Mediate with the Rest of the Europe building on the growing tensions in Europe in the Balkans region and abroad. A conference is proposed to be hosted in the City of Munich and invites all the great powers of Europe to discuss matters concerning Greece, Romania, and the declining instability imn the Ottoman Empire, Inviting the Ottomans as well as a gesture of good faith (great powers respond) To address the recent militarization of the Gemran-danish border. Berlin demands an immediate demobilization of the Danish border as it is seen as an act of aggression by the German Empire. The A partial mobilization of the German military in the North is begun. Industrialization in Urban regions continues, as does Urbanization. Attempts to improve work conditions to satisfy the demands of the SPD and the left ot prevent a growth in their popularity continues. Research and development in the areas of engineering, chemistry, medicine and Biology continue. Expansion of accessibility to university to find bright minds and nuture them as loyal citizens continues.
    • Not wishing to provoke the Germans, Denmark acceeds to their demands and ceases construction on border defenses.
    • United State of America:Ambassador Toby Bates is sent to partake in the conference as an impartial observer.
    • United Kingdom: Ambassador Frank Lascalles attends the conference, representing British interests.
    • Kingdom of Italy: A delegation of representatives is sent to attend and represent Italian Interests in the conference.
  • Rattanakosin Kingdom: Chulalongkorn realised the importance of maintaining the navy and established the Royal Thai Naval Academy, with the location being in the Thonburi Palace. However, the opening of the academy isn't official yet and the academy begins its construction and recruitment. Chulalongkorn demands the French to return Trat and Chantaburi to Siam and in return they can keep Koh Kong and Inner Cambodia. (French Response) Chulalongkorn would also wishes to improve the general education of the country; with the Department of Education renamed to the Ministry of Education which they hold control over state-owned schools, to make it suitable for the other ministries he had been establishing, and an education plan is launched with programmes for pre-school, elementary, secondary, technical, and higher education. A request is made to the Japanese Ministry of Education to send notable Thai students to Japan to study (Japan Response).
    • Japan Accepts the Request and asks if Japan could send some students to Thailand.  
  • United Kingdom: Attending the conference of Munich this year, we voice our support for the candidate Ferdinand (married to our Princess Marie of Edinburgh) for the Romanian throne, hoping to avoid a war on continental Europe. The Duke of Connaught and Strathearn also attends the conference as an impartial observer, with his family, although it is suspected the real reason he is there is to bring his daughter Margaret, who the German Crown Prince is thought by some to have taken something of a fancy to last year, and the Queen is eager to conduct a marriage alliance with Germany, as she did many years previously in the case of the her daughter, the Kaiser's mother. This year Britain meets some success in the Mahdist War, while in response to Japan's request for intervention, Britain instead attempts to mediate the situation.

1898 - July to August

After refusing to change the majority the Swedish people question the kings claim to rule as he is French and many people threaten to replace him with Prince Valdemar of Denmark unless the population to Senator ratio is fixed.

China accepts the current concession proposals hoping to appease Japan and others to prevent an intervention. The move angers the Boxers within China who begin plotting to root out western missionaries and influence.

Russia demands China grant is influence over all of the territory north of the Great Wall, which China accepts.

France demands China grant it influence over portions of Yunnan Guangxi and Guangdong provinces, which China likewise accepts.

The Greek Army is able to hold back the Ottoman attack, and is able to protect all current Greek-held territories.

  • Kingdom of Italy: Support of Prime Minister Giuseppe Saracco wanes notably over his inaction on the crisis brewing in Greece. Many Italians call for an open declaration of war against the Ottoman Empire to protect Greece and liberate Crete. Two thousand Italian volunteers arrive in Greece to assist in the defense of the nation. Meanwhile, a Greek regiment is outfitted with Italian Carcano rifles and sent ammunition to prove the superiority of the second generation smokeless design. Greece is also sent several dozen advisorial officers & observers should they choose to accept them. (Mod Response) The civil administration oversees the new shipbuilding improvements and Vittorio Cuniberti, a very well respected and politically connected naval officer, is brought in to work on the new foundation of the Italian navy. He is granted a team and an office to develop from a design goal standpoint the future of Italian capitalship design. The results of his work are expected in the first quarter 1899. Otherwise, the construction of naval facilities around the country continues, with the drydocks near Venice designed to accommodate a 200m long ship with an overall tonnage maximum of nearly 35,000 tons. Seeing as China has accepted the Italian demands, the detachment sent to the legation enters the walled city and several buildings around the Italian legation are purchased to serve as barracks and to greater protect the embassy. Meanwhile Italian officials arrive in the Italian concession, and Italian forces take ownership over the islands of the Zhoushan Archipelago. A coaling station, naval base, and coastal fort are all slated for construction on Changshi island which will serve as the core of the Italian administration and a naval base for the region.
    • The Greeks agree to accept the Italian advisors.
  • Kingdom of Sweden-Norway:The king finally budges and proposes 40 Norwegians representatives due to their smaller population while sweden will have 50,with the possibility to change it again if it's deemed necessary.(mod response needed)After thhis the king travels to Norway where he holds a speech before the Parliament in which he talks about the needs of reforming the army.He proposes a united Swedish-Norwegian army in which Norwegian and Swedish would be the two national languages.(more to come)
    • Swedes are happy to see a majority, but a vocal minority continues to call for a more equitable split based on population lines. They suggest a Swedish delegation of 65 and a Norwegian Delegation of 35. 
  • Brazil: With the Second Empire of Brazil officially started the King raises 65,000 and enter Uruguay and demands that they submit but they will complete domestic power and their own President but they recognize Emmanuel as their king.(mod response needed)
    • Uruguay puts up limited resistance, but appeals to Argentina, the United Kingdom, and France to step in. Argentina is the first to respond, sending several ships and 25,000 men to Montevideo. Both Argentina and Uruguay call for international mediation to resolve the dispute peacefully. (UK player response would be awesome)
    • United Kingdom: British ambassadors are sent to the Americas along with several ships from the navy, as a precaution: they are instructed to help to peacefully resolve the conflict, although the Prime Minister the Marquess of Salisbury supports the Empire of Brazil to a degree.
    • Argentine president Jose Uriburu, and General Roca (main power broker in argentina at this time). Demand that Brazil not act aggressively and respect the Status Quo established after the War of the Triple Alliance (Paraguayan War). He alo joins the Brits and offers Buenos Aires as a place for Mediation.
    • United States of America: The actions of Brazil are not received warmly and support is offered to the
    • Argentinians due to the US interest in maintaining the status quo of the region.
    • Members of the Blanco Party in Uruguay flee to Argentina and begin aggitating for Argentine intervention once more bringing conflict to the region as negotiation fail and Buenos Aires begins a full mobilization following the continued outragous demands of the Brazilian government. They go about fortifying the Mesopotamia and Littoral Regions while a request is made to the U.S.A. and the British to blockade the Brazilians citing Both American and British interests in retaining the status Quo, and in an attempt to neutralize the Brazilian fleet.
    • The Emperor orders men to build fortifications along the Amazon and the 65.000 already in Uruguay are ordered to take the country and build fortifications along the Concordia.
    • Brazilian forces in Uruguay encounter resistance and an overall lack of cooperation from the Uruguayan military many of whom flee the country to Argentina (15,000 in total) along with commiting acts of sabotage against Urugauyan fortifications and Stockpiles, to prevent them falling into Brzilian hands.  The Uruguayan Blanco Party set up the Uruguayan Government in Exile, and in conjunction with Argentina declare war on Brazil for their act of aggression.
    • The majority Brazilian military is ordered to dig in trenches along the Argentinian border.
  • Japan: Japan begins to send more forces to Ryojun and gets worried over the boxers. It begins to fortress the port in case of an attack. Japan requests to set up an multiethnic army in Tianjin if the Boxers rise up. (Great Power Response Needed). Japan also begins to build more infrastructure and schools in high populated areas to increase the literacy rate. Japan begins to build more ships. Japan also begins to strengthen its defenses in Korea in case if the Russians attack.
    • Italian Response: Given the instability of the situation, Italy will participate in any such endevour. 
    • United Kingdom: Britain, following Italy's agreement to participate, does the same.  
    • German Diplomacy: the Germans agree.
  • Deutsches Reich: The conference in Munich gets underway with the Americans, Italians, and British Present. An invitation is sent to the  Vienna, Paris, and St. Petersburg to send representative to the come to the Conference to discuss maintaining Peace and Stability in the Balkans. Berlin continues to maintain its support for Ferdinand in Romania, requesting that the Ottomans get behind Ferdinand and that they recognize him as the rightful king of Romania. Advisors are also sent to Ferdinand should he desire them (MOd response required). In the Far East 5,000 troops, and 30 Krupp cannons. are sent to take over Tsingtao and Berlin demands that the Qing concede the port on a 99 year lease, as allow for a German Economic zone in the region along wit (Mod Response). Industrialization in the Ruhr region and Silesia continue with the companies like the Krupp conglomerate dominating the Steel, and Chemical industry in continental Europe. The conservative hold on the Reichstag continues to be tested by the SPD who continue to aggitate for greater reforms, and to break the hold of the Junkers, and Rhineland Industrialists over political and social power. Investment in state run education continues to grow, along with state investment in the natural sciences, and applied sciences. Research and development into new trechnology continues with strides made in automobiles with Krupp in particular sponsering German inventors to develop a homegrown automobile based on the Austrohungarian modle built in 1897. Kaiser Wilhelm II continues to ease on the Kalturalkampf policies of Bismark to regain the trust and support of the catholic community. In the Reichstag an alliance is formed between the Conservative Party, and the Centre Party to counter the growing influence of the SPD. More social reforms to prevent the fall of the working class under socialist influence continues, including a slight payraise in wages. Many of the younger Prussian elites continue to identify more with their common German Heritage and the growing German nationalism as opposed to the Prussian exceptionalism of the previous generation.  Conscription continues and is expanded as tensions in Europe grow. German Military intellegences begins to take a more central focus as military attaches are increased in embassies to keep track of the commons and goings of news, and to determine the battle readiness of Other European countries. Military education remainms mandatory or the Junker class from whom the Reich draws most of its military and public officials from. Plans to contnues the consutrction of a new High Sea Fleet continues. Germanization of Poland continues as the polish langauge is suppressed in public life.  Efforts to begin looknig for a suitable wife for the crown Prince Wilhelm begin with the British and German houses being approached (British response required. ) Efforts to improve relations with the Beor States are made (mod response). German interests in the South Pacific continue to grow. ANd a request is made to Spain to purchase their dependencies in the region (otl purchase, Mod response required).
    • German African Colonies. Development of German South West Africa, German East Africa, Togo, and Kamerun continue, with he laying of Telegraph lines, railroads, roads, psotal systems, etc, being set up. The colonial governments also invite European settlers tothe Region, and an effort to open up the regions for settlement and economic development. Eudcation of the locals is also pursued with those who learn and speak german being offered better chances of work.
    • China reluctantly accepts, though local dissent is strong. 
    • The Romanian King accepts Germany's support. 
  • United States of America: With the signing of the Treaty of Paris with Spain which ceded Guam, Puerto Rico, and the port of Subic to the United States as well as granting Cuba independence, Spanish prisoners of war are returned to Spain due to the end of hostilities. For his part in the conflict, Dewey is promoted to Rear Admiral and remains tasked with command over the US Asiatic Squadron which will be based from the Port of Subic with efforts undertaken by the military to turn the city into a stronghold for the US. Cuba falls under the US as a protectorate with efforts being undertaken to help restore order to the island after its costly conflict with Spain with military forces being assigned to help police and pacify the islanders in preparation for the establishment of their own government. The activities of the Empire of Brazil draw some concern from Congress and the McKinley administration who prefer to see the region remain in the status quo of the previous war. Guantanamo Bay is militarized due to the possible necessity of its use should the United States need to intervene in the dispute between Brazil and Argentina. The Newlands Resolution is passed by majorityvote of both chambers of Congress annexing Hawaii to the US with efforts being undertaken to turn Hawaii into a port for use by the Navy for operations in the Pacific Ocean. James W. Gerrard is appointed as an attaché to the German Embassy by the McKinley Administration.
  • Kingdom of Nepal: The Maharaja envisions Nepal as a bastion of Indian culture, as a place where it can be cherished and celebrated. To this end, the Maharaja orders the establishment of the Kathmandu Vishwavidyalaya (University) as a traditional University to be the successor of schools such as Nalanda and Takshshila, as such the Kingdom uses its contacts and sends its people throughout the entire width of North India to collect Hindu and Buddhist scriptures and to record the various local religious practices and create a library of this which can be studied by Hindu and Buddhist scholars, for whom a Dharamshala will be constructed within the Kathmandu Vishwavidyalaya.
  • Argentina: Having the revolutions of 1890 and 1893 and the new war on his mind, Uriburu pushes the Autonomist to pass universal suffrage, and easier voting rights, so they may be seen as champions of the people. To lessen reliance on foreign investment the government nationalizes all banks and places them under the Central Bank under the ministry of finance. Standard gauge is to be adopted by all ways in the nation to allow easier movement through the nation. With the influx of immigrants the government uses the labor to replace or move most rails to standard. All new contracts are also undertaken directly by the state with incentives of the new railway worker to own the land they worked. Miners are also needed as the government increases its own mining efforts of silver and gold to help the economy. Loans are given to Argentine investors with low interest rates as long as the government owns a majority stake in the company. Wanting to closer ties with Chile, Uriburu offers a joint talk on disputed territories and the increased investment in the Andes by both nations. 20,000 more men are mobilized and sent to the border. We ask for arms to fill our needs from the international community. Prefer to take contracts in which an amount of arms can be brought and the same design to be produced domestically.(Mod/player response) Coal mining is increased and a slight increase in imports are made. A daring navy raid is made on August 25th. Taking advantage of the much more modern Argentine navy, 6 cruisers arrive at Rio de janeiro at dawn attacking any Brazilian flagged ship in the port. Saving most of their stocks only aiming for ships and not the port itself. The cruisers continue their raid on the shipbuilding ports up to Salvador before flipping and heading back to Rio de La Plata. A few hours later the torpedo cruiser Patria arrives in Rio escorted by another armored cruiser and 4 ironclads quickly attacking any Brazilian ships left and bombarding the city's shipbuilding facilities. Other targets are government buildings until ships are left with 12 ammo stocks or enough fuel to return to port. We call for meditation to end the conflict before more lives are lost. (Great Power response). Article 25 is amended allowing much more lenient immigration from non Europeans.

  • German Diplomacy: the German Ambassador relays a message from Berlin offering to Mediate should the Argentines desire it, and also expresses German interests in investing in Argentina, and also in selling them arms, and artillery.
    • The nationaliszation of the banks would be a major and radical reform that would not be passed by the Partido Autonomy Nacional in any shape or form. Keep in mind this is the period of the oligarchs.With Blood and Iron (talk) 01:44, July 6, 2020 (UTC)
    • on a side note The PAN is dominated by General Julio Argentino Roca who represents his social clique and would not wish to do this, not to mention loosening immigration of non europeans would be very much against their policies against Argetine political thought during this period  
  • Rattanakosin Kingdom: Siam accepts letting Japanese students here but highly suggest Japan not to do so considering the education system of Siam is so much worse than and not as modern as Japan's.
  • Ottoman Empire: After being pushed out of Greece, Ottoman changed the plan and sent 6 battleships, and 20 heavy cruisers to Athens. Algo needed.

1898 - September to December

Greece sends overtures to the international community seeking support. They also reach out to the Americans, French, Germans, British, Spanish, and Italians seeking offers for either new or gently used battleships they could procure quickly within the coming months.

The Negros revolution in the Philippines manages to establish the Republic of Negros in the south.

The Vienna University of Economics, and Business is founded.

In Samoa a civil war between Tanumafili who is backed by the British and Americans and Mata'afa Iosefo who is backed by Germany erupts sparking a crisis in the South Pacific.

The outbreak of War in the Rio de la Plata Region causes an economic scare in the region, which is only intensified by President Uriburu's attempts to nationalize the Banks. There are calls by the National Autonomist Party (PAN) for Uriburu to resign, and for a Junta under the leadership of Julio Argentino Roca to take power.

In the United States, the most devout warhawks push for more expeditions and interventions abroad. They cite Spain’s concession as proof of their ideology and gain a significant amount of support within the government and social circles.

Reformers in China call for dramatic changes to government, society, and the military. These factions attempt a coup against Empress Cixi, but they are thwarted by Chinese police. The result is the solidification of the traditional Chinese ruling elite. Meanwhile, growing unrest in China leads to popular revolt in Shandong province when a group of "Boxers" attack a Christian community of Liyuantun village.​​​​​​

  • France: As we begin a new year of France, further advancements are used. We accept the Greek's request and send a few ships across to them. We embark on a project to modernize the south and central regions of the Republic, slowly integrating new technologies to improve the efficiency to the workers there. New military technologies are being tested out, such as the machine gun. As a sign of peace, we reach out to the BeNeLux regions and offer them support and protection (THOSE RESPONSES). In Africa, new railroads are built, connecting the prospering ports that dot the french coast. We request to buy the Libyan colony of Italy, as we offer them amounts of materials and gold. We also offer to protect them from hostile interests. (ITALIAN RESPONSE). We will also attend the conference. We begin occupying parts of Guangdong and some trade ports to improve our overseas influence as we continue moving to solidify French Indochina.
    • Italian Response: We have no such Libyan Colony, though if we did we would not sell it, nor does Italy require French protection.
    • Greek Response: Greece thanks France for the use of its vessels, and quickly forms a flotilla to oppose the Ottoman Fleet.
  • Kingdom of Italy: The Ottoman naval assault on Greece prompts the Saracco government to issue an ultimatum. The Ottoman Empire and Greece will sign a white peace with no terms other than a 10 year Non-Aggression Pact and an Italian concession in Chania on Crete, wherein Italy will be granted a 99 year lease on the old Venetian fortress and harbor on the northeastern edge of the city. The specifics of the lease mandate that it will be respected by both the Ottomans and Greece depending on the result of the International Squadron. Otherwise, Italy shall enter the war on the side of the Greeks and resolve the Cretan Crisis simultaneously and unilaterally. (Greek and Ottoman Responses) This drastic move alienates the far left from the Saracco government, reducing its overall support in parliament. However, it had broad support on the right and center left. The increasing crisis developing in China also necessitates a response. With the base at Changshi Island sporting a brand new barracks, a regiment of Bersaglieri is stationed at the port where they will serve as a rapid reaction force. Supporting them is a small fleet consisting of several older cruisers. The new Terni plant and drydocks in the Venetian Lagoon continue their construction with projected completion in 1st quarter 1900 and 2nd quarter 1899 respectively. With the growing challenges in the Aegean, the Ammiraglio di Saint Bon-class production timeline is accelerated. In secret, Greece is offered sale of the two armored cruisers at a modest price. (Mod Response)
    • The Greeks accept the treaty.
  • Brazil: As the Brazilian troops trench in the Emperor goes to Uruguay and begins the election, after the votes are tallied up the newly elected President and Prime Minister go to Rio and the Emperor swears them in and makes them Knights of the Amazon. The Emperor goes to his cousin Umberto I and asks for 20.000 rifles to support them(Italian Response Needed). The Brazilian navy is sent out and try to bombard Buenos Aires. (Algo needed)
    • Italian Response: Brazil is welcome to purchase Carcano Rifles from Italy at a substantial discount.
  • Argentina: Uriburu walks back nationalization to keep the party happy and the economy stable. However universal suffrage is passed through prior to the election, with massive turnout the Autonomist hold a slight margin with the UCR and liberals making great leaps. The lower house is taken by the left, the leader of the house becoming Hipolito Yrigien. However the president elected is Roca to make the people and oligarchs happy. Artillery begins regular shelling of Brazilian positions. The Uruguayan army is restrained along Argentine standards with another 30,000 men being called up. The arms industry begins to produce more ammunition as the army expanded and the navy assist in shelling. More fortifications are dug on the border. The navy keeps shipping lanes open with occasional sorties to Rio de Janeiro and further North if Coal stocks allow. They also pick off the weakened brazailain ships as the enter the bay of Rio de la plata. We agree to the German offer of mediation asking if they may send a few ships to blockade Brazil with full basing rights in our nation. (German Player Response). We put the German arms to good use, requiping Uruguay’s men first. General staff works better aiming methods for the guns. Industry continues to grow as German investment does a good job of keeping the economy expanding. Rails are laid going further south. Plans are leading for a shipbuilding dock in Viedma. We offer Chile a more lax trade agreement and offers joint investment in the Andes (Mod response).
    • Chile is hesitant to pursue such a deal.
    • German dip: Berlin agrees to mediate however he is relunctant to blockade Brazil due to other pressing matters. However An Envoy is dispatched to Buenos Aires to Mediate.
  • Japan: With the attack on the Christian Village, Japan demands that the Chinese Government cede Shanghai as an international city just like Tianjin or else they will intervene. (Mod Response Needed). Japan continues to build more infrastructure and starts to develop Tokyo. Japan asks Germany if they could sell some of their guns.(German Response Needed). Japan also implements a new and cheaper healthcare system for the people. Japan also begins to influence Manchuria. Japan sends a diplomat to Russia asking if they could split Manchuria.(Mod Response Needed)
  • United States of America: After the collapse with negotiations between Spain and the US, military operations resume once more to secure a US victory. US forces totaling 15k including Teddy Roosevelt and his Rough Riders assault Spanish positions outside of Santiago culminating in the Battle of El Caney and Battle of San Juan Hill. The US advance towards Santiago is stopped at Canosa leading to a siege of Santiago. Naval operations in the waters around Santiago result in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba and the destruction of the Spanish Caribbean Fleet. A squadron of 12 US ships launch an invasion of Puerto Rico blockading the capital of San Juan with 1200 US troops being landed off the coast of Guanica and encountering enemy forces in battle at Yuaco. Dewey's naval squadron after securing control of the Port of Manila with 11,000 US troops disembarking. Emilio Aguinaldo is shipped back to the Philippines to lead the local insurgents.
  • United Kingdom: Several ships are sold to Greece at a reduced price. Following Italy's ultimatum, the British government decides to agree that a peace should officially be created, threatening to expel the Ottoman Empire entirely unless it agrees to this. 
  • Kingdom of Sweden-Norway: Thia year sees the passing of the 1898 egislative reform bill and the 1898 militar bills passing.The first bill disolves the norweigaan and swedish legislatures and creates a combined one,which will meet six months in Oslo and six months in Stockholm.The army bill unifies the two separate armies into one army and is to be lead by a norweigan general and swedisg general which are apponited by the king.Later this year after acheving what he had strived for these last years of his Life,King Oscar II dies due to a flu on the 27 september and is succeded by his eldest son Gustav who takes the name as Gustav V.His coronation is planned for january 1899.
  • The kingdom of the Netherlands: as another Era passes in the kingdom of the Netherlands.. And the continuous Aceh war still causing an issue in the safety of the Dutch holdings in the Dutch west indies. The King William III plans a huge campaign into Aceh land as an expedition to shut down Aceh forces down and assert control and make the Sultanate a direct controlled territory of the Dutch east indies. With the governor General Joannes Benedictus van Heutsz dispatched there since 1898. He is sent a supply of 20,000 expeditionary Dutch rifle men with 300 Canon de Bange de 90. The expeditionary army will also have arround 30,000 Indonesian KNIL troops. With those sent to battle up the Aceh forces. HNLMS Noordbrabant will be sent in there with 4 Atjeh class heavy cruisers. Their objective is to capture the Aceh capital port of KutaRaja. After that they will head out to Strom the Sultans palace and force him into submitting and abdicating the throne in favor of the Dutch victors. The general that leads the army is concidered a veteran with him joining more of two battles in the Aceh war while he was dispatched. Field artillery bombardments will be massive. In logistics the expeditionary army will be lightly motorized in order for better transportation. While the navy is has a high tradition and the seamen and experienced as they fought many wars on sea to quell and conquer the native Indonesian Sultanates. Seamen communications are Limited Radio, Signal Lights and Signal Flags. The officer is a veteran that fought 2 battles in aceh war when capturing coastal ports. And the fleet is modern. (algorithm needed. Please) (naval algorithm needed. Please).
    • That force is in excess of available resources for the Netherlands, a more accurate number may be 15,000 Dutch Soldiers supported by an additional 15,000 KNIL and perhaps 25 cannons. Also, in the future no need to specify all of the Algo things in your turn. 
  • German Empire: The forces in Tsingtao are reinforced with a further 10,000 men and who with Artillery march North from Shandong towards Tianjin to force the hand f the Qing against the Boxers. Meanwhile Japanese reuqest for weapons is accepted. An offer is sent to the Americans and Birtish to resolve the Growing issues in Samoa. industrialization continues. Research and development into new arms and technology continue. Investments in foreign ventures are offered to which ever country desires to recieve German expertise and financing. NAval expansion continues. Fortification of the Eastern and Western Borders begins improving present fortifications. More to be added later if possible.
    • United States of America: The US agrees to partition and discuss Samoa
  • Ottoman Empire: Ottoman decides to make a peace with Greece only if the Treaty of Constantinople is not abolished. Ottoman sends diplomats to Persia, Darfur, and Ethiopia to make alliance with them.(Mod response needed.) Ottoman also asked Germany to sell 3 armored cruisers. (Germany response needed.) Ottoman decided to fund more money to army. Also, to stop inflation, Ottoman decided to make new currency. Ottomanism became popular across the nation. Sultan announced that everyone in the Empire are ottomans and they are equal under the law, and discrimination will not be tolerated. Everyone in the Empire will share one set of laws all across the nation, one language, one culture, and one nation. They started making more machine guns and modified the ships they have.
    • Persia accepts to attempt to stave off British or Russian influence. Darfur accepts. Ethiopia declines. 

1899 - January to March

The February Manifesto is issued by the Emperor of Russia, decreeing that a veto by the Diet of Finland may be overruled in legislative matters concerning the interest of all Russia, including autonomous Finland. The manifesto is viewed as unconstitutional and a coup d'état by many Finns, who have come to consider their country a separate constitutional state in its own right, in union with the Russian Empire. Furthermore, the manifesto also fails to elaborate the criteria that a law has to meet in order to be considered to concern Russian imperial interests, and not an internal affair of Finland (affairs over which the Diet's authority is supposed have remained unaltered), leaving it to be decided by the autocratic Emperor. This results in Finnish fears that the Diet of Finland may be overruled arbitrarily.

German chemist Felix Hoffmann patents aspirin, and Bayer registers its name as a trademark.

The German Society of Chemistry issues an invitation to other national scientific organizations, to appoint delegates to the International Committee on Atomic Weights.

The Fashoda Incident Occurs When a French expedition to the Upper Nile River Basin Sparking a crisis as a standoff between French and British colonial troops ensue.

  • Kingdom of Sweden-Norway:King Gustav V is coronated this year in a lavish ceromony in Riddarholmen Church,while the funeral for King Oscar II takes place with over 200 000 people in attenddence.The first swedish-norweigan prime minister election is planned for april 1899 with all males over the age of 18 being allowed to vote.Meanwhile king Gustav V strongly condems the february manifesto of the russian emperor and increases the military budget more so to be cabanble of raising one new jaeger division.
  • Brazil: The Emperor approaches the President of Argentina and proposes that Uruguay be split into East and West, Brazil annexing East and Argentina can do whatever they want with their half. Brazil will also demilitarize their Argentinian border for 50 years and a 50 year long non-aggression pact shall be made between the 2 nations if accepted the Argentinian President will be knighted for his great diplomacy.(Argentinean Response Needed)
  • Japan: Japan sends a diplomat to Russia asking if Japan could purchase Sakhalin and if they could recognize their claim over Korea. (Mod Response Needed) With the recently purchased german guns, they are passed to the Japanese Armies. Japan builds a dockyard in Ryojun and begins to build a bigger navy. Japan also asks the British and US for some oil. (British and American Response Needed). Japan also asks Britain for a defense pact against Russia. (British Response needed)/
    • Russia refuses to sell the island, taking offense at the suggestion. Furthermore, the flat out refuse to recognize Japanese Korea.
    • United States of America: The US government cannot personally trade oil to Japan but US companies sell oil to Japan at market price.
    • United Kingdom: A defense pact is made, and British oil companies trade with the Japanese government.
  • United States of America: US forces in the Philippines eventually arrive on the outskirts of the city of Manila with Aguinaldo’s forces having secured much of the rest of the Philippines. Filipino and American forces in conjunction with one another enter and seize the city together bringing an end to the bulk of Spanish forces in the Philippines. With Spanish naval assets and military forces devastated overseas devastated, the United States and Spain sign the Treaty of Paris to bring an end to the war with Spain granting independence to Cuba and the Philippines as well as ceding the territories of Puerto Rico and Guam in exchange for $20 million paid by the US for the existing infrastructure. Despite having been ceded the Philippines as a territory, it is than handed out over to Emilio Aguinaldo and the Philippine Republic with the US taking over the naval garrison in Subic and leaving troops behind to guarantee the independence of the Philippines from any other potential aggressors. In both Cuba and the Philippines, US advisors are sent to help the fledgling governments write a Constitution as well as establish themselves military, politically, and economically. US companies are quick to fill the gaps in local economies and through loans from the US government, the local regions pay for infrastructure development from rail lines to communications. At home, Congress approves the use of voting machines for use in Federal Elections. At great blizzard occurs in Florida affecting its citrus industry. The acquisition of Eastern Samoa from the previous year by treaty is finalized with a US garrison being established on the island to ensure US control over it. The US naval port at Pearl Harbor continues to be built up as a port with the Asiatic squadron currently operating from the port of Subic. Guantanamo Bay is secured by lease from Cuba and begins to be built up as a naval garrison in light of the recent activities in South America between Brazil and Argentina.
  • United Kingdom: Following the Fashoda Incident, the Anglo-French Convention of 1898 is put forward to resolve the issue once and for all, to finally fix the borders in Nigeria between the French and the British colonies. (Mod Response).
    • France is interested and will agree to OTL terms. (If you want to discuss ATL terms that can be arranged)
  • Kingdom of the Netherlands: with the victory over the incuisition in Aceh and managing to capture the Sultan in the chaotic fight. He is forced to abdicate in favor of the large lands of aceh becoming directly controlled by the Dutch west indies. With that done, the government continues to support Dutch businessmen and entrepreneurs to come and invest in the large lands of sugar and tea and cinchona. With the government in the west indies agree into giving them small loans in order to set up plantations in there for more profits. With those kind of plantations keeping on flourishing granting us more revenue on our treasury. With rubber still exported to euorpe giving the Dutch more increase in their profits from the colony. With aceh subjugated. More oil fields are beeing financed by Dutch businesses men and the government to be established in order to export it to Europe, additional to aceh lands the rest of Sumatra will also be opened to oil fields additional to Kalimantan. The industrialising for the kingdom of Netherlands keeps on progress with more modern machines for agriculture in Java and other plantations areas in the Indonesian archipelago beeing introduced and adapted granting more productivity and more profits. The tabacco large plantations in east Sumatra are still expanding and getting financed by the government for more productivity. Seeing the scarcity on the rice agriculture in the archipelago mostly in Java the government of the west indies have granted some plantation lands for the Javanese peasantry in order to sustain the population of the colony. But that will only help the situation a little bit. So a proposal from the Dutch east indies government is sent to the kingdom of great Britain to open a trade agreement for exporting large amounts of rice in exchange of rubber and oil exports to Burma. [British response, please] With that all maintained shipbuilding is going fine as the government invests in railroads in Java and Sumatra in order to endure a fast mobility of products and labours in the region. The Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij is still beeing financed to endure the fast mobility as it is on process.
  • Ottoman Empire: Ottoman Empire decided to attack Montenegro. It declared war and sent battle ships and cruisers to attack major ports. It also sent 40,000 soldiers.
  • Kingdom of Italy: With the agreement of both Greece and the Ottoman Empire, Italian troops occupy the Venetian City of Chania. The local population is given the opportunity to either leave with expenses paid by the Italian government or become Italian citizens. The fortress there is then modernized with a series of batteries installed to protect the harbor and its walls fortified against modern artillery where possible. Vittorio Cuniberti’s report on the future of Italian capital-ships is published internally with a high degree of secrecy. He admonishes the Ammiraglio di Saint Bon-class as the opposite direction for capital-ship design to head. Instead he advocates for an all-big-gun design carrying eight 12 inch, or larger as possible, cannons and a greatly reduced secondary battery designed only to deter small torpedo boats. His design improvements are implemented with the delayed Regina Margherita-class which undergoes a redesign after a series of tests demonstrate that superfiring guns won’t damage the turret roofs of the lower turret. Work resumes immediately on the Regina Margherita-class, which is renamed the Niente-paura class and the two hulls are aggressively built. Stockpiles of equipment saved over the past year are used to rapidly install the propulsion and basic internals of the two four additional turrets are produced at Terni for installation on the ships, with 4 additional guns ordered as well. To cover for the development the renaming of the class is not made officially know, instead in requisitions requests the Niente-paura class is referenced independently, implying the existence of 2 classes of 2 conventional battleships. Elsewise, the development of Italy's Military Industrial Complex continues with the shipyards and new armor plant at Terni receiving drawing closer to completion. Production of the Carcano rifles is ramped up as orders from Brazil and abroad drive demand. Furthermore, with the potential for European war brewing in the apparently revanchist Ottoman Empire a stockpile of the guns is desired. In total, 2.5 million rifles are ordered for completion in 1909. Politically, the Saracco government’s aggressive naval spending proves unpopular with many leftist groups, but buoyed by support from the right and center left.
  • Argentina: The Brazilian offer is refused, full independence for Uruguay and dismantle fortifications on the border. Lest you want your exports to ground to a halt. We ask great power to support our resolution before the year is done. (Player/Mod responses). The army is drilled behind the fortications, as more shells come in, bombardments become more frequent. Indigenous designs begin to appear at the office of war. The navy continues to bombard the Brazilian coast and defend Rio de plata. Raw material output continues to grow as immigrants in increasing numbers arrive in the capital region. Argentine industry also begins great growth with German and government investments. We offer Chile a friendship treaty as both nations are the children of San Martin. We as the Southern cone can be great if we become friends (Mod response) with possible fuel in Patagonia the Government offers Japan if they would like to invest in oil development with a discounted price once reserves are found. (Japanese player response)
    • Chile Refuses
    • Oil was not discovered or thought to exist in Argentina until 1907. 

1899 - April to June

Serbia mobilizes and demands the Ottomans end their assault on Montenegro. Russia follows suit and issues a similar ultimatum while partially mobilizing.

The French minister in Beijing successfully secures official status for every order in the Roman Catholic hierarchy, enabling local priests to support their people in legal or family disputes and bypass the local officials. This act enrages the Boxers and other reactionary elements in society, fueling support for the movement. Furthermore, the disillusionment of educated Chinese by the now deeply conservatize government weakens the Qing.

Leaders throughout Europe call for the end to the International Squadron's intervention in Crete which has drug on beyond the expected occupation. France and Austria support an autonomous Cretan state under Ottoman suzerainty, Italian, British, German, and Russian forces support unification with Greece. In the end, the squadron invites Greece to annex the island.

A Independence revolt breaks out in Sinkiang led by the Islamic Council of Independence.

OOC: Everyone chill with the oil dealing and wheeling, its 1899, the automobile has been around for 3 years and everything runs on coal anyway. 

  • France: We accept the treaty to solve the Fashoda Incident. Taken aback by the Ottoman's sudden attack into Montenegro, we immediately begin embargoing the Ottomans. We warn the Ottomans to stop or face the consequences. The modernisation of French Military and Agricultural technologies continues, and new roads continue being built throughout French Africa. We offer the Dutch protection and trade agreement to allow both nations to prosper. (DUTCH RESPONSE). We also send an offer to Great Britain and request to buy the port of SIngapore at a considerable price and some weapons. (BRITISH RESPONSE). We begin fortifying French Guinea due to the high tensions in South America.
    • United Kingdom: Singapore is not sold yet, but the British government is interested and will discuss the matter with France in the future.
  • United States of America: Worried about the implications of the growing tensions in the Balkans concerning the Ottomans, US garrisons overseas are placed on alert with efforts being undertaken at home in case of a larger war. As a precaution, companies are contracted by the Department of War as well as the Department of the Navy to produce arms, war materiel, and ships for potential use should the US find itself drawn into the growing conflict. The Harriman Alaska Expedition is launched this year comprised of scientist, artist, photographers, and naturalist to explore the territory of Alaska and take note of what is discovered from cultures to species of animals. US advisors continue to operate in Cuba and the Philippines to help the local governments in establishing themselves with loans still being provided by the US government to help fund the undertakings of the countries. US companies continue to grow in size and scale with many making their presence known in the global economy and with access to the resources of the the Philippines and Cuba, they construct more factories at home to accommodate the surplus in raw materials. Pearl Harbor, Subic, and other ports in recently acquired territories are built up the support a sizable US naval presence should it be required due to the growing need for the US to protect its interest overseas. Japan's growing influence with its alliance to both the Ottomans and British, acquisition of Port Arthur, and competition with Russia has drawn the concern of portions of Congress who worry the fledgling power is growing quickly and could prove a threat to US interest in East Asia down the line but for now this remains a small number.
  • Brazil: Count Victor Emanuele of Praha is offered as a Royal Envoy to Mexico as a sign of unity amongst Latin American nations(Mexican response needed). The Emperor offers Bolivia the Treaty of Saõ Paolo (OTL Treaty of Petropolis). (Mod response needed)
    • mexufo dip: we agree
  • Kingdom of Sweden-Norway:In a stunning upset,the NorwegianModerate party manages to win 35 of the 45 Norwegian seats,this with also the ccentre party of sweden winning 30 seats means they are able to form a majority government with Erik Knutsson being sworn in as the new prime minister.The a´naval plan of 1900 begins to be drawn up while calls for a referendum on åland are held in the parliament.
  • Japan: After Russia insulted the Japanese Diplomat, the Japanese Government demand an apology. Mod Response. Japan sends its navy to Ryojun. Japan then sends more of their army to Hokkaido. Japanese senate begins to debate whether or not to intervene in Europe. Japan spreads Anti Russian Propaganda all throughout the Country. Japan begins to spread rumors to the local Chinese in Ryojun about how the Russians kill Chinese babies and how they experiment on Chinese men. Japan continues to improve Ryojun. Japan sends a diplomat to the Netherlands to discuss lowered Oil and Rubber (Dutch Response needed)
    • Russian Empire: The Russian government refuses to apologize for an insult that never occurred. They had treated the Japanese ambassador with the utmost courtesy and take offense to what Japan is suggesting in regards to their conduct.
  • Rattanakosin Kingdom: The Slave Abolition Act of King Chulalongkorn was made official thus ending slavery in Siam in all forms. Like since the reduction of slaves since the last 20 years or so, the newly freed slaves are provided opportunities to get new professions; with many finding themselves to become farmers and especially workers, as the workers profession is comandingly needed due to the king's plans for modernization and thus the need to improve the general infrastructure of the country. This would be a precedent to the proletariat class in Siam.
  • Kingdom of the Netherlands: with more riches beeing archived by the exploits of the Dutch west indies. Fast transportation is now a priority for the colony. The Dutch west indies governor with corporation from the Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij commissions a railroad that stretches from KutaRaja to Babah Rot will be funded to be constructed in order to make fast mobility of products possible. The automobile sees little usage by the rich people in Rotterdam streets as a few of them were seen passing the roads alongside with the charriots. A large depot is commissioned in Bandar Lampung to be built in order to make room for products that is starting to be exported and imported. With the Port beeing upgraded as well. Another Railroad is beeing established that stretches from Batavia to Klaten in Java. With more coal mines beeing opened and funded to grant us the opportunity to acces to the quality coal that is valuable. More oil fields are beeing explored by multiple businesses men who sees a chance for wealth for this curde material. More cash crops are beeing harvested and turned into products in factories. More factories are beeing built in the Dutch east indies. The King sees an idea to turn a portion of his investments into the Dutch military. A longterm goal for 1902 is set to produce up to 300,000 breach loading rifles. 25 more field canons are ordered to be constructed to be added to the Dutch Arsenal. A fortress is beeing built in KutaRaja to be well defended against any other revolt by the Indonesians. The fortress will consist of a Dutch garrison of 400 men. 3 more atjeh class heavy cruisers are beeing ordered to be constructed. In order to create more friendly relations with neighby countries. A delegation to Ratta's Rama Is sent by the Dutch east indies governor to open up an embassy in Bangkok [Ratta response, please]. The offer from the French is respectfully accepted.
    • Siam response: We accept
  • German Empire: alarmed at the crisis brewing in the balkans Berlin makes one last effort to try and prevent a war by calling on the RUssians and Ottomans to attempt negotiations however the German highcommand makes a secret memo expressing their concerns about letting the French and Russians gain influence at the expense of States friendly to Berlin. A timetable for mobilization is prepared and a secret envoy is sent to Italy urging them to agree to a white peace with Turks or risk losing footing geopoltically in the Med sea, meanwhile another envoy is sent to London to inquire as to the likely course of action of the British, and to see if cooperation would be feasible in this crisis, stipulating that Berlimn is inclined to prevent russian expansion inthe region. The three cruisers requested by the ottomans are agreed upon and sold to the Ottomans
  • United Kingdom: Like the German Empire, Britain presses for a peaceful resolution of the crisis and an avoidance of a war, although privately communicates with the Germans, that Britain would also be alarmed by Russia expanding and disrupting the balance of power to tip the scales against Britain. Should a war of some kind ensue, Britain will be looking to curb Russia's expansion, and prevent its hegemony over the region.
  • Ottoman Empire: Ottoman refused to leave Montenegro and sent 50,000 soldiers to border with Russia and 30,000 to Serbia. With come casualty, 9,000 men landed in Bar and started pushing towards Cetinje, the capital of Montenegro. Ottoman also sent diplomats to Germany, Austria, Japan, Great Britain, and Italy to ask for help in case Russia attacks. (Germany, Japan, Great Britain, Italy, and mod response needed. Ottoman built more factories all over the empire, and made more organizations to lower illiteracy rate..
    • Italian Diplomacy: We decline, but do note that if Germany is attacked we will honor our alliance. 
    • Austrian Diplomacy: We also decline to guarantee Ottoman Independence from Russia, but we would consider an agreement should the Ottoman Empire be willing to cede Bosnia de jure. 
    • British Diplomacy: We assure the Ottomans that we dislike Russia's evergrowing influence over the area, and would likely intervene to some degree should a major conflict break out. 
    • Japan: Agrees. Japan will also offer to blockade Vladivostok if such an event were to occur. 
  • Argentina: Roca once again asks Brazil to leave Uruguay(Brazilian player response). Bombardments on the border are stepped up and the navy is sent to raid Rio De Janeiro once again aiming for government buildings and the docks (Algo needed).Uruguayan army troops are sent across the border to train guerrillas in their country (Mod response). New rail lines beginning in viedma to connect the city to resources for the shipyard. Designs for the indigenous rifle become more refined being based on the Argentine Mauser. Industry continues to grow with investments from the government and foreign investors, favoring domestic contracts further adding to the industry. The push for self sufficiency continues. 
  • Kingdom of Italy: The Ottoman invasion of Montenegro prompts the government to prepare for mobilization. Shipments of Carcanos abroad are delayed with production scaled up to reach at least 1 million pieces by July, 1899. With the new shipyards in Venice completed, work can begin on three additional Giuseppe Garibaldi class armored cruisers which have been procured for the navy. The Ammiraglio di Saint Bon-class nears completion with the first ship finished and transferred to the Greek Navy. Having been strengthened by the addition of several new ships and seeking to take advantage of both the international disary and Spain’s defeat. The Regia Marina dispatches 2 modern battleships, 8 ironclad battleships, 5 modern armored cruisers, 10 protected cruisers, and several other support ships to Ceuta. Meanwhile, Spain is sent a demand, either surrender Ceuta to Italian control, or face the prospect of another naval war. (Mod Response) A partial mobilization is ordered with 300,000 called to serve. With these men supporting the standing army the total mobilized Italian forces stand at 500,000. The newly raised 300,000 are put through an intensive training regime to bring them up to professional standards, or at least as close as can be managed in the next few months or until the crisis to the east ends.
  • Mexico: a bloodless coup form Emilio zapata starts but the current government won’t go down with out a fight, 90% of the army sides with diaz while 10% of army sides with zapata but a big portion of the Mexican mostly the oppressed sides with him, skirmishes break out all over the county while zapata draws up battle plans (will be posted tomorro) his amry names it self the peoples republic of Mexico aka PRM or república popular De Mexico and he sets out Plans when he wins , the government fellows the models of marxs with the ideals of communism takeing place,major land reforms happen, farms are turn into collective farms and large land owners that of villas and other places are ether deported or excuted while smaller landlords are tax heavily , foreign and local businesses are nationalized, churches are out right banned and shut down,all Religious figures are deported or excuted,all funds and other assists are turn over To the State Western outsiders And non Latinos are banned form entering and ones in nation Deported, overall promotion of the proletariat and Peastany and demotion of bourgeoise happens, overall other communist/Marxist actions happen, statues and other items of cult of personality of zapata starts.
    • The first part is implausible, thus invalidating the entire rest of the turn. - Mod

1899 - July to September

Serbia launches a major offensive against Ottoman forces attacking Montenegro with 250,000 men. In the south of the country, 100,000 Serbian soldiers take up defensive positions to repulse any Ottoman attacks.

Emboldened by Serbia's fight with the Ottomans, Bulgaria takes the opportunity to unilaterally annul their subservience to the Ottoman Empire. To guarantee their position they issue mobilization orders, raising a force of 500,000 soldiers to prevent any Ottoman reprisals.

Incompetence in both the Brazilian and Argentine land forces leads to thousands of deaths due to cholera, dysentery, and typhus. Meanwhile, the Argentine navy is able to severely damage the Brazilian coffee, sugar, and rubber trades, causing global shortages of all three valuable resources. The Brazilian plantation elite begin to pressure the Emperor to seek peace quickly or secure naval dominance.

Concern about Britain's inaction in regards to the Italian Invasion of Ceuta rips through Parliament in Great Britain with many demanding the Prime Minister take action against this threat to British dominance in the Straits of Gibraltar.

In China, the Boxers grow more bold, storming several Catholic sites, and driving many Germans from their concession.

Russia agrees to seek a negotiated settlement, but demands that the Ottomans immediately withdraw and accept an independent Montenegro.

The majority of the Mexican Army including the general staff, the officer corps, and most of the military elite side with Diaz in the coup attempt by radical communists. The swiftly move to put down the rebels, but end up locked in a brutal civil war with armed peasants and a small portion of the army which defects to the communists.

  • United States of America: The revolt in Mexico is received with great concern by many in the US who worry over the possibility of a Marxist state becoming a bordering country to the US. Aid is sent in the form of armaments and finances to support Diaz with an order being given for the mobilization of 70,000 US soldiers to the US-Mexico border should their be a need to directly intervene in the affair (Mexico Response). Meanwhile, the actions of the Boxers in China have raised many alarms among Congress and the McKinley Administration resulting in the deployment of additional US forces to the Philippines, specifically Subic, with forewarning being given to President Emilio Aguinaldo of the increased military presence and providing justification and clarity on the matter. In response to the growing number of conflicts worldwide, a warning is sent to all nations declaring US neutrality in those matters with any assault on US mercantile shipping being viewed as a hostile act and will not go without consequences (Everyone response). Support for Cuba and the Philippines financially and militarily remains an utmost priority with advisors and loans continually be supplied if need to fund their goals and train up local forces to adequate levels.
    • Italian Diplomacy: As per international conventions on war, American neutrality will be strictly respected by all Italian forces. 
    • Japanese Diplomacy: Japan respects their neutrality and offers to protect American ships.  
    • Mexico Diplomacy: Any military aid the United States can provide would be welcomed by the Diaz regime.  
    • Brazilian Diplomacy: The Emperor accepts this declaration stating that the Wars of the world should not cost neutral lives. 
  • United Kingdom: The Marquess of Salisbury's unpopular policies regarding inaction towards the Ceuta Invasion, and his obstinate adherence to the policy of splendid isolation (refusing to enter into any cemented alliances despite the possibility of a large-scale war on the continent), result in his resignation as Prime Minister, following a disastrous attempt to boost support by calling a general election that was won far too narrowly against Henry Campbell-Bannerman. Salisbury is succeeded by his nephew, Arthur Balfour, who like his uncle, is reluctant to withdraw from isolation, but nevertheless, under pressure from parliament, warns the Kingdom of Italy that their attempt to take over Ceuta will be seen as a threat to the British Empire and that they must withdraw (Italian Response).
    • Italian Response: We lodge a complaint against such hypocracy before withdrawing. 
  • Argentina: With Roca himself being a General he rushes to improve soldiers conditions in the front and starts the corps of doctors to aid the men. The navy also undertakes another raid on Rio this time far smaller 3 armored cruisers and the torpedo cruiser Patrica hit Guranabara bay. The ships aim for Paco Imperial and Paco de San cristavo hoping to shock them emperor into submission. Urguayin guerillas also begins to hit Brazilian supply lines. (Algo needed) Roca also reaches out to the Brazilian people saying this is what happens when you allow an emperor to rule you once more. Viedma continues to see growth as the shipyard continues to be built. Coals mines are expanded and prospectors are sent to to look for more coal rich areas around the nation. More is invested into education as Argentina wants to become a science exporter as well. More Argentine business is invested into. The lower house begins slow reforms for the growing farmer and workers classes.
    • Brazilian offer: The Emperor offers the President a peace offer; a straight line from Chuy to Bella Union and one half will be annexed by Brazil the rest can stay independent. Brazil will also give up all influence over Uruguay and we will demilitarize the Argentinian border for 50 years and a non-aggression pact for 50 years with Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. We will also be happy to house cholera patients in our hospitals. We will also guarantee Argentinian and Uruguayan independence.
    • Argentina: We ask the Blanco party how they feel about the offer if they declare negotiations will continue. (Mod response)
  • France: We warn Italy of the consequences of invading Ceuta, as more troops start gathering at the alps and Corsica, along with the coast of North Africa, to show strength and the repercussions. We demand they withdraw. (ITALIAN RESPONSE) We will continue negotiations with Britain for the Purchase of Singapore, and we will be willing to pay more. (BRITISH RESPONSE). Delighted to hear of the Dutch agreement to the Protection proposal, we gift them a few warships to guard their waters. As time passes, We continue to innovate and modernise our Agricultural and Military technologies, and soon France is one of the most advanced militaries in the world. We also seek to change the standard code of French Uniform, from bright colours to dark brown and khaki, as a result of changing military strategies. As North Africa prospers, the Madagascar Fleet is expanded to protect French Trade in the waters. French Guinea continues to be under increased security.
    • Italian Response: We lodge a complaint against such hypocracy before withdrawing.
  • Russia: With tensions rising with both Japan and the Ottoman Empire, the Tsar pursues a plan to ensure both peace and the security of Russian interests. First, we offer the Ottomans a negotiated settlement in Montenegro should the Ottomans accept the independence of Montenegro and withdraw from the region (OTTOMAN RESPONSE). Second, the Tsar plans to invest in further attempts at improving the industrial output of Russia, especially through the further construction of railroads in the east and new economic reforms: Reforms to the banking system designed to make it easier for industrialists to create new factories  and patent and copyright reform, coupled with pogroms of Jewish villages and license requirements to allow the Tsar to maintain control over who will benefit from this system. Thirdly, we seek to strengthen the view of Russia by the various great powers of the world, by redoubling our diplomatic efforts. Fourthly, as our situation in Finland is currently worsening, we publish a statement assuring the control of the Finnish Diet over internal matters so long as they remain loyal to the Tsar, keep the peace, and remain in line with the spirit of Russian law. Finally, we wish to negotiate with Japan a fair agreement that will de facto recognize Japanese control of much of Korea and de jure allow Russia a warm-water port in northern China accessible by railroad (JAPANESE RESPONSE). However, we are growing increasingly worried about the Japanese apetite for expansion, including their insulting attempt to purchase Sakhalin island, and thus we plan on putting pressure on them to negotiate by sending additional troops, supplies, and weaponry to our western region.
    • Russia: We reaffirm our commitment to our alliance with France, and would like France to assure the same (just joined as Russia, want to make sure this is still the case).

    • The Japanese are disgusted. They refuse to offer the Russians anything. They are infuriated at how the Russians send more troops and think that this is an attack against them. They refuse to negotiate anymore with Russia.
    • Ottoman dip: Ottoman accepted Montenegro's independence long ago, but it won't withdraw.
  • United Mexican States (federal government): The attempted coup by the young Zapata is easily defeated with Diaz retaining support of most of the army, however the communist rebel and his loyal cabal manage to recruit a small portion of the Federal Army and escape to the rural Mexican countryside in the south to wage a bloody guerilla conflict. With a full-scale civil war erupting, the aging General Porfirio Diaz, known as “The Hero of Puebla”, takes the reins of the military once again to deal with the threat to his regime. Diaz assembles the remaining Federal forces in the north for an inspection, however he is dismayed to see that the Federal Army has been neglected and allowed to stagnate, with the army consisting of poorly equipped old men and aging officers of past wars. Seeking to breathe new life into the army, Diaz orders the recruitment of thousands of young men, promising stable pay, pensions, and the glory of fighting for Mexico. Additionally new officers are recruited, mainly from sons of wealthy landowning elites seeking adventure. With fresh blood joining the ranks of the Federal Army, Diaz next turns to the issue of arming and training such a large force. A diplomatic mission is sent to the United States proposing a military treaty wherein U.S. officers would help train and teach the new young officers while also helping to train and drill the main body of Mexico’s Federal Army. The treaty would also have the United States begin selling modern weaponry to Mexico at favorable prices to both sides. If possible, the treaty would also include a loan from the U.S. to Mexico to help pay for military reforms and expanded recruitment [UNITED STATES RESPONSE]. With the military situation being handled, Diaz would also make a public speech to a huge audience, reminding them all of Mexico’s recent victory over the invading French forces and how such a victory brought all of Mexico together as a nation, and how now Zapata and his thugs threaten to break the hard-fought unity that thousands of Mexicans died for. Diaz would also acknowledge that large portions of Mexico have been neglected by the regime, and promise that following the regime’s victory it would look to a future wherein all Mexicans are allowed to thrive and prosper regardless of race, class or creed. To show his dedication to such a future Diaz would organize a group of politicians, bureaucrats and lawyers to begin drafting legislation that would spread the tax burden evenly across Mexico’s various economic classes and would begin implementing social programs and reforms to aid Mexico’s rural peasantry and farmers. Hopefully such reforms and Diaz’s promises would do something to cut Zapata’s support from the Mexican peasantry [MOD RESPONSE ON SUCCESS].  
  • Japan: With the Russians mobilizing, a diplomat is sent to the Ottomans and the British asking for support if the two nations were to go to war. (British and Turkish Response please) With the boxer situation, Japanese Troops are sent Ryojun and Tianjin. Japanese Senate debates whether or not to go to war with the Russians to gain Manchuria. The Japanese Army is sent to the border. Japan dispatches their navy to Sea of Japan. Japan is ready if the Russians dare attack any of her possessions. Japan draws plans for the war if were to start.
    • Ottoman promises unconditional support.
    • Russia maintains that its army will not cross any borders or break any treaties unless it is attacked. We continue our offer to negotiate a fair settlement with Japan, but also note to the international community Japan's refusal to negotiate, efforts to annex Korea, efforts to purchase our rightful land, and the treatment of us moving troops within our own territory as a declaration of war. We ask Japan what specifically they are looking for from us that can lead to a peaceful settlement.
    • United Kingdom Response: Britain will support Japan if Russia starts a war.
  • Romania: With a crisis in the Balkans the Romanian King declare neutrality. But plans to build an army just in case if the ottomans attack.
  • Kingdom of Italy: Facing pressure from the blatantly hypocritical French and British, the Italians withdraw. Since the historical powers are clearly bent on keeping Italy under their imperialist boot, it will have to look elsewhere for now. The sentiment in the Italian Parliament over the Anglo-French intervention against Italy sours relations towards both countries. Instead, Italy looks north to Germany, reaffirming its historical alliance with the Germans. With it becoming clear that Italy will have no friends in France or the United Kingdom, the public move turns against the “corrupt, cronyist, colonists” who hold Italy down under a pretense of diplomacy.
  • PRM (rebels army): while there a some skirmishes/rebel forces in the north majority of fight starts in south which The puebla Oaxaca border, we use guerilla warfare effectively with ambushes,booby traps burning of pro government towns we have the advantage in attrition warfare which we use a lot we start expending lives and resources in attacks (ambushes, raids etc.) or in defensive operations (digging in to fight, bleeding opponents and then withdrawing when enemy forces grew too strong).we only fight  unless numerical superiority and chances of success were good. we controll the tempo when we can,we aslo start seires of tunnels to move supply’s, our fortfied camps are composed of these Defense in depth Extensive use of camouflage Mutually supporting defensive networks Restricted avenues of approach Escape routes Use of tunnels, bunkers, communication trenches and foxholes, The standard camp was roughly circular and consisted of 2-lines of fortification, incorporating individual fighting positions, bunkers and trenches. Semi-permanent or permanent base camps contained more elaborate fortification, more progandas Is spread. we aslo use mass coordinated wave attacks on smaller groups of foes,if Force is bigger we do this Fragmenting—splitting up in small groups when under attack, especially when trying to break through an encirclement. Dispersing—generally used when discovered And Deceiving—conducting diversionary attacks to deceive and draw away enemy forces and thus facilitate the withdrawal. We do recon and resharse attacks, the south will be fully in our control soon.
  • Ottoman Empire: Ottoman sends diplomats to Bulgaria, asking to stay neutral during this crisis and in return, Ottoman will recognize its independence. Mod response needed. Ottoman also sent diplomats to Russia to stay neutral and tell Serbia to withdraw from Montenegro. Russia response needed. Ottoman declared that everyone from 5 to 14 must attend school. Ottoman also built more high schools and colleges for people who are willing to take it. More factories were built.
    • Bulgaria Response: Bulgaria does not issue a reply
  • Chile: As political conflicts arise on international terms, The Republic of Chile remains alert in terms of international politics affairs. Regarding international relationships, the government is concerned about what the conflicts can possibly affect their alliances with certain nations.

1899 - October to December

The Hanover Congress of the Social Democratic Party of Germany is held in Hanover.

The Boers declare war on the British Empire striking quickly and securing a victory at the Battles of Kraaipan and Ladysmith going on to siege the towns of Ladysmith, Mafeking, and Kimberley

In response to the tensions in the Balkans region, Austria-Hungary has begun to mobilize its armies as a precaution should it need to involve itself down the line.

Morning Post reporter Winston Churchill captured by Boers in Natal

1st case of plague on Oahu, Hawaii

The actions of Zapata’s forces in burning pro-government towns results in increased support for the Diaz government due to the destruction from local populations.

The Ottoman government faces a conundrum as its military and officials fight over their budgets with each petitioning the Sultan to favor either the war effort or domestic efforts to improve quality of life

Brazil-Argentina will be arbitrated by Steph upon his return. Also events are subject to change by mods if necessary.

  • France: We will offer the Spanish a Political and Economical Alliance. (SPANISH RESPONSE). We will begin sending expeditions to southern Morocco to begin the colonisation process. The Agressive Italian responses anger the French people, as they had hoped that Italy would work to create a better society. We offer them a trade deal to rethink their decision. (ITALIAN RESPONSE). French Africa continues to be modernised. We reaffrim our alliance with Russia, but we warn that an aggressive war will not be supported. A protection and trade treaty is offered to Belgium. (MOD RESPONSE). The mess in South America and the Balkan areas are watched closely by the French people. We invite the Austrian-Hungarian leaders for a conference to discuss possible trade agreements to bolster relationships. (AUSTRIAN/MOD RESPONSE) We do the same with the US. (US RESPONSE).
    • Russia is grateful for France's affirmatin of alliance, and asserts that we seek no land gains in the Balkans nor would we support land gains for Serbia, and the goal of the war is purely to protect Montenegro from Ottoman aggression.
    • United States of America: The US dispatches an ambassador to represent US interest in negotiating the trade agreement
    • Belgium Response: Belgium agrees
    • Austrian Response: The Prime Minister of Hungary is sent as an envoy
  • United Kingdom: After negotiations with France, the Prime Minister proposes to Parliament the 5-year lease of Southwest Singapore to the French, and they take a vote (Mod Response for the outcome). If this is successful, Prime Minister Arthur Balfour has further plans to exchange parts of Sarawak for French Guinea. Meanwhile, staggered by unexpected Boer victories, the United Kingdom brings in to the Boer War large numbers of soldiers, led by General Redvers, who aid and relieve the besieged soldiers.
  • Mod Response: The Parliament refuses to see the British Empire shrink through any other way but war and least of all to the French. The House of Lords becomes weary of the Salisbury dynasty forming.
  • Romania: The Romanian Army has done some reforms and did some training and deploys the army in the Bulgarian border in case if the Ottomans attack through Bulgaria and go to war on them. We also ask the Russians to protect us in the crisis. (RUSSIAN RESPONSE)
    • Russia agrees to defend Romania but will not support any Romanian attempts to increase tensions, if those occur.
  • Japan: Japan severs any diplomatic ties with Russia. Japanese Senate continues to debate when to start the war. The emperor continues to fear Russian Aggression after their denial to recognize their claim over Korea. Japan fortifies Ryojun. Japan sends a diplomat to the United Kingdom for joint naval and army exercises. (British Response). Japan asks a Chinese bandit by the name of Zhang Zoulin asking if he could led his bandits in destroying Russian Supply lines on their Railroads if war was to break out.(mod response needed).
    • United Kingdom: We agree. 
    • Zhang Zoulin agrees
  • Russia: With tensions rising with both Japan and the Ottoman Empire, the Tsar focuses on asserting our unwillingness to start conflict. We issue the following statement relating to Montenegro: "Russia does not seek to gain any land from the Ottomans, nor do we support any land gains by our ally, Serbia, and we further remain neutral regarding Bulgaria. Our purpose in this war is to protect Montenegro from an unprovoked and wanton invasion by the Ottomans". Meanwhile, we continue our offer to the Ottomans to return to the way things were before their invasion, with the Ottomans, Russians, and Serbians all leaving Montenegro (OTTOMAN RESPONSE). The internal reforms push continues. As our situation in Finland is currently worsening, we publish a statement assuring the control of the Finnish Diet over internal matters so long as they remain loyal to the Tsar, keep the peace, and remain in line with the spirit of Russian law (FINNISH RESPONSE). Regarding Japan, we issue a similar statement to the one relating to the Ottomans: "Russia has no intention to start any war with Japan, and will not encroach on any foreign oriental land, attack any foreign soldier, or begin any war. We shall be adequately prepared to defend ourselves from such aggression should Japan choose to attack us". We specifically make this argument of growing Japanese aggression to the United States, who we believe should be concerned about Japanese expansionism as American interests in the Pacific grow. Meanwhile, we offer Japan to negotiate recognizing their control over Korea in order to ease tensions (JAPANESE RESPONSE). However, we continue to increase our military preparedness in our own eastern regions, being careful to ensure that all of our efforts to increase preparedness remain entirely within Russian territory.
    • Japan: The Japanese demand that the Russians leave Manchuria and recognize that Manchuria and Korea are under Japanese Influence.
    • Finland wishes for their own Prime Minister and a Grand Duke completely under Russian Control.
  • Romania: We told the Russian we only build army out of worry of the Ottomans may attack us in the future. The King secretly put claims on Dobruja in Bulgaria as well. At the same time we warned the Ottomans to withdraw from Montenegro or we will cut ties with them (OTTOMAN RESPONSE).
  • United States of America: The developments between Japan and the Russian Empire are closely observed due to the implications of it with Great Britain and Ottoman involvement. With Japan cutting diplomatic relations to Russia, the Asiatic Squadron in Subic Bay is placed on alert should it need to mobilize and intervene in the matter between Russia and Japan. The outbreak of plague in Oahu, Hawaii raises concern with quarantine measures being put into place with access to the area being restricted with government personnel entering the area with proper equipment to treat the sick. With the signing of the Treaty of Juarez with the government of Mexico, resources are dispatched in the form of armaments, supplies, and personnel to train the the Federal Army and support the federal government.
  • United Mexican States (federal government): The Diaz regime and the McKinley administration sign the Treaty of Juarez, which provides the Mexican military with much needed weaponry, supplies, armaments, and funds. With thousands of fresh recruits and new military cadets, the federal army, now named the New Federal Army, begins training and drilling to remodel itself into an efficient modern fighting force. Within three months, under the guidance of U.S. officers, the raw recruits and military cadets are turned into a disciplined and trained standing army. With the NFA trained and ready for combat, Diaz begins preparations to begin operations against Zapata’s guerillas. Diaz capitalizes off the wave of support that his regime enjoys as a result of Zapata’s attacks on innocent towns and villages and begins placing large garrisons of troops in major southern Mexican cities such as Puebla, Oaxaca, San Cristobal, Campeche, Chichen Itza, Cancun, and Merida Uxmal. to protect them and the outlying regions from Zapata’s guerillas, promising to protect the people from Zapata’s thugs. Fortifications are also developed to the south of Puebla and Oxaca to prevent any Communist incursions into northern and/or central Mexico. Additionally, with funds obtained from the U.S. in the form of a massive loan, Diaz sends soldiers along with medical workers carrying medical supplies and foodstuffs to towns and villages attacked by Zapata’s troops to lend aid to the peasants suffering at the hands of the Communists. Doctors begin administering medical services while NFA soldiers begin providing grain, livestock and other supplies to the local peasantry while also helping to rebuild homes and shelters for the people. Diaz hopes that such a show of generosity and goodwill will show the people that he, not Zapata, cares for them and has their best interests at heart. With cities throughout the south being garrisoned to protect against Zapata, skirmishers and scouts begin making excursions into the southern Mexican countryside and jungle, aiming to locate Communist bases and camps as well as concentrations of communist fighters [MOD RESPONSE ON SUCCESS NEEDED].
  • RNG4: No Commie hideouts are found but Diaz’s men come back with some deadly diseases.
  • Kingdom of Sweden-Norway: with the rising tensions in Europe,the king orders the mobilization of the first,second and third jager divisions.MeanwhileThe parliament moves to <Oslo for its six month stay there while the parliamen tin stockholm is renovated to make place for the new senators.
  • PRM: we continue is attack and use guerrilla warfare, we start to use older and home made Coehorns anD Congreve rockets, we get supply and move them though the tunnels, in pro zapata areas recruitment is high, ambush on government supply routes are done to get the supply’s they hold zapata flees to Guatemala. (Secret) in the city’s that are hold by the government small groups of men secretly go in and ambush booby trap and sabotage government troop positions MOD RESPONSE ON SUCCESS NEEDED].
  • German Empire: as the Balkans crisis continues to Escalate, and French and Russian Pressure on the Ottomans increase Berlin continues to to push for the French and the Russians to ease up on Istanbul sending telegrams informing the Turks that they will recieve German Support in the case of a Russian invasion, meanwhile telegrams between St. Petersburg and Berlin remain ongoing with kaiser Wilhelm II imploring with his Cousin Nikolai II to back off so as to prevent a conflict. In the meantime in the Reichstag the divisions between the Established Junker, and Industrialist elite and the growing SPD are intensified as the SPD call for a deescalation of tensions and for Berlin to focus on its internal affairs instead of pursuing an agenda of Nationalist and Imperialist agenda. The SPD furthermore continue to push for electoral reform specially in Prussia due to the two class system favouring the wealthy rural elite, and their reactionary agenda. However the face a great deal of pushback from the aristocracy who continue to contemplate a crackdown of the reds, however this is prohibited by Kaiser Wilhelm II who continues to refuse to draw the blood of his subjects. Industrialization in thw Rhineland, and Silesia continues. While the Port of Hamburg grows in importance in the North Sea trade. Kronprinz Wilhelm decides to study in London influenced by his recent friendships with British and American diplomats specially the American military attache to Berlin James W. Gerrard who furthermore convinces him to tour the United States in a few years to finish his studies. With the young Prince being thrilled by the tales of American growth, and the new technology and ideas coming out of the New World. The American cowboy and Native Americans becomes very popular in the imagination of the young Prince, and amongst many of the German elites. of his age. In colonial affairs efforts to broker deals with the natives to secure lands for settlement specially in Namibia continue to grow. Research and development into new technologies continue in the fields, of engineering, medicine, chemistry, and physics. Efforts to improve German intelligence in Eastern Europe and the Med sea region continue to grow. Meanwhile the German contingent in Shandong is bolstered with several agents who attempt to reach out to the Beiyang army under the command of Yuan Shikai to counter the boxers, and to bolster German influence in the region.
  • Kingdom of Italy: Demobilization of the recently summoned 300,000 men is conducted. Meanwhile, work on the navy is redoubled. The falsehood of there being 4 battleships under construction is made real as a new pair of Cunibertian battleships are ordered. These, the actual Regina Margherita class, are essentially Niente-paura class ships with a slightly longer hull and greater displacement to allow for more armor at the same speed. All four ships are currently under construction, filling nearly all of the Kingdom’s shipbuilding capacity. Two regiments of Bersaglieri are shipped out to the Italian Concession in China to protect Italian interests in the region.

1900 - January to March

Strikes in Belgium and Germany lead to mining riots.

Having deliberated for several months, various members of the Blanco Party come to the conclusion that continuing the war is simply a waste of Uruguayan resources. After agreeing to the Brazilian peace, they secretly approach the United Kingdom and United States asking to become a protectorate of the two powers.

Tired of the hold up in the civilian government, Major Izumo of the Imperial Japanese Army takes matters into his own hands and launches a foray into Russian territory where he encounters a Russian patrol leading to a skirmish

With a majority of conservatives in the imperial court, Empress Dowager Cixi changes her position on the Boxers, and issues edicts in their defense.

The Boxer movement spreads rapidly north from Shandong into the countryside near Beijing. Boxers burn Christian churches, kill Chinese Christians and intimidate Chinese officials who stand in their way.

The Serbian Communist Party grow to become the third biggest party in Serbia, the King proposes suppression but his advisor says it would spark a revolution

British forces in the region fail to drive break up the Boer sieges of multiple towns and are fended off (note: This turn will be when the first major British relief forces arrive after being martialed overseas

The Zapatistas are driven back by the vastly larger Mexican army with their guerilla tactics procuring them enough supplies to continue fighting

As a result of the increase of intelligence gathering efforts by Germany, Russia manages to discover the identity of a few German spies and they are taken into custody.

  • United Kingdom: Arthur Balfour contacts Uruguay, stating he is interested in establish the country as a protectorate of the British Empire. (more to come)
  • Romania: With no response from the Ottomans we cut ties with the Ottomans gov and start funding Montenegro with weaponry. We ask Serbia to form a Balkan League to protect each other from the Ottomans threat. (SERBIAN RESPONSE)
  • United Mexican States: The NFA successfully drives Zapata's forces back as the Diaz regime moves to secure control of southern Mexico and thus all of Mexico. With the cities protected by large garrisons and the villages loyal to Diaz, most of southern Mexico is put firmly under Diaz's control. Further aiding Diaz's attempts to reimpose his rule over southern Mexico is the arrival of news that Zapata has fled the country to Guatemala. The government spreads the news, leading to widespread celebration throughout Mexico as the end of the short-lived rebellion seems near. With the planting season approaching, Diaz expects most of Zapata's men to return to their farms. As such Diaz issues a decree publicly promising amnesty to any Zapata fighter who wishes to return to their home in peace by Easter Sunday. Hopefully this offer combined with news of Zapata's flight will be enough to end the rebellion (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED)
  • Japan: The Japanese Senate continues to debate whether or not to anger the Russians. However the final decision is Emperor Meiji's. He awards Major Izumo the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum, the highest reward that the emperor could give. He also orders a steel statue be build in Major Izumo's home town. Japan introduces conscription and prepares the Army to attack if provoked. Japan sends more troops to the international TianJin Garrison. Japan asks the other great powers if they should intervene against the boxers. (Great Power Response) More to Be Added
  • Russia: The Russian court is concerned about growing tensions with many different countries nearby. We begin a propaganda campaign to encourage peasants to volunteer to join the military, in order to ensure we have a group of better-prepared soldiers if we should be invaded in the future. Additionally, the Tsar offers his cousin, Kaiser Wilhelm II, an opportunity to ease tensions. We ask Germany to mediate a peace settlement in the Balkans, proposing to return to the conditions before the war where Montenegro is independent (GERMAN RESPONSE). We continue to reaffirm to them and the rest of Europe that we do not intend to pursue any land gains from the Ottomans, and are purely protecting the sovereignty of Montenegro. As a sign of good faith to Germany, after questioning the spies we've captured for a month, we return one of them back to Germany. The Tsar agrees to the Finnish proposal of their own Prime Minister and a Grand Duke completely under Russian control, and is happy that one issue has come to a peaceful resolution. Regarding Japan, we continue to send troops, supplies, and weapons to our Eastern region. However, we ask Japan to back off, and we are willing to treat their unfortunate foray into Russian land as a mistake of a rogue officer if Major Izumo is court martialed, the Japanese army withdraws and shows no further signs of aggression, and a negotiating conference is held to settle our issues, based on the idea that Russia will recognize Japanese control of Korea, and regarding Manchuria an agreement will be arranged that allows Russia access to a warm-water port accessible by railroad but grants Japan the majority of the land in Manchuria (JAPANESE RESPONSE). Otherwise, we will continue to defend our territory from Japanese invasion, continuing to send strongly-worded messages to our brass in the East that we shall not encroach on the territory of other nations, and shall only defend our own territory unless there is a declaration of war. We ask the United States to consider stepping in to mediate this conflict, expressing our eagerness to find a mutually beneficial and reasonable solution for both Japan and Russia (AMERICAN RESPONSE), but also warn them of the growing Japanese aggression we have observed in recent years. Our efforts to modernize and reform our economy continue. Meanwhile, we ask France for exchanges of university students and visiting professors in our universities to better understand their agricultural systems (FRENCH RESPONSE)
    • `Japanese Response: the Japanese refuse the offer the Russians anything. The Japanese proclaim that Major Izumo is a national hero. Japanese also refuse the move from their border.  
    • Russia then plans on defending itself from any soldier who crosses into Russian territory, such as the invasion led by Major Izumo, and remind the world that Japan has commended Major Izumo for invading Russia without a declaration of war. We point out to the world that this is additionally concerning giving rising tensions with the Boxers in China, and warn that no European will be safe from Japanese aggression should European nations choose to intervene in that manner.
    • United States of America: The United States would be interested in mediating the conflict but Japan’s current refusal makes mediating the affair a complicated undertaking
    • French Diplomacy: We Agree to this deal.
    • Brazil: With the War over the Emperor calls together the President, the Cardinal and President of Parliament together to decide upon where to place the Jews, in the end they are placed in a special neighborhood in Rio De Janeiro and given special protection. The Emperor sent Bolivia the offer to negotiate the Acre Territory(Mod Response Needed). President Prado announces he will not seek a second term.
  • United States of America: Upon receiving the request of the Blanco Party for Uruguay to be made a protectorate of the United States, an envoy is sent to accept the request (Uruguay/Mod Response). The actions of Empress Cixi turn many heads in the United States with a request being made for the deployment of a detachment of US marines to the legations quarter of Beijing to protect the area (China/Mod Response). At home, it’s election season with William McKinley running against William Jennings Bryan and both campaigning across the United States. McKinley is gaining the edge due to the economic prosperity and recent victory in the Spanish-American War as well as Theodore Roosevelt’s popularity as a national hero for his actions in Cuba. The recent actions of Japan in regards to Major Izumo remain a hot point among the McKinley Administration due to Japan’s support for an aggressive action that disturbed the peace. This results in the decision to increase efforts to fortify the Philippine Republic with additional supplies and advisors being shipped and US garrisons in the region witnessing an increase in size as a response to both the Boxers and China. More ships are redirected from other fleets to the Asiatic Squadron due to the necessity of increased assets in the East Asia region to safeguard US interest as tensions and hostilities are ever increasing.
  • German Empire: Kaiser Wilhelm II upon the advice of his general staff, as well as a concerned Kronprinz Wilhelm, and his Brother Prince Heinrich agreeing to a mediated Peace with the Russia. However Berlin demands the release of the German spies taking into Custody, and he demands that Russia recognize the shared influence of the Balkans region, and to keep the forming Balkans League in line (Russian Response required.) German mobilization however isnt fully reversed so as to prevent the Russians, and French from attempted to take advantage of the situation, and also by the fears of the Junkers for a need to potentially suppress the growing rights in the mines. Kaiser Wilhelm II, and the KronPrinz find themselves in a strange situation voicing their disapproval of the usage of troops to suppress the civil unrest. Instead Kaiser Wilhelm II requests that the Miners submit their requests, and agree to negotiations with Reichstag. This action while disapproved of by the Junkers, and the Rhine Industrialists is accepted. The German Chemical industry continues to grow dramaticly with companies like Bayer taking a lead in production of things like synthetic dyes. Production and sales of Steel continue to grow due to the large demand for other industries in germany and abroad. The Spandau Arsenal is slated for upgrades While plans to develop a second Arsenal in Munich is planned. Shipping grows as Germany's products and influence grow into new markets. Expansion of the German naval forces begin in earnest with two new large battleships being commissioned for construction along with 3 new cruisers. Admiral Tirpitz heads this program at the behest of the Kaiser, However in an overture to London. Kaisder Wilhelm reuqests that Berlin, and London hold a naval conference so as to avoid a military dispute further he formally reuqests that his Grandmother assist him in finding a suitable match for his son who is now studying in London (British response required). Research and development in fields such as engineering (civil, industrial, and military, naval), Chemistry, and medicine. The German East Asiastic Squadran continue to blockade the Qing coastline as German Forces move to suppress the Boxer forces employing modern machine guns, bolt action rifles, and the new modern 77 mm Krupp gun to brutalize the Boxer forces into Submission meanwhile some modest looting of the Chinese countryside continues. Efforts to improve ties with the Beiyang Army continue as Yuan Shikai is sent advisors and modern weapons to help his forces in suppressing the Boxers further north. German intellegence make an offer to begin finanicially and military backing to the Qing Official Yuan Shikai (RNG required). Development and evanginlization and education of th German colnoies continue. Germany agrees to the olympics. 
    • Yuan Shikai: He eagerly accept this German support and will remember this in the future.
    • United Kingdom: A naval conference is agreed to, and Queen Victoria discusses suitable matches for the Crown Prince: she suggests Margaret of Connaught, her granddaughter. Other candidates include her other granddaughters, Beatrice of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and Alice of Albany.

1900 - April to June

An anarchist shoots at The Prince of Wales during his visit to Belgium.

The Exposition Universelle, a world's fair, opens in Paris.

The Hull-Ottawa fire in Canada kills seven and leaves 15,000 homeless.

The second Olympic Games, Paris 1900, open

Boxers destroy three villages near Peking, and kill 60 Chinese Christians. Later on, the Boxers gather about 20,000 people near Peking, and kill hundreds of European citizens, including the German ambassador. The Boxers attack Belgians, in the Fengtai railway station.

The majority of the Zapatistas return to their farm for planting season leaving Zapata with few men

Boer forces continue to siege the region successfully taking the towns of Mafeking and Ladysmith with Kimberley remaining under siege. The now freed Boer forces press further on into British territory

  • Argentina:  Roca is glad to see the end of the crisis and demobilizes all but 30,000 troops. The demobilized men enter the growing labor force and some turn to politics. Campaigning by the UCR leads to the introduction of more voting rights, Yriogen also calls for the rejoin with the national civic union. Mitre reluctantly agrees, with A young Puerreydon working with the party. With Modern Autonomist also wanting to see the expansion of voting rights, they split from the party forming the Progressive Party, the leading figures are Saenz Pena, former president Pellegrini and lawyer/rancher Ramon carcano. The rest of the Autonomist are shocked, seeing his power shrinking the president regroups the party. Some demand he bring the army down on them but Roca refuses. The UCR soon goes on a media campaign. Yriogen saying that 89,000 out of 4 million voted in the last election is an outrage. The UCR calls for protest to enact more voting reform. Soon some of the demobilized troops join in on the calls asking how they can defend the nation but cannot elect who leads them. The exploitation of natural resource reserves is invested into. Prospecting teams are sent all throughout Patagonia and the Andes. The rail lines continue to grow while the national arms industry begins to submit many designs to the government. The industry continues to grow as Viedma becomes the gate to Patagonia, it sees a growth in industry. 
  • United Kingdom: Concerns about General Buler result in his replacement, and Field Marshal Lord Roberts becomes Commander-in-Chief in the Boer War. Two divisions as well as large numbers of colonial volunteers arrived in South Africa - the largest force Britain has ever sent overseas. Roberts launched his main attack, managing to outflank Boers defending Magersfontein. Roberts and General French meanwhile attempted to bombard the Boer army into submission while they were attempting to cross the Modder River. Elsewhere, Buller used all his forces in an all-out attack for the first time to relieve Ladysmith. The intention was to demoralize the Boers with a series of defeats. and the British army marched on with the intention of taking Pretoria and Johannesburg.  
  • France: Support and supplies are sent to the Belgish governments to help with the riots. We will reaffirm our neutral stance regarding the Balkans, and we tell the Germans to not jump to conclusions. (GERMAN RESPONSE) A trade agreement is reached between both the US and Austria-Hungary, boosting trade in the region. With many events including the Olympics being held in France, it brings prosperity and more revenue for the French, which is spent on 2 spanking new battleships and further modernisation of roads and rails of the nation. In North Africa, Dakar and St Louis begins massive modernisations with new facilities and cleaner ports. This would allow more revenue and better morale for the people of French Senegal.  
  • Russia: The Russian court continues to seek solutions to rising tensions. We are pleased to work with Germany on developing a peace plan. We release the remainder of the spies we captured from Germany, having now questioned them for long enough, with the exception of one whom we keep for continued leverage until a settlement is reached. We accept Germany's proposal of shared influence in the Balkans but us keeping the Balkan league in check. As such, we tell Serbia to back down from its war with the Ottomans (MOD RESPONSE), and call for peace between the Ottomans and Serbs, warning the Ottomans that once Serbia withdraws, any invasion of Serbia will be met with force. The Tsar then continues his modernization efforts, happily welcoming French students and professors to increase our understanding of superior French agricultural techniques. Our reforms to our banking and patent systems continue, in order to better encourage investment and innovation. The Tsar looks for a massive new project: converting the trans-Siberian railway from a single-track to double-track railway. However, we continue to gradually send more troops and provisions, especially winter gear and food, towards the Eastern regions in case of a Japanese attack. Additionally, the Tsar grows increasingly worried about the Boxers in China. We ask the other nations of Europe, plus the United States, whether it would be a good idea to unite to stop the atrocities of the Boxers, in defense of Christianity, but we promise not to incur into China without the support of other major powers given our tenuous relationships with several nations. We again remind our troops in the east to not encroach on Japanese territory.
    • Serbia Refuses, promising to defend its brothers in Montenegro. 
  • Brazil: The Emperor meets with the President of Bolivia and asks what he would have to do to get Acre in its entirety(Mod Response Needed).The Emperor prepares to take the royal family to Paris for the Olympics. When Joaquim brings home the Silver medal the Emperor knights him and says he is a testimony to Brazilian strength.
  • Kingdom of Sweden-Norway: The parliament passes the 1900 language act which establishes the two main languages of the union as Swedish and Norwegian.This pleases the Norwegian people who shout the king's name at the annual holiday.Meanwhile in regards to the tensions in Europe,sweden-Norway declares neutrality in any future conlicts.
  • Principality of Bulgaria: The Bulgarian people grow restless over Ottoman rule, wanting full independence from the Turks. Meanwhile in News, Prince Ferdinand I ask the Ottomans if they would allow Bulgarians to participate in the Olympics (Ottoman Empire response needed). Ferdinand would also appear in speeches hoping to make Bulgaria more autonomous even though he gave no plan.
    • Just so you know, Bulgaria got independence already in the map game.
  • Ottoman Empire: Ottoman sends 100,000 more soldiers to Montenegro.
  • Kingdom of Italy: The increasing crisis in China prompts the reinforcement of the Italian Legation. Half a regiment is sent to the newly constructed garrison house to the west of the embassy building. Meanwhile, the Ottoman invasion of Montenegro troubles the Sarcano Government, but with the general election coming so soon in June the government decides to hold-off from action. Finances are made to ensure the completion of the 4 ordered Cunibertian battleships, the two Niente-paura class and the two Regina Margherita class. Otherwise, a number of smaller torpedo boats are ordered to challenge transit of the Strait of Sicily in times of war. Eight Pellicano class torpedo boats are ordered, with an additional order of a new flotilla of motoscafo armato silurante (torpedo-armed motorboat). A total of 32 of these motor boats are ordered to serve alongside the Pellicanos. They will be deployed in units of 2 Pellicanos accompanied by 8 torpedo skifs. The national elections in June see the confirmation of the Sarcano Government. With steady support for the left, Sarcano's mandate is re-affirmed and his government remains. 

1900 - July to September

Boxer Rebels, supported by Chinese Imperial soldiers, lay siege to the International Legations in Beijing. British, Russian, French, Japanese, German, American, Italian, and Austrian delegates and their guards are encircled in the Beijing Legation District by a force of 160,000 Chinese soldiers.

Serbia, having been abandoned by its traditional ally, reaches out to the western powers of France, the United Kingdom, and Italy searching for a new Great Power supporter. It also sends a delegation to Russia explaining that if Russia will abandon its Slavic brothers and allies to the Turks then it shall end friendless.

The first zeppelin flight is carried out over Lake Constance, near Friedrichshafen, Germany. A German cruise liner, the SS Deutschland, breaks the record for the Blue Riband for the first time with an average speed of 22.4 knots (41.5 km/h).

The first line of the Paris Métro is opened.

The First Pan-African Conference is held in London.

The Robert Charles Riots break out in New Orleans.

Boer forces in South Africa begin to suffer losses in their efforts to assault the British as more reinforcements from across the British Empire are brought in to suppress the Boer Colonists.

The last of the Zapatista forces capitulate no longer possessing the will to fight with Zapata gone.

  • United Mexican States: With the civil war effectively over, Diaz declares victory over Zapata’s short lived rebellion, allowing most of Zapata’s men, mainly farmers and peasants, to return to their homes unmolested as part of the amnesty. A three-day celebration is held in Mexico City, where Diaz and the NFA parade through the city in victory to the applause of thousands of Mexican citizens. With Zapata having fled to Guatemala in exile, Diaz sends a request to the Guatemalan government requesting that Zapata be turned over to the Mexican government, and that Mexican soldiers be allowed to conduct searches alongside Guatemalan forces to find Zapata. A bounty of $100,000 is placed on Zapata’s head as well to hopefully have him captured or killed [MOD RESPONSE NEEDED / MOD RESPONSE ON BOUNTY SUCCESS NEEDED]. With the military situation handled, Diaz now deals with the political situation in Mexico. The shock of Zapata’s rebellion has revealed discontent amongst the lower classes, and Diaz hopes to assuage this discontent with the socially liberal legislation that he tasked a group of lawyers, bureaucrats, and politicians with crafting. In the meantime, upon the recommendation of U.S. military advisors a military the Colegio Military, Mexico’s major military academy is opened not only to wealthy and upper class elites but also to all members of the public, regardless of race, class or creed. However admission is limited to those who can pass a rigorous physical and academic examination. Diaz also begins to restart his projects to encourage industrial growth and foreign investment in Mexico. This includes construction of railroads, highways and streets along with the development of naval infrastructure to facilitate trade. With European colonies in Asia increasing in value as a source of raw materials, Diaz sees a chance to serve as a middleman for the flow of raw materials to Europe. He begins to draft up plans to build a rail line connecting a port on the Atlantic and a port on the Pacific to provide easy access through Mexico and allow traders in the Pacific and Atlantic to easily transport their goods. The proposed rail line would start in Acapulco and cross to Veracruz.
  • Russia: The Tsar feels scorned by the Serbian refusal to back off, and by their call for other allies, since the Tsar's previous statement still guaranteed their independence. It is now their war against the Ottomans, not ours. However, should Serbia want to seek alternative allies, they may do so. Meanwhile, we use our influence in the region to set up a network of spies throughout the Balkans, including in Montenegro, Serbia, and Ottoman-controlled regions in the Balkans. Meanwhile, the Tsar looks to ease tensions with other nations. We ask Sweden-Norway for a trade pact (SWEDEN-NORWAY RESPONSE). We ask Germany for a diplomatic visit and exchange of cultural artifacts for museum displays in order to ease tensions (GERMAN RESPONSE). The Tsar's modernization efforts continue, with the continuation of our project to improve the Trans-Siberian railway. Additionally, with an eye towards the enforcement of business law, including intellectual property law, contract law, business-related criminal law (such as insider trading and fraud), and antitrust law, the Tsar begins to consider reforms to the judicial system. We continue preparing for a possible Japanese invasion of Eastern Russia, Sakhalin Island, and Manchuria by amassing troops and supplies in the East. The Tsar plans to wait to follow the lead of other European countries regarding the Boxers so as to not inflame tensions with Japan.
  • Brazil: The Emperor meets again with the President of Bolivia and asks what he would have to do to get Acre in its entirety.(Mod response needed)
  • Romania: The Romanian gov has announced that we declare war on the Ottomans for the liberation of not just Montenegro but also the liberation of the Balkans. (MOD RESPONSE FOR THE START OF WAR IN THE BALKANS)
    • Response: Serbia and Montenegro are at war with the Ottomans currently. Bulgaria is independent but neutral.
  • German Empire:  German officials disappointed by the Serbian refusal for peace but hopeful of the Russian, response agrees to also stay out of the conflict but secretly sends its tacit support to the Ottomans and also offers them guns, and krupp cannons The germans offer to mediate between the brits, and the Beors feeling some sympathy towards the Beor's pligh. Further another request is sent to london to help find a suitable match for the Kronprinz Wilhelm.  The 20,000 Germans in Shandong march north to relieve th besieged International legations, and a request is made to Yuan Shikai to help suppress the boxers and help out the foreigners, which will help him curry favour with them and gain more power (mod response).
  • United Kingdom: Once again, Queen Victoria recommends her granddaughter Margaret of Connaught wed the German Crown Prince. Before the Crown Prince leaves England, Princess Margaret gives him a small locket with a picture of herself inside. The British newspapers speculate on their impending marriage. Meanwhile, as the British army continues to bombard the Boers with many troops, retaking numerous towns, the Prime Minister Arthur Balfour agrees to Germany's request to mediate the conflict, hoping it can be resolved,. With a growing war in the Balkans, the British do not want to be tangled up in more than one major war on two continents at a time. 
  • Ottoman Empire: Ottoman sends diplomats to Bulgaria asking it to attack Romania. (Bulgaria response needed) More and more factories are still being built in Ottoman. Ottoman sends diplomats to Germany asking it to send generals to help Ottoman in the war, and a submarine. (germany response needed.)
    • Germany agrees.
  • Kingdom of Italy: Italy approaches the other European Powers and the Japanese about creating an international relief force to prevent the fall of the International Legation. Two Bersaglieri Regiments and two Alpini Regiments, a total of 12,000 men, are dedicated to such an endeavour. (Great Power Responses) Naval expansion continues with a refining of the Pellicano class. These ships are reclassified as Torpedo Destroyers, and their armament is altered slightly to include a larger battery of 4 120mm cannons. The Niente-paura class nears launch as the hull, machinery, and most of the armored belt are in place. The armor produced by the new plant at Terni incorporates recent advances in metallurgy and employs the most modern of the Krupp methods. The result is that the Niente-paura’s 25 cm armored belt is stronger than nearly 30 centimeters of the older Harvey armor. The two Regina Margherita are modestly well along with their keels and framing completed. Their machinery is also under order and is expected to be installed in late 1900. The first batch of the ordered motor skiffs is designed by SVAN in Venice, these ships weigh 25 tons, carry four torpedoes, and sport a naval machine gun.
    • United States of America:A force of 8000 troops has been assembled to combat the threat and can be committed to the international relief force
  • United States of America: In response to the actions of the Chinese Boxers, a force comprised of 8000 hastily assembled marines and soldiers are cobbled together in Subic Bay as a response to the actions of Empress Cixi and the Boxers. Seeking to find an ally to which support can be offered much similar to Yuan Shikai and Germany, US diplomats approach Li Hongzhang offering the support of the United States in safeguarding his region as well as training and supplying local forces under him with the intent of strengthening his position (Mod Response). US forces and assets are withdrawn from Mexico due to the conflict having reached an end and the region under the control of Diaz's government.
    • Li Hongzhang agrees

1900- October to December

Ottoman naval and industrial investment and intense spending on war with Montenegro leads to increasing insolvency. Money to pay soldiers and government laborers is scarce and taxes struggle to cover these costs as well as interest payments on the pair of Battleships and trio of cruisers purchases from the United Kingdom and Germany respectively.

British troops struggle to adapt to the rough, unforgiving terrain in South Africa. The Boers, meanwhile, are able to consistently out-maneuver the British forces. However, unable to repulse the larger British forces, Boer settlements are forced to be abandoned to the advancing British.

In Serbia, Filip Filipovic and his supporters secure broad support by forming Independent Communist Brigades to secure their homeland against invasion. These forces arm themselves with obsolete and civilian arms, but still manage to bolster Serbian defenses by another 25,000 men. Politically they empower the Communist Party of Serbia, allowing Filip Filipovic to suppress rivals amongst the other leftists parties.

Max Planck announces his discovery of the law of black body emission, marking the birth of quantum physics.

Republican incumbent William McKinley is reelected by defeating Democratic challenger William Jennings Bryan in a rematch.

Following Empress Cixi’s declaration of war against foreign nations and support for the Boxers, the Wuwei Corps are divided in their stance on the war with the divisions of the Right (Yuan Shikai) and Front (Ni Shicheng) suppressing the Boxers whereas the divisions of the Rear (Dong Fuxiang), Left (Song Qing), and Centre (Ronglu) act in support of the Boxers. The Mutual Protection of Southeast China is formed by governors in East, South, and Central China who refuse to follow Empress Cixi’s orders on the basis of them being a false edict.

A large standing stone at Stonehenge falls over, the most recent time this has happened.

Karl Landsteiner develops a system of blood grouping.

  • Romania: We sent 8,000 Romanian army into Kingdom of Serbia and we then start our first battle in the Serbian-Montengro border, (OTTOMAN RESPONSE) Meanwhile the remaining 4,000 Romanian army stays in the Bulgarian border. We also sent our navel into the black sea to stop a naval attack from the Ottomans.
    • Just so you know, Serbia and Montenegro doesn't share border.
  • Tzardom of Bulgaria: Bulgaria join the war on the Ottoman sides hopping to gain some land from the Romanians. Our army is mobilized and we declare war on October 31st. Conscription is held and our troops of around 4000 with an additional 2000 in reserve about to be called. Meanwhile on begin border skirmish with the Romanian. The Bulgarian navy also join the Ottoman navy where we begin a naval skirmish near Constanta. Around 10 Ships arrive with another 13 on the way. Bulgarian forces would soon send around 1,200 to the Serbian-Montego border. Bulgaria would also begin building forts on their borders Meanwhile, Ferdinand would address the nation calling for men to join the war to expand the Bulgarian border. The Tzar would ask the Ottomans if they would send their army to the Romanian-Bulgarian border to aid us, especially with their capital near the border (Ottoman response needed)
    • Ottoman response:Ottoman agrees and sends 20,000 troops.
    • The Bulgarian Navy does not posses 23 warships of any description.
  • Brazil: The Emperor meets again with the President of Bolivia and asks what he would have to do to get Acre in its entirety (Mod response needed). Emanopolis starts construction and is designed to be the diplomatic capital of Brazil with the Emanoplaza being the city centre. The Parliamentary election is held with the Royal Conservatives getting 31 seats and Royal Socialist 13 seats, Communist Party of Brazil 5 seats, Nationalist Party of Brazil 12 seats and in December the motion for women’s voting was passed.
    • Bolivia Response: They will agrees the terms of the OTL Treaty of Petrópolis
  • Kingdom of Sweden-Norway:The continuation of the rising tensions in Europe,prmpts the goverment to iniate defense plan a which would mobilize 60,000 troops to protect against any invasion from a foreign power.Meanwhile a draft aabut a huge naval buildup begins to be written and is expected done in 1902.However a snap election is done this month with the noweigan coalition managing to stay in power with a slim 2 seats majority..
  • Russia: Russia happily declares neutrality in the war in the Balkans. We continue to build up our network of spies across the Balkans, and we amass a very small force on our border with Romania in case of any future cause for us to intervene in the war. The economic reforms and Trans-Siberian railroad project continue. Additionally, we continue to send supplies to the East to prepare for a possible Japanese invasion. We send 13,000 troops via ship to China to fight the Boxers. We again ask Sweden-Norway for a trade pact (SWEDEN-NORWAY RESPONSE). We again ask Germany for a diplomatic visit and exchange of cultural artifacts for museum displays in order to ease tensions (GERMAN RESPONSE).
  • German Empire: Marshall Alfred von Waldersee takes command of the German contingent in China now numbering 25,000 men made up of 9 2 battallion regiments, and One Jager company, and various aritllery and cavalry regiments. The forces engage against the Boxer forces and the Imperial forces supporting them aiding Yuan Shikai on the Right The German Artillery goes to town on the enemy forces using the new 77 mm Krupp guns to great affect bombarding the enemy reserves and core regiments to sow chaos in their midst while the well drilled and armed German regulars lay continues fire on the enemy forces in an attempt to break through to the Legation quarters. Meanwhile Yuan Shikai is provided with new guns to equipt his men. An envoy to the American and Japanese contingent to get them to cooperate in breakingthe Boxer forces by coordinating Artillery fire to suppress the enemy forces while the German, and American, and British forces break the siege (Japanese, British and American Response needed). Industrislization and economic growth conrtinue at great pace with the many of Germany's swelling in size as more workers come to the cities. The SPD and Conservative coalition lead by Prince Berhnard von Bulow reach an agreement over increased safety regulations, better hours, and pay for Miners, and steel workers after a threat by the Steel Workers to go on Strike brought the conservatives around. Despitye these gains anger amidst the Junkers and some industrialists grow, as does tensions between the Conservative and Centre Party coalition and the National Liberals who had traditionally supported the Conservatives over Tariffs, and bending to the will of the socialists. The SPD doesnt stop its puh for reforms however now trying to capitalize on the recent victory to push for Political reform to standardize the electoral system. These demands are shotdown by the Conservatives which leads to a new round of battles of the Reichstag. Kronprinz Wilhelm is engaged to Princess Margeret of Great Britain a nd set to wed her upon his return to Europe from The U.S.A. the Kronprinz takes a boat to New York and seeks an audiance with the AMerican president through his friend James Gerrard (American response.) Naval expansion continues and the british are told that upon the royal wedding of WIlhelm and Princess Margeret a naval conference will be held as promised to discuss matters of baval expansion (British response).
    • United States of America: In an effort to improve relations with the German Empire, President McKinley agrees to a meeting with the German Prince.
  • Ottoman Empire: Ottoman is fully mobilized and attacks the capital of Montenegro with 450,000 troops, and Serbia and Montenegro defending with 300,000. Taking advantage of the fact that Cetinje is surrounded by mountains, Ottoman forces surrounds the capital, while getting supplies from the port. Other forces of Serbia and Montenegro are having hard time getting there because of mountains and other ottoman forces.
  • United States of America: The US military forces deployed to China continue to operate in the capacity expected of them in pacifying the Boxer Rebellion. With the agreement of Li Hongzhang to American aid, efforts are undertaken to assist him with the Engineer Corps being dispatched alongside a portion of the initial 8k men sent into China to help improve local infrastructure from roads to railways to telegraph lines in Guangdong and Guangxi. US officers and troops are also committed to the task of building up Li Hongzhang’s military forces through training and supplies. McKinley’s victory in the elections leaves him as the President of the United States.
  • Kingdom of Italy: A small contingent of officers is sent to observe the war in Montenegro. Meanwhile work continues on the shipbuilding programs.

1901 - January to March

Anti-Jesuit riots sweep across Spain.

Irish nationalist demonstrators are ejected by police from the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, in London

In Bremen, an assassination attempt is made on Wilhelm II, German Emperor.

Students riot in Saint Petersburg and Moscow, Russia.

A 7.2 Mw Black Sea earthquake occurs off the northeast coast of Bulgaria, with a maximum intensity of X (Extreme). A destructive tsunami affects the province of Dobrich.

Lord Kitchener reports that Christiaan de Wet has shot one of the "peace" envoys, and flogged two more, who had gone to his commando to ask the Burgher citizens of South Africa to halt fighting.

In the first great Texas gusher, oil is discovered at Spindletop in Beaumont, Texas.

In Bulgaria, many question the decisions of the leadership to side with the Ottomans in the conflict considering there history with them as well as opportunities if they were to win in a fight against the Ottomans.

The Coalition forces of Italy, Germany, Russia, Austria, and the United States continue to gain ground against the Boxers having managed to push on and secure Beijing as well as Peking driving the enemy leadership inland to Xi’an and securing most of the exterior of China.

In Montenegro, Ottoman forces smash into carefully prepared Serbo-Montenegrin defensives which have been under construction since the beginning of hostilities. The result is a bloodbath. Machine-guns, employed by the Montenegrins as a last-ditch attempt to overcome their manpower constraints, prove devastating against the massed infantry used by the Ottoman forces. Despite a ferocious defense, Serbo-Montenegrin forces suffer 30,000 casualties. Meanwhile the Ottoman forces suffer nearly 60,000 casualties and only manage to make minor headway. It is clear the war will be one of attrition thanks to the resolute defense.

  • United Kingdom: British forces aid the Germans and the other Great Powers in China, and a naval conference is agreed to at the wedding of the German Crown Prince and Princess Margaret. Queen Victoria once again hopes a British German Empress will help to liberalize the German Empire. Britain, while winning numerous battles in the Boer War, begins to suffer heavy casualties and find the terrain difficult. Prime Minister Arthur Balfour proposes a potential treaty between the Boers and the British that will allow some kind of South African Dominion to be formed under the British Empire. 
  • Romania: 4,000 Romanian troops in Bulgarian borders are sent into the attack on Bulgaria. Meanwhile 8,000 Romanian troops in Serbia is helping the Serbo-Montenegrin force in the defence to stop the Ottomans attack. We also talk to Greece to join us in this war. (GREECE RESPONSE) Our navel is still in black sea attacking Ottomans
    • Greek response: The Greek government and monarch decline to officially join the war and hope to rather find Balkan peace and say when peace time comes that Athens can be the place for the treaty.
  • France: 15,000 infantry are sent to sort out the boxer troubles in China. They come from Guangdong, French Indochina and French West Africa. The shipbuilding program continues.
  • Orange Free State: Christiaan Rudolf de Wolf and the OFS council send a ceasefire request to the British so negotiations can occur. (BRITISH RESPONCE)
    • United Kingdom: This is agreed to, and negotiations begin. 
  • Empire of Brazil:Emanopolis continues construction as well the President approaches the Olympic committee and asks that Río gets to have the next Olympics (Mod Response Needed). We improve the railway system. A house emerges in Río, the Prado Plaza where President Prado will retire. We ask William McKinley to visit Rio de Janeiro to repair relations with the 2 nations (American Response Needed) . An expedition is sent to Costa Rica in search of Zaptista. A big expedition is put in preparation. The Amazon is officially protected in it’s entirety. The Army is improved and 3 Cruisers are ordered. Funding is sent to Serbia, Romania and Montenegro. With the Acre deal sorted out a summit is offered to Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador to discuss peace between the four nations(mod response needed). We wish to buy Cabinda from Cabinda in exchange anything the Portuguese desire(Mod Response Needed). Emperor Emmanuel wishes to meet with his Uncle in Rome to discuss the Savoyan foreign policy.(Italian Response Needed)
    • United States of America: Although President McKinley does not make the trip to Rio, an ambassador is sent in his place to represent him and expresses America’s concern with Brazil disrupting the status quo as well as returning to its imperial state
    • Olympic Committee:The requested Brazil is taken as its offering of Rio de Janeiro as a candidate for the final ballot and is accepted with no guarantees being provided that Rip will be chosen as the final city for the Olympics since the city to host is decided by secret ballot
    • The aggressive actions of Brazil in regards to Uruguay have made Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador concerned about Brazil’s intent so they hesitantly agree to discuss but don’t offer any concrete guarantees
    • Portugal Response: The Portuguese refuse to sell Cabinda for anything
  • United Mexican States: The lawmakers, bureaucrats and politicians tasked with drafting a comprehensive legislative plan of social reforms present the Plan de Equidad, the Plan of Equity, to Diaz. The ambitious social reforms call for land redistribution, tax cuts on the middle and lower class, tax hikes on the wealthy elites, and subsidies to peasant farmers along with economic protections in the form of price caps and regulations. The Plan is immediately attacked by Diaz’s elitist allies, who use their considerable influence with Diaz to attempt to shut the plan down. Diaz himself is put off by the ambitious social programs, and with the immediate threat of rebellion gone Diaz is less inclined to implement such social reforms. However seeking to fulfill his earlier promise Diaz implements a heavily stripped down version of the Plan, which only mildly lowers taxes. A prominent lawmaker who helped craft the Plan, Francisco Madero, is outraged by the fact Diaz has reneged on his promise and only partially implemented social reforms. Madero begins discussing potential action to be taken against Diaz with a number of prominent officials, including military officials. The military, heavily influenced by American ideals of equality and liberalism, and also now filled mainly by the sons of poor farmers and peasants, is heavily inclined towards Madero and his liberal social ideas. A number of military officials come to Madero to offer their support to him. In the meantime Diaz, unaware of the military’s growing disloyalty, continues to pursue his prior plans to build Mexico’s industry and infrastructure to encourage foreign investment. Plans continue to build a trans-continental railroad connecting Acapulco and Veracruz while the Diaz government heavily invests in building roads and other minor railroads. With Guatamala giving Mexico permission to find Zapata, an armed expedition of 5,000 men is sent into Guatamala. The expedition is explicitly told to cooperate and obey Guatamalan orders and to not do anything to offend the Guatamalan government or its people. The expedition launches a massive manhunt to find Zapata in Guatamala [MOD RESPONSE ON SUCCESS NEEDED]. Diaz also hears that Brazil is sending an expedition to Costa Rica to find Zapata. A diplomatic envoy is sent to the Empire of Brazil to inquire why they seek to find Zapata and what their plans are if they do find him [BRAZIL RESPONSE NEEDED].  The discovery of oil in Texas prompts hopes amongst prominent Mexican businessmen that Mexico may also have oil to be discovered. Some businesses begin plans to explore Mexico searching for suitable oil wells. 
    • Brazilian Response: If Zapata is found be the Communist will be sent to the Brazilian embassy, given a fine meal and good bed and in the morning will be sent to the
  • Argentina: The campaigning from last year go as planned as the UCR and progressive party are able to ably defeat the Autonomist. Saenz Pena is president of the senate. Yrigien remains the leader of the lower chamber but with UCR in the much better position  to enact reforms. The first of which is universal secret and mandatory elections with elections days being set as national holidays. Immigrants are given easier access to citizenship since they make up so much of the population. Roca sits back and accepts the oligarchy he’s managed is now over, in thanks to hand to the sons of one of his greatest supporters. To save face Roca signs any liberal reforms to not incite the err Congress. The national bank begins to give easy credit to Argentine nationals hoping to invest more than foreign sources. Industry continues to grow as prospector come back with resource reports from Patagonia. Research of these claims is invested into. The corps of doctors is given more funds and an official base in Córdoba.
  • United States of America: The commander of US forces in China, Adna Chaffee, bans looting by American soldiers and is given the authority to imprison or punish US troops in lieu of a court martial. Although reprehensible, prostitutes are paid for by the US military to prevent US soldiers from raping locals. The autonomy granted to Adna Chaffee in preventing rape and looting results in a drastic difference when compared to other coalition forces with it also extending to missionaries and US representatives in country in an attempt to earn the support of locals. Guangxi and Guangdong serve as the chief areas for US involvement to provide support to and bolster Li Hongzhang’s position among the Mutual Protection of Southeast China with US companies expressing an interest in the region due to tax incentives being offered to companies that do assist in developing the local economy but for now due to the fighting they survey and inspect the region in preparation for after the Rebellion. The war in Balkans has drawn the attention of the US military with the Department of War dispatching observers and attaches to observe and take note of the fighting with the Department of the Navy providing a naval escort for the observers. Cuba and the Phillipines continue to receive support from the US in both financial and military assistance with a proposal made through Congress to make Cuba a protectorate which narrowly fails to pass through Congress. J.P Morgan incorporates the first billion dollar company US Steel which at some points is the world’s largest producer of steel.

1901 - April to June

Anti-Jewish rioting breaks out in Budapest.

The Caste War of Yucatán remains an ongoing struggle with the region of Chan Santa Cruz remaining openly defiant to foreign rule and fighting for Mayan Independence. Thanks to the actions of Zapata, the region has had time to consolidate and fortify its position against outside intrusion.

Panic of 1901: The New York Stock Exchange crashes.

D'Arcy Concession: Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar of Persia grants British businessman William Knox D'Arcy a concession giving him an exclusive right to prospect for oil.

The actions of the Brazilian government in preserving the Amazon has resulted in the slowing of economic growth and productivity leading to entrepreneurs and farmers petitioning the government to lax its policies.

Coalition forces assisting in the occupation of China are noted by many to partake in rape, genocide, and looting with many notable writers and the Press of their home countries offering harsh commentary on these affronts.

In Italy, the agricultural crisis remains a prevalent issue due to inefficient management of land with many of the low income class protesting the government’s attention on the new warships rather than the agricultural crisis resulting in large demonstrations that sometimes escalate

  • Romania: 4,000 Romanian force is attacking Bulgarian force in Dobruja. At the same time, we helped the Serbian force to hold the line with 8,000 of our forces.
    • Just a note, you should be employing a much larger number of soldiers, look into the First and Second Balkan Wars for numbers.
  • France: We offer the Italians some of our Advanced Agricultural technologies to help them recover from this crisis. (ITALIAN RESPONSE) The Shipbuilding Programme continues.
    • Italian Response: Though we are capable of providing our own mechanization techniques, we would appreciate the cooperation of the French people on resolving the long-running Franco-Italian trade dispute.
  • Orange Free State: The Orange Free State agrees to the Treaty of Bloemfontein, they unify with Transvaal and the Cape Colony to form the Union of South Africa. Elections for Parliament are to take place within the next 9 months.
    • "'Dutch diplo: seeing the war has finnaly ended a request for the Orange Free State is made to establish an embassy in Johannesburg. Additional to that a light cruiser (HNLMS Sumatra) is given into possession of the Orange Free State and it will be docked in Cape Town.
  • Tsardom of Bulgaria: Bulgarian forces of around 5000 with 20,000 Turkish forces about to arrive would defend at Dobruja. Meanwhile, Bulgarian forces of around 4,000 attack Romanian forces in Mangalia and Negru vodã. Meanwhile, the war is being questioned with many wondering why we are fighting. With the Ottoman. Ferdinand would comfort the people noting that they are only in the war just to gain land from Romania. If the war comes our of our favour we would switch side or quit. Meanwhile, The Bulgarian navy of around 23 would reach the city of Constanta and we begin a site of the city.
    • Just a note, you should be employing a much larger number of soldiers, look into the First and Second Balkan Wars for numbers. Also the Bulgarian Navy is still not 23 ships (please outline what kinds of ships as well).
  • Brazil: Emanopolis continues construction. We request Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia to accept a non-aggression pact with every Country involved(Response Needed). We also ask the leaders of Chile, Argentina and Uruguay to join the Emperor in Río(mod response needed). With Brazilian workers asking for more land the President draws up a map to cut a part of the Amazon forest and no more trees planted there so the farmer can continue to work. We ask the British to sell us Guyana at any price, we also ask the same to France and The Netherlands, our intent would to form a nation which would be supported by every South American nation, Politically and Financial(Response needed). The Emperor meets with the American Ambassador and offers him permanent embassy(response needed). Our expedition continues to search for the now wounded Zapata.(Rng needed)
    • Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia agree to a nonaggression pact so long as any violation of it breaks the pact with the others as well
    • Chile agrees. Uruguay and Argentina both respond with questions as to the nature of the visit.
    • Brazilian Response: To protect South American interests and secure South American glory by being able to claim the first continental peace. So once again we ask them to join us.
    • United States of America: The McKinley Administration agrees to set up an embassy in Brazil and allocates the necessary funds to purchase land and build an embassy with a detachment of US marines being assigned to safeguard the premises of the embassy.
    • Dutch diplo:For labor and production purposes, the offer is declined.
    • Zapata Evades capture.
    • German Diplomacy: Berlin strongly discourages Brazil's acts of aggression against the dutch, and however war is undesirable and would prove unprofitable for the Brazilians, and further more could prove a destablizing factor for the recently restored Empire specially given its recent coflict with Argentina.
  • Kingdom of the Netherlands: with the construction and the government of the east indies keeping the evaluation of the Indonesian archipelago infrastructure, more productivity is beginning to be seen. in a few months a former business man in the west indies lost his job and returns back to Amsterdam. He gets permission by the government to set a permanent residence in Belgium and he goes with the proposal to the Belgian local bank  to give him a loan to establish a boulangerie in urban streets of Antwerp. The Dutch government happily let Belgian citizen (if some want) to establish ghettos in different cities in  Maastricht and Heerlen. This was done by the Dutch government to establish friendly ties with the Belgian government that had it relations soured and strained much more after the treaty of London that caused a Belgian break out from Dutch land. 3 more oil fields are beeing discovered in sigli plains and 2 in Riau region in Sumatra and 1 in each Perlang and Lamang.  auctions are beeing held in Batavia while serval business men attend to the auctions to purchase the properties of the rich oil fields in the depths of Sumatran and Bangkokian oils. As auctions ended the business mens and entrepreneurs began establishing oil estractors are beeing established and oil be purchased and exported to industrial areas by rail roads with it crude beeing converted to low grade oil to be used in various types of needs. The large forests of rubber trees are also seeing good productivity as many raw rubber is beeing also manufactured to new products. Those be shipped to Europe at the end and be bought in large quantities in the market stocks to be used in various ways, thus, granting the Dutch more profits. The plantations of tabacco and coco and spices and exotic plants is still on and still be seeing good profits. 1,000 suriname natives are shipped to eastren coasts of Aceh to work on a coal mine to increase the productivity. Project of railroads is still dugging in the east indies as more railroads beeing finished seeing a vast movement for labor and logistics for products and passagers. A railroad is also built from Batavia to Trowulan. Hearing that the area has vast products of coal mines and plantations to be transported to the Europeans markets for sales. The King William III sends a letter throughout telegram to the president of France thanking him for the warships that they were given to guard and protect our mainland coasts. The governor of the east indies sends a telegram for the British empire asking for engeniers to assist the development of the Dutch navy as it lacks the heavy type of ships that are called "battleships" are needed in a moderate numbers to protect the Dutch holdings in Asia and South America [British response, please]. Roads are also beeing erected in the Dutch west indies to let safe passage for horse caravans and other wandering citizens in the colony. As the 25 field artillery is beeing produced and incorporated into the Dutch Arsenal with two of three Atjeh class heavy cruisers beeing done leaving only one more to be done to complete the request. The order of 300,000 rifles is still beeing produced for the Dutch army as the result is still waiting for the finnaly review in January 1902, seeing that many rifles are built with more to come. Seeing that many wars are beeing in place and especially in the boxer rebellions matter, the Dutch sends 100 colonial forces to Guangdong escorted by a Dutch protected cruiser to participate in repelling the threat that dangers the European intrests in China. While the batak indegious are disobeying and having attempts lunched to disrupt the industries of the Dutch in the east indies in Boerno. The Dutch, seeing this as a matter of preserving intrests and eliminating the barbaric enemies lunch a punitive expedition in southern boerno against the batak, 1,200 Dutch rifle men  and 1,000 KNIL rifle men with 10 field canons will be sent into the region while beeing escorted by several lightly armoured vessels to counter any ambushes. [Algorithm needed, please] the orders are also given to capture and not execute as much of them as possible to be used in forced labor later on to increase the productivity of the colony.
    • No need for an algo. The Dutch soldiers are able to suppress the disobediant natives.
  • Kingdom of Greece: Prime Minister Georgios Theotokis would continue to emphasize the Neoteristikon Komma, for he wished for his reign to be recognized as great in the eyes of the West and the greater world. This emphasis would leave him in high regards of King George I, who would relay the same reformist ideology. In the meantime however, Theotokis would pick up painting as a side hobby, although to be honest, his painting weren't exactly the most aesthetically-pleasing to the eyes. Still, he enjoyed it, for it gave him happiness and pleasure, of which he could not derive from contemporary politics, which had only grew into a series of two-faced, back-stabbing kingdoms that wished only to expand and conquer, and while Theotokis would partake in the same sin as his peers, he would keep himself accountable, instead focusing his personal time on the beauty of the world rather than the putrid and stone-like states that have come to flourish out of the cement that is the Balkan peninsula. Politically, he would commission further technical and weapon-based support from the Italians, instituting modern firepower among the regiments of the national Greek military, the Hellenic Army, while naval arms were expanded to further stragulate the Ottoman naval supremacy that had grown crippled in their state of decline. Garrisons and military fortifications would begin installation in the towns and cities along the border of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Ottoman Empire: Sultan sent diplomats to Greece to buy the painting of the Greek king as s sign of peace. (Greece response needed.) Ottoman also sent gifts to Bulgaria as an appreciation for the support. Ottoman withdraws part of it forces to its land in case of Serbian attack, while assembling 500,000 soldiers to the Capital of Montenegro, with 30 artillery. (algo needed.) Ottoman also send diplomats to Persia and Darfur, the nations that made alliance with Ottoman recently, and Jabal Shammar, a historic ally, to ask them to form a coalition. (mod response needed)
    • Mod Response: Darfur and Jabbal Shammar accepts the invitation to form a closer defensive alliance but Persia refuses, stating that its current defensive alliance with the Ottomans is enough.
  • German Empire: The crown Prince WIlhelm returns to germany after an extended tour of Great Britain and the United States, building positive relations with the Ruling elite in both countries and striking a personally friendship with Theodore Roosevelt whose towering personality, and strong convictions inspire the young Prince. Upon his return to Berlin preperations for the wedding of Wilhelm, and Princess Margeret of Great Britain are made for the late summer (next turn). An invitation is sent to the leaders of Great Britian, The United States,, and to the rulers of continental Europe to the glorious occasion, and plans are laid out for a naval conference with the British, The French, Italians, and Americans are also invited as well. military and industrial expansion continue. development of the colonies continue. Tensions in German South West Africa grow as the Herroro and Nama people complain about being pushed off their lands by new settlers in the region. In china news of the ransacking is met with indignation by the priests, and the SPD however the conservative coalition largely ignores these issues with the Kaiser himself praising the heoric actions of the German and coalition troops in suppressing the barbarians and enforcing the will of the Europeans in China (keep in mind OTL WILHELM II was very much like this). research and development into new technology continues. The German army begins experimenting with the idea of developing airships for military usage. more to be added later.
  • United Mexican States: Discontent continues to spread throughout Mexico as Diaz continues with his conservative policies, seemingly abandoning his prior intent to socially and economically reform the nation due to pushback and opposition from his elitist and wealthy allies. With Diaz reneging on his promise of reform, those unhappy with this turn of events begin to unite behind Madero, whom many see as the exact opposite of Diaz. Madero continues to gather support, uniting various dissatisfied factions that are unhappy with Diaz. Particularly many soldiers and military officers begin to support Madero, as the military is now open to peasants and farmers. Additionally, with the end of Zapata’s rebellion and the emergence of guerilla warfare in the Yucatan, many wealthy and elitist men who were attracted to the military as a way to find glory are turned off by the brutal jungle guerilla warfare in the Yucatan and leave the military, leaving it mainly filled with lower and middle class farmers and peasants. This only increases the military’s growing support for Madero and other social and economic reformers. Seeing the increasing resistance to Diaz’s rule in the Yucatan, Diaz assembles 10,000 men of the Federal Army and dispatches them to wage war against the natives to reimpose his authority there [MOD RESPONSE NEEDED]. Diaz views the rebellion as an annoying distraction, with his focus being on building Mexico’s industry and infrastructure to encourage foreign investment in developing Mexico. Plans for the trans-continental railroad continue, however the surveyors sent to plan a route have a difficult time in attempting to find suitable ground to build railroad tracks in the mountainous regions of central Mexico.
    • The Federal Army makes some progress, but is bogged down near the town of Valladolid. They suffer severely as disease is rampant and the Maya conduct guerrilla warfare that saps the resolve of the Mexican forces. By the end of the year 3,000 are dead or wounded and another 2,000 are ill. 
  • Kingdom of Italy: The Sarcano Government, under intense pressure from the Left, agrees to slow spending on warships. The Regina Margherita glass is delayed and purchases of Carcanos reduced dramatically. Due to the fragmented nature of Italian farmland a grand “Riorganizzazione” is pursued. Small scale farmers are given the opportunity to conduct government-sanctioned land-swaps including small government handouts to ensure smooth land exchange. The goal is to create unified, small plots for Italy’s smaller farmers and make land improvement more profitable. The 1877 Coppino Law, which requires education for all, is re-examined and enforcement is brought up to the forefront. Sarcano takes the lead on instituting education reform, calling it his Grand Ambition. Despite this, the agricultural crisis, thanks to cheap grain imports from abroad, continues. To counteract the competition, Italian farmers are encouraged to adopt other more luxurious crops or to mechanize with government assistance. Improving the efficiency of Italian farming is the main goal of the government in its implementation of reforms. In other news, the Niente-paura class nears completion and as their top-works and armament are installed and fully operational. At 17,500 tons the ships are an impressive feat of Italian manufacturing prowess, and a demonstration of the “New Italy.” King Umberto I travels to attend the wedding of Kronprinz Wilhelm and Princess Margeret.
  • United States of America: The Great Fire of 1901 occurs in Jacksonville, Florida burning many of its wooden buildings down and becomes one of the largest urban fires in the United States to date. The Stock Market panic leaves thousands of small investors ruined with the Northern Securities Company being founded in its wake but the company is quickly shit down due to its violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 in Northern Security Co. v. United States. The Edison Storage Battery Company is founded in New Jersey to develop, manufacture, and sell the Thomas A Edison, Inc Edison Storage Battery Division label. The Cherry v. Des Moines leader is resolved in the Iowa Supreme Court which affirms the right to publish critical reviews. The scathing backlash in the States to the actions of US soldiers is met with a hasty action taken by the government and military to rein in US forces in China to prevent them from committing these horrendous acts to earn the good graces of the public with Military Police being dispatched to oversee and regulate the actions of US troops in cooperation with Adna Chaffee. Efforts to provide assistance to Li Hongzhang and the Viceroyalty of Liangguang continue with US forces assisting in these region by training and arming local forces as well as assisting in developing local infrastructure for the region. US companies have expressed an interest in investing in the Liangguang region due to the tax incentives with these primarily comprising of smaller companies who are looking for areas beyond the influence of the biggest corporations at home who have begun to dispatch surveyors and inspectors to determine the possible worth of the region and its assets.

1901 - July to September

Peter O'Connor sets the first International Association of Athletics Federations recognised long jump world record, of 24 ft 11¾ins.

Robert Falcon Scott sets sail on the RRS Discovery, to explore the Ross Sea in Antarctica.

The International Secretariat of National Trade Union Centres is founded in Copenhagen.

Michigan schoolteacher Annie Edson Taylor goes over Niagara Falls in a barrel, and survives

The war in Montenegro continues. Ottoman forces have made minor gains throughout the past several years. However, casualties have been horrific. Serbo-Montenegrin units have been reduced to 2/3rds their initial combat capacity with only 200,000 left defending. Across no-man's-land the Ottomans likewise have experienced monstrous loses. Of the initial 450,000 men set on the offensive 300,000 are dead or wounded. Though the Ottomans have been able to replace their loses with fresh troops the war weighs immensely on the country.

Unrest in Macedonia swells as the Ottoman authorities in the region struggle to keep order facing dramatic loses in with war. Greek and Bulgarian partisans clash extensively, with the Greeks beginning to take the upper hand in expelling Bulgarians from the territory.

A coalition of French student groups, intellectuals, and pacifists protest the naval construction being undertaken by the French state in response to Italian naval building programs. They demand an end to such military spending and increased social liberties.

The inactivity of Japan in regards to the Boxer Rebellion upsets the military establishment who believes Japan has missed a chance to influence China resulting in military cadets organizing an aggressive demonstration in front of the civilian government only dispersing after the intervention of the commandant of their academy

OOC: Romania and Bulgaria your algorithms are posted on the talk page for 1900 and 1901. Also, unless you are intentionally keeping this a very minor conflict troop numbers could stand to be 10-30x higher. Also, Romanian Player, Carol I, the King of Romania, died earlier in the game and a replacement has not been found, please address this.

  • Argentina: We cautiously accept Brazil’s offer in the hope to keep peace and allow South America so make its mark in the world.We also urge Uruguay to join us as we will protect their delegation (Brazilian player/mod response). Liberal congress continues to enact reforms that take power from the Autonomist. Universal secret elections are written into law officially. The next target of the UCR is the electoral college which the progressive party pushes back against. The national rail company begins to extend its lines south of Viedma to open up Patagonia. Coal mines are expanded and more steel furnaces are built in Cordova and Rosario. The Corp of doctors opens a medical school in Buenos Aires which begins to clean up the city. More roads are built in the great area around the capital. One of the private banks is absorbed into the central bank and its debts are paid off. Smaller British rail lines are also bought at fair value. A staff college in Córdoba is opened with forgein experts as teachers. 
  • United Kingdom: The British royal family prepare for the marriage between Princess Margaret and the German Kronprinz this year. Britain also helps the Dutch with their Navy, as requested last year. The effective end to the Second Boer War is celebrated in the United Kingdom.  
  • Union of South Africa: The Dutch embassy opens in Johannesburg with the Diplomat meeting with the Governor General Walter Hely-Hutchinson. Since the formation of the Dominion most systems have been kept in place, with legal authority in the hands of the Governor General, he was the Governor of Cape Colony during the 2nd Boer War and in the Cape region, protests against the Boers occur due to the Governor General's fear mongering. Preperations for the Election are near complete as Johannesburg is made the soul capital of the dominion. Many Boer families have intrests in German South West Africa, a request is sent to the Germans to open up settlement in the region [GERMAN RESPONCE NEEDED].  
  • United Mexican States: The situation in the Yucatan becomes an increasingly messy situation, as thousands of Federal soldiers die of disease, the heat, and deadly attacks launched by native ethnically Mayans who know the terrain and how to hide, hunt and move through the jungle. Diaz, determined to crush all resistance to his rule and with his ego inflated by his victory over Zapata, doubles down on his efforts to end the rebellion in the Yucatan. An additional 40,000 men are dispatched to the Yucatan, this time led by Diaz personally. They begin aggressive efforts to subdue the Mayan state, with 20,000 men, including the 5,000 survivors of the first invasion, moving from Mayan settlement to settlement, burning and pillaging as they go. 25,000 men under Diaz are dispatched to Chan Santa Cruz, aiming to occupy it to crush the heart of the Mayan resistance [MOD RESPONSE NEEDED]. Madero continues to build support, with his allies and supporters growing bolder in Diaz’s absence. Some pressure Madero to seize power with Diaz gone, however Madero insists that if he comes to power it will be through an election, not a coup. While many view this as proof that Madero is the man Mexico needs, others view it as a mistake made by a naive optimist.   
  • Tsardom of Bulgaria: With heavy losses on both sizes and relations with the Ottoman screwing, We have declared that we are pulling out. The news comes with mixed reactions. Some are glad that we are pulling out wanting to see their brothers, sons and fathers again. Some are also against fighting for the Ottomans. Others wanted to continue the fighting in order to expanded Bulgaria. Others want to continue fighting so they could backstab the Turks. By August we have completely withdrawn from the war.
  • Romania: The King of the Romanians Carol I dies early this year. The new King Of Romania Ferdinand I was crowned as the new king. We heard that the Bulgarians has made peace so we tell the Bulgarian gov to come to Bucharest to sign a peace treaty. (BULGARIAN RESPONSE) Meanwhile we called the Italians to join us in this war (ITALIAN RESPONSE) We start senting troops from Bulgaria of 8,000 now increase to 160,000 to Serbia. At the same time the troops in Serbia is now increased to 120,000.
    • Bulgaria Responce: The Bulgarian repersentives would come to Bucharest signing the treaty of Bucharest. Status quo ante Bellum with both sides paying for the damage.
    • Just to be clear King Carol I died several years ago, not this year. 
    • Italian Diplomacy: We will wait and see. 
  • Brazil: A visit is made to Argentina by the Emperor to offer Argentina loans from Brazil, no interest rates(Argentinian response needed). Prince Luigi Amadeo sets sail for the long awaited expedition to try and make it to the South Pole(Rng needed). A Summit is set up in Emanopolis inviting the Leaders of Germany, America, Britain and France so the Emperor can propose an intervention(Great Power responses needed). More money is put into ship technology. KMTL. 50 rifles are made the standard rifle for the Brazilian army. We ask Britain to leave Guyana but they’ll retain mining rights and the ability to employ Guyanese people but with fair wages and Guyana will be free. Brazil will also help funding Guyana until they get on their feet and a referendum would be held to decide the government of Guyana(British Response needed). We ask that Argentina and America back our choice. (Argentinian and American response needed)
    • United States of America: The United States offers it support to this proposal in the interest of enforcing the Monroe Doctrine.
  • Russia: Russia continues to be vigilant against its threats from foreign countries, but the Tsar is pleased with the current situation. Seeing the state of the Balkans, the espionage network continues to grow in the region as our political influence continues to scale back. We keep a very small force on our border with Romania to deal with any potential waves of refugees from the Balkans. The Tsar's internal programs continue. In response to the student riots in Moscow and St. Petersburg, we arrest the protestors, while also listening to their demands and implementing some amount of liberalization of our universities. Our reforms to our judicial system, business law, and banking system continue. Our investment in improvements of the Trans-Siberian railway, especially to make it two-track, continue. We temporarily halt our accumulation of troops in the East, as tensions with Japan seem to not have amounted to anything. Seeing the unrest in Japan due to their lack of military force, we offer to hold a conference with Japanese leaders to negotiate our interests in China, in order to negotiate a peaceful settlement in Manchuria and cooperation against the Boxers (JAPANESE RESPONSE).
  • Kingdom of Italy: The reforms adopted earlier in the year are implemented as effectively as can be expected of the Italian state. These reforms, though only implemented recently, have proven decently successful in combating the agricultural crisis by improving the efficiency of Italian agriculture. Land reorganization continues, and many smaller, scattered plots are reformed into numerous small, centralized plots that can be easily improved with mechanization. Furthermore, degraded land lost to deforestation in the 18th century is planted with seedling trees in an effort to curb the further destruction of arable land. Low lying basins around rivers which are prone to yellow fever are drained systematically with small retention ponds and spill-ways implemented to improve the dynamism and utility of these local streams. Support for all of these programs requires an increase in local taxes across much of the country. The burden is largely borne by the larger landowners and those who own larger businesses. Military issues are noted with the Carcanos that served in Greece and China. Notably, the rifles are prone to gunking up with mud through the open port in the Mannlicher magazine system. A solution is proposed to resolve this issue. The Mannlicher magazine system is modified to include an ejector spring that launches the expended clip out the top of the Carcanos, allowing the bottom opening to be sealed against the elements. This simple update is adopted and all future Carcanos are produced with the new feature while older models are to be updated over the next few years. The two Niente-paura class battleships are commissioned on August 6th. Upon their acceptance into the Italian Navy all pre-dreadnought battleships the world over are rendered more or less obsolete. With these two ships completed the Regia Marina finally possesses a pair of modern battleships, a distinctly lacking feature in years past. Work on the Regina Margherita-class resumes. These smaller, arguably less capable, ships are expected for service by 1904, but with funding limited potential exists for a later date of acceptance.
  • Kingdom of the Netherlands:with the Batak rebellion defeated and suppressed, more than 40,000 batak natives will be brought under forced labor as a punitive act for the rebellion, they will work for the plantations and industries and factories with no wages, untill the next 4 months where they will start will low wages and then moderate wages. The east indies colony prospers as it brings much more products to the European and Asian markets. With the British aid to produce Dutch battleships after months of studies the Dutch engenirs came to the idea of showing this type of battleship to the Dutch governor of the Netherland colonies. He order the commission a HNLMS van Johannes battleship with its other sister HNLMS van Heutsznes, those two pre-dreathnought will be waited to be commissioned untill October of 1902, 1,000 Dutch troops are sent to Suriname.
  • United States of America: In the United States, the worse heat wave in recorded history affecting areas east of the 100th meridian and killing an estimated 9,500 people. A national tragedy befalls the country as President McKinley dies from an assassination attempt by anarchist Leon Czolgosz resulting in Vice President Theodore Roosevelt ascending to the Office of the President. Members of the Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers begin a strike against United States Steel Corporation after failing to reach a settlement of their demands, and 14,000 employees walk off of the job. The body of President Abraham Lincoln is exhumed and reinterred in concrete several feet thick. The Bureau of Chemistry is established, within the United States Department of Agriculture. In the negotiations for the Boxer Protocol, US envoys attempt to support and promote Li Hongzhang and more lenient treatment in regards to the Boxer Protocol in an effort to improve relations with China, specifically Liangguang. Efforts to improve the Viceroyalty of Liangguang, Cuba, and the Philippines continue with American Companies being offered incentives in taxes to invest with American advisors and financial aid being dispatched when needed within reason to the fledgling states and subregions as needed. The actions of the Empire of Brazil in demanding British withdrawal from Guyana turns many heads in the United States due to this being a direct confrontation of the premier world power with Teddy Roosevelt offering verbal support to the affair with military assets being placed on standby merely as a precaution.

1901 - October to December

The entry of the Italian Niente-paura class battleships, the Dreadnoughts, into the Regia Marina renders earlier battleships more-or-less obsolete. Around the world countries begin scrambling to adapt to the radical Italian design the brainchild of the now world renown Vittorio Cuniberti.

The Mexican expedition to the Yucatan proves modestly successful but at tremendous cost. The government forces are able to suppress the majority of the rebellion, but face extremely high casualties thanks to disease and lack of proper supplies, both medical and conventional. Safe water and food are both scarce in the Mexican camps. Meanwhile, while they have been largely driven from their cities and towns some Mayan rebels continue the fight, engaging in a brutal guerilla war that leaves 8,000 Mexican soldiers dead and 24,000 too ill to continue fighting.

The American yacht Columbia defeats the British Shamrock, in the America's Cup yachting race.

The 1901 Caister lifeboat disaster occurs.

Auguste Deter is first examined by German psychiatrist Dr. Alois Alzheimer, leading to a diagnosis of the condition that will carry Alzheimer's name

The first Nobel Prize ceremony is held in Stockholm, on the fifth anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death.

  • Argentina: We decline Brazilian loans but appreciates the visit and and hopes to strengthen relations after the war so the status quo may be kept and that both economies may boom. We also accept to support Brazilian claims to Guyana hoping to bring South America to the world stage. (Brazilian player response) The navy commences a modernization process Using domestic parts to help improve our industry. Also giving us technical experience into ship building. The indigenous  rifle AR.1 is made in the factories in of Rosario and Buenos Aries being an improvement on the Argentine Mauser using local parts. The arms industry best begins on a maxim copy and German like artillery based on the models sent to us. More iron mines are opened. The government begins a slow improvement not rail cars to meet new standards of the new century. Public works begin in the capital to help the growing immigrant populace. New rail lines continue to be established as well as new farms increasing agricultural exports. New industry begins to be distinctly Argentine especially outside oof Buenos Aries.
  • Brazilian Response: We are glad hearing of Argentina’s support and hope that they will lend us Troops when Guyanese liberation time comes.
  • United Kingdom: Prime Minister Arthur Balfour gets Parliament to vote on Brazil's request for the liberation of British Guyana (Mod Response for the Result).
    • Mod Response: The Parliament once again refuses to see the British Empire shrink through any other way but war and vehemently rejects the Brazilian government's offer.
  • Romania: The Romanian king has propose a treaty to all the Balkan country's and the Italians. (BALKANS COUNTRY'S AND ITALIAN RESPONSE) Our two armed forces from Serbia is now moving to help Montenegro forces. We had now planned to turn the idea of a Balkans league into a actual thing. By talking to the Montenegro gov we talk to them of joining the Balkans league. (MONTENEGRO RESPONSE)
    • Bulgaria Response: Bulgaria would accept the treaty.
    • (Mod) Montenegro Response: Montenegro accepts the offer and joins the Balkans League.
    • (Mod) Serbia Response: Serbia would be interested in forming such an alliance, but insists on taking a role greater than or equal to Romania in the structure
    • Mod OOC: You posted your treaty on the talk page which is reserved for algos. Would you mind making your proposed Peace of Athens a separate wiki page?
  • Union of South Africa: The 1901 General Election occurs, the main contenders for the Prime Minister position are J.B.M Hertzog, Orange Free State and Boer hero and General and Leader of the National Party or Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, a General in the British Army who forght against the Boers, he leads the English Party. After the votes are counted the majority go to the National Party and J.B.M Hertzog becomes the first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa. A Constitution is finally published some time after the election.
  • Brazil: The Emperor starts construction of a national railroad. We ask to get a Brazilian Embassy in Washington, London, Budapest, Sarajevo and Batman.(Responses Needed)
    • United States of America: A Brazilian Embassy in Washington D.C is accepted
  • United Mexican States: Diaz’s latest campaign successfully takes the rebel Maya settlements, with major cities across the Yucatan being occupied and fortified by Federal troops. Diaz himself leads the entry of the New Federal Army into Chan Santa Cruz, the heart of the Mayan resistance and the “capitol” of the rebellion. While the urban centers may have fallen, the Mayan countryside is rife with danger, and NFA patrols are often ambushed or engage in skirmishes with Mayan rebels. With the countryside still very much resisting, Diaz plans another expedition into the jungles to root out the rebellion once and for all. However the war has so far cost a huge amount of men and supplies, with the heat, disease and Mayans killing 13,000 Mexican troops and incapacitating 24,000 more. Diaz’s plans for summoning more men for a grand expedition into the jungle is vehemently opposed by many military officials, who argue that marching thousands of men into an enemy jungle to wage war against guerrillas is suicidal. One general even goes so far as to argue the war is unjust for attempting to prosecute the original inhabitants of Mexico. Diaz promptly orders his arrest and execution, leading to further discontent in the military. With his generals turning against him and even turning hostile, Diaz realizes his position is not secure enough to wage a war while simultaneously keeping an eye on his own commanders. Thus Diaz concedes to their objections to his plan and calls off the offensive, but instead of offering terms to the Mayans orders the construction of a number of forts throughout the jungle. Additionally, the captured Mayan cities are heavily fortified and garrisoned with large numbers of Federal troops. Diaz also plans to build infrastructure throughout the Yucatan to make travel between NFA bases and fortresses easier. With the situation in the Yucatan under control if not totally pacified Diaz returns to Mexico City, where he once again holds a parade to celebrate his victory over the Mayan rebels. In the meantime Madero continues to gather support for a Presidential run in the next elections in 1904. 
  • Kingdom of Italy: Despite the leftist parliament and the social reforms of the last few months, the numerous anarchist groups scattered across Italy show their true colors with the assassination of King Umberto I. He is murdered during a parade in Rome by Italian-American anarchist Gaetano Bresci. The assassination shocks the nation and general public sentiment, while not necessarily in favor of the monarchy, shifts largely away from the anarchist groups. Umberto’s son is crowned Victor Emmanuel III of Italy. The small, withdrawn man proves to be a just, parliamentarian leader. He proves a stalwart supporter of the center, reaching to both sides in Italian politics to attempt to bring the country together and establish some semblance of normalcy and stability. In an impassioned speech to the people of Rome he rallies public support for moderation and opposition to extremism in all its forms. Thus, with the earlier shock of his fathers’ death, Italian politics take a decidedly unifying course. Compromise is the name of the age as reforms are passed at Victor Emmanuel’s urging to support middle-class businesses and empower rural farmers. By the end of the 1901 faith in the government is stronger than perhaps at any time in the last decade.
  • United States of America: As a reaction to President Theodore Roosevelt’s invitation to Booker T. Washington to visit the White House, the American South responds angrily with racial violence increasing across the region. For the assassination of President William McKinley, Leon Czolgosz is executed by electrocution. In response to the advent of dreadnoughts by the Italian Navy, the US Navy scrambles to design and construct its own class of dreadnoughts with Congress slotting enough funding for the construction of 4 South Carolina-class battleships with a displacement of 16000 tons much to the chagrin of naval officers such as Rear Admiral Dewey who advocates for 18000 ton displacement which serves as the standard for foreign fleets. US aid to Liangguang continues with companies beginning to begin investment opportunities with the end of the Boxer Rebellion and some troops remaining to police and train locals. A proposal is drafted in Congress to devote a certain portion of the US share of China’s reparations to the task of infrastructure development and financing Liangguang’s needs but for the most part the majority of it remains as debt to the United States.
  • Russia: Russia agrees to the Boxer Protocol. We use some of the silver we were paid to pay off the debts the government has accrued in our projects to improve the Trans-Siberian railway, and the rest is invested into improving our universities, which we hope will also cause the impetus for student protests from earlier to disappear. Our reforms to our judicial system, business law, and banking system continue. Our investment in improvements of the Trans-Siberian railway, especially to make it two-track, continue. Seeing the unrest in Japan due to their lack of military force, we offer to hold a conference with Japanese leaders to negotiate our interests in China, in order to negotiate a peaceful settlement in Manchuria. Our initial proposal is that we gain control of a strip of land that connects Russia through Manchuria to a Yellow Sea Port, at least 30 miles wide, and in exchange, we will recognize Japanese control over Korea and the remainder of Manchuria (as two separate provinces divided by the Russian strip) and we will both re-establish diplomatic relations (MOD RESPONSE).
    • (Mod) Japan Response: Japan is unwilling to agree to any deal which allows the Russians a warm-water port so close to the Japanese home islands. Japan thus refuses the Russian offer.

1902 - January to March

Argentina's indigenous arms industry struggles to achieve the quality offered by German-produced Mausers. The result is that the AR.1 is disliked by the soldiers. More time and effort will be required to develop such industry to achieve higher standards. Meanwhile, the Vickers Company brings a lawsuit to the Argentinian government on the basis of a violation of their patents with Argentina producing Maxim variants without paying royalties to the company.

In the Serbian General Election of 1901 Filip Filipovic's Communist Party is able to secure a plurality in parliament. They then forge a coalition with a group of smaller Center-Left and Center parties installing Filip as the Prime Minister.

A snowstorm in the Hakkōda Mountains of northern Honshu, Japan, kills 199 during a military training exercise.

Police and universal suffrage demonstrators are involved in a physical altercation in Brussels, Belgium.

Clashes between police and Georgian workers led by Joseph Stalin leave 15 dead, 54 wounded, and 500 in prison.

Many in the British Parliament and among the population call for decisive action on the brazen attempt by Brazil to force the British Empire into relinquishing its colonies in Guyana.

The formation of a Balkans League prompts concern from both officials and nobles in Austria-Hungary and Russia who demand that their respective countries step in to limit or stop it altogether as well as to restore influence to the region for their countries.

The results of the Montenegro Campaign for the Ottomans does not please many with a rising sect of the country, military officers and soldiers, demanding that action be taken to reverse the countries ill fortunes and turn it into a formidable power once more. The result is that the Ottoman Army falls back from Montenegro offering a white peace to all parties involved. Ottoman forces numbering a total of 600,000 dig in along the Serbian and Montenegrin border.

Textile workers strike in Enschede, Netherlands.

A general strike in Barcelona and nearby towns leads to government-troop reprisals that leave 40 dead.

Abdulaziz Ibn Saud leads 40 men over the walls of Riyadh and takes the city, marking the beginning of the Third Saudi State.

  • Romania: The troops had finally arrived and starts attacking the Ottoman Army. (Algorithm needed) We said no to the Ottoman Gov as we announce that till the Ottoman sultan had give up we will not surrender to him (OTTOMAN RESPONSE) Meanwhile the King has announced Total war on the Ottoman empire in the Balkans League. We ask Bulgarian government to join in the Balkans league to attack the Ottomans. (BULGARIAN RESPONSE) We also talked to the Serbian King of being the co-leader of the Balkans League. (SERBIAN RESPONSE)
    • Serbia agrees. - Mod
    • The Ottomans will defend themselves until it is no longer possible. - Mod
  • Union of South Africa: The Prime Minister and some of his cabinate attend a ceremony of rememberance of all the Boers that died in the two wars, meanwhile protests by the English have been getting smaller in scale with the Governor General now not trusted by the National Party Government. A bill would be passed soon after the ceremony to put millions of pounds into the building of infrastructure in Johannesburg.
  • France: We condemn the agressive Brazil and refortify French Guinea in support of the protection treaty. A small group of the new built advanced navy is sent to Guineas. The Shipbuilding program is slowed as more money is put onto culture and welfare projects. As the coflict in the Balkans cool, the need for peace is evermore important. We will encourage the USA to support us if Brazil or Argentina ever does an aggressive action. (US REPONSE)
    • United States of America: The US does not offer any guarantees or promises to assist the French against SA countries
  • United Kingdom: This year, the Prime Minister Arthur Balfour is voted out of office. He is viewed as being too meek and is criticized for his various attempts to sell off parts of the British Empire. He is replaced by the Liberal, Henry Campbell-Bannerman, who passes himself off as a strong leader who will reassert the Empire. However, he is also a radical, which displeases many MPs. In response to the Brazillian offer to liberate Guyana, Britain sails several newly-built battleships past Rio de Janeiro, refortifies British Guyana and the Prime Minister Campbell-Bannerman ominously remarks, "Liberation may lead to Liquidation.". General Lord Roberts is made to remain in the land of the Boers, with King Edward VII instructing him, "You are not to return until you have lead the English Party to victory in the next election."
    • United Kingdom: Relations with Brazil have soured, and an extra 50 ships are sent across the Atlantic to join the ones already there, with another 50 not far behind. The British Government threatens the Empire of Brazil with a complete blockade, preventing them from trade, unless they withdraw from British Guyana (Brazilian Response). Britain also warns Peru and Bolivia not to aid Brazil further, however, the government also contacts Argentina, offering them trade deals and help in future conflicts should they help Britain regain Guyana or at least remain neutral for now (Argentinian Response). Henry Campbell-Bannerman declares, "If the undefeated Duke refuses to accept defeat, he shall have a deficit instead," to the sound of much laughter in the House.  
    • Brazil Refuses to to back down.  
    • Onlly if the Falklands are sold and all British rail way lines are sole back to Argentina at the same price they we brought for. 
  • Brazil: Saddened by Britain's refusal to cooperate 200k are rolled into Guyana led by the “Undefeated Duke” Emperor Emmanuel I himself, the Brazilian Navy is placed as a blockade around the Caribbean, elections under Brazilian supervision are held with Alfred A. Thorne being placed as President, the Emperor also knights him. We ask for military support from Bolivia, Peru and Argentina not only to help Guyana but to also show the World that South America stands united(Mod and Player response needed). We also Mobilize the Rio Navy‘s 27 ships to engage the British Ones (Algo Needed)  
    • Given their relative reliance on British industrial imports Peru and Bolivia are hesitant, but do send in total 5,000 men. 
  • United Mexican States: The outbreak of conflict between the United Kingdom and the Empire of Brazil causes much alarm in Mexico, who recently fought off an attempt by the French to impose a European-monarchy on the North American nation. Diaz however defers to the United States’ stance on the conflict and thus similarly stays neutral and attempts to stay out of the conflict. Mexican merchant ships in the Gulf of Mexico are warned to avoid trade with Brazil and thus stay away from the ships of both Brazil and the UK. Infrastructure continues to be prioritized by the Diaz regime, with thousands of miles of track along with roads being built. The Mexican trans-continental railroad continues to be planned, with surveyors finding a suitable pass through the central mountains to link Acapulco and Veracruz. In light of oil discoveries in the United States Mexico continues to survey its territories for oil, also sending diplomats and businessmen abroad to encourage economic investment into Mexico’s natural resources and oil sector. In the Yucatan construction of Federal forts continues as well as the fortification of Mayan settlements garrisoned with large amounts of NFA soldiers. 
  • Argentina: Due to the shortcomings of the AR-1a nation weapons lab is founded and the best mechanists and designers are brought in to refine the weapon.The vickers stripped and redesigned using Argentine parts and patents. Although Roca has lost his power he enjoys to see the still present love for the military. We also begin to thoroughly look at the specs of our forgein built ships and begin to edit them to better fit our economy so we may build them. Industry begins to diversify with the arms and manufacturing sector growing. The school of doctors begins to right guidelines that will be mandatory in all hospitals and clinics. Lower house leader Yriogen plans a decade of growth allowing the nation to be self-sufficient by the end. We ask the Employer If we may help rebuild the dockyards in Rio and station three ships there incase of British raid. Roca also offers a 4500 men expeditionary force. America is also asked to aid projection of power of the New world. We also ensure Peru and Bolivia that with we work together our combined national res relieves will leads all of our economies to boom. Wel also offer ammo for their mausers. We offer Córdoba as a meeting place for the leaders of America to discuss policy of the next decade.  (Brazilian/ US player/ Mexico mod response) We send the San Martin with the Brazilian navy to act a a “Mediator”.  Child labor is outlawed and Pena and Yriogen begin talks on how to got about the current situation not wanting a full war with Britain but defending national interest. Industry continues to grow as does investment into science in technology.
    • Mexico Response: Mexico will send diplomats to attend a conference to discuss politics and trade in the new world. 
    • Brazilian Response: Prince Luigi Amadeo attends as a diplomat.
  • German Empire: The wedding of Kronprinz Wilhelm and Princess Margeret of Great Britain having been postponed last year due to the poor health of the Prince back upon his return from the trip overseas. The young Prince however enthuasiaticly gets in touch with his fiance through mail and a new date is set for the spring in May. The naval conference ended without much progress however in high spirits due to the impending wedding between the the heir of Germany and a members of the british royal family keeps all parties involved amiacable while in Berlin the reichstag continues to debate over electoral reform. military and industrial expansion continues. The German colonial officials in German South West Africa made the decision to allow for the settlement of beors into the colony to help strengthen tyhe hand of the germans in the region and to help dela with the growing issues of natives in the region. Meanwhile improvements of infrustructure and settlement of the colonies contiue. Efforts to continue to strengthen ties with Yuan Shikai continue with the Germans sending military advisors to help drill the Beiyanfg army and to provide them with a more indepth training. Meanwhile military observers in the Ottoman Army begin to take note of the innovative usage of technology in defensive warfare by the Montenegrons and Serbians against the Ottomans. In a memo sent to the General staff in Berlin it is suggested that these new technologies will make the offensive wars of the 19th century trench warfare and superior firepower will create massive casualties. While most of the General staff ignore this memo except for Erich Ludendorf who makes a note of it however despite his rapidly rising star in the general staff the General is unwilling to push it forward for now keeping the memo in mind. Wilhelm (crownprince) implores for The American president his friend Theodore roosevelt to come to Berlin for the wedding, in a string of regular exchanges via mail (american response)
    • United States of America: Due to the state of affairs between the United States and Great Britain, President Roosevelt sends a wedding gifts as well as his blessings but declines to attend with the American ambassador being sent in his place provided the British accept his presence.
  • United States of America: The invasion of Guyana by Brazil is met with much shock by the American public and the government due to it being a direct assault on the most powerful Empire in existence. The President initially desires to remain a neutral party in the affair but after being approached by Brazil and the signing of the Treaty of Emanopolis (Treaty of Rio if you look for it, misnamed it), a last ditch attempt at peace is offered to the British Empire. The American Atlantic Fleet is deployed in a defensive measure along the East Coast with artillery batteries being positioned along the Eastern Seaboard to fend off naval assaults or potential invasions. National Guard units and the US Army are also mobilized should a peaceful resolution not be reached as a precaution. Nathan Stubblefield demonstrates his wireless telephone device in Kentucky. The Carnegie Institution is founded in Washington D.C with a $10 million donation being given by Andrew Carnegie to promote scientific research. Senators Benjamin Tillman and John L. McLaurin have a fist fight while Congress is in session and are later censured for this display. A commission on yellow fever announces that the disease is carried by mosquitoes. A Circuit Court decision ends Thomas Edison’s monopoly on 35mm movie film technology. As a result of the United States entering the Brazil-Great Britain conflict over Guyana, American assets overseas are called home or ordered into standby in case their presence might be needed elsewhere or as a response to something. American companies as a result of the war act more cautiously with their mercantile shipping taking care to avoid/be cautious on British controlled trade routes and lanes.
  • Kingdom of the Netherlands: the Brazilian invasion of British holdings in South America comes to the governor of Dutch suriname and the King with Great concern. As the Brazilian-Dutch relations has been soured and strained by the two demands of the Brazilians to the Dutch to leave Dutch Suriname with a US backing. With the British royal navy cutting and blocking the Brazilian ports to prevent them to trade. That action sees a decrease of Dutch imports. But the king William after reading the news attracts a smile to his face, even tho it has decreased some Dutch economical imports it also sparks the hate towards the Brazilian government and the emperor. Diplomatic Trade ties are cutt from the Brazilians. With no such embassy will be accepted in Amsterdam. Concerned about the potential possibility of spillovers in the Brazilian invasion, much labors are sent to Dutch Suriname with more supplies and infrastructure supplies to assist at the building of fortifications and much more. Another 8,000 Dutch soliders are sent with 3,000 local troops beeing putt into hight upkeep against any spillovers. Defences are built along the borders with Brazil. trade shipments of the Dutch and merchant activities on the Caribbean and suriname-asmterdam trade route will be guarded by Dutch militiary warships to guard and ensure the effectiveness of trade during these chaotic events. 3 heavy Dutch cruises and a HNLMS Van George battleship will be harbored at the Ports of suriname incase any Brazilian invasion is came to alert. Suriname coastal artillery batteries are ordered to be mobilized as well.after receiving an invitation to attend the marriage King William III with his sister shall accept the offer to intend to the wedding as he takes a train to reach from hamburg to Berlin. 25,000 KNIL rifle men, 4,000 Dutch troops are stationed in westren new Papua new Guinea with a delegation to the indegious chiefs to abdicate in favor of the modernized Dutch local governors with also a mix of native cultured non-tribal governors and thus Papua new Guinea large lands will be annexed and directly ruled by the Dutch with its profitable reassources that is available. Two Dutch mining companies open in Dutch suriname as the infrastructure improves to help aid the backing of currency. 6 gold mines are opened in suriname as labors are taking place into the process of working. The strike in westren regions of the Netherlands proper 400 Dutch police crops will be sent with additional 1,000 Dutch police auxiliaries to handle with the stirke of the textile labors.
    • Many chiefs abdicate while others resist. The result is typically the same as the Dutch forces are able to subdue those that resist. - Mod
  • Kingdom of Italy: The success of the Serbian army in Montenegro is noted by Italian observers who report their findings back to the Italian general staff. The use of Austrian machine guns inspires the Italian army to invest heavily in both machine guns and border defenses. Specifically, an emphasis is placed on light, mobile machine guns as committing fully to machine gun emplacements goes against Italian military tradition. In search of a suitable weapon the Italian government announces a competition for a light machine gun. They specifically seek submissions from Madsen and company, Theodor Bergmann, and Breda (Mod & German Responses) The trials will be conducted next year pending submissions. Meanwhile, naval construction continues on the Regia Margheriti class. Work is slow due to limited funds, but despite this the hulls are largely completed. Otherwise, social reforms take greater effect and the development of radio technologies provides a substantial boost to Italian advanced technology. The Marconi Company, thanks to lax taxes and generous subsidies, is able to compete on the global stage, providing ships of all sorts radio equipment across the globe.

1902 - April to June

The economies of Brazil and Argentina essentially collapse as British creditors, investors, and ownership pulls the proverbial rug out from under their growth. Brazil in particular is hit extraordinarily badly as the disruption harms their export based economy. Riots break out throughout the large coastal cities of Brazil which depend on this trade petitioning for peace.

The United Kingdom also faces hardship with the loss of their markets in Brazil and Argentina. However, they are much more effectively able to shift their trade to other markets, notably India and Mexico. Though the lack of Coffee and higher prices for Sugar are annoying, the overall economic impact of the conflict is minor compared to the state of affairs in Brazil.

Argentina's high spending on military development, dockyard construction, and legal battles with Vickers lead to a growing deficit. With British banks unwilling to provide loans they are forced to turn elsewhere for an emergency bailout or risk bankruptcy. Though the government and most of the Argentine elite agree that self-sufficiency in arms is important they call for a more measured, slower push, citing the failure of the AR-1 and the lawsuit with Vickers.

The Electric Theatre, the first movie theater in the United States, opens in Los Angeles.

Tenor Enrico Caruso makes the first million-selling recording, for the Gramophone Company in Milan.

Mount Pelée in Martinique erupts, destroying the town of Saint-Pierre and killing over 30,000.

Alfonso XIII of Spain begins his reign.

The Anthracite Coal Strike begins in the United States.

In Serbia, Filip Filipovic presses to to end the fighting with the Ottomans. He approaches his counterparts in Romania seeking to reach consensus on a status-quo peace. He informs Romania that Serbia is weary from the years of fighting and needs time to reconstruct itself.

  • United States of America: US forces and assets are demobilized from their footing with the conclusion of the Anglo-Brazilian War with the Treaty of Paris. American investors and companies are quick to fill the void left behind by the British in Brazil with the American government offering loans to Brazil to assist them in recovering from conflict (Brazil Response). American companies begin to prospect for oil in Brazil with existing mines being purchased up by American companies in alignment with the terms agreed to in the Treaty of Emanopolis. The financial disaster in Argentina is met with an American government offer of loans with interest to bail them out of their current situation (Argentina Response). Despite Roosevelt’s desire to get involved in the Anthracite Coal Strike, he stays out of it due the federal government possessing no legal authority to intervene in the matter. The Texas Oil Company, Texaco, is established. The Target Corporation, a department store chain, is founded. The Newlands Reclamation Act finds irrigation projects for the lands of 17 states in the American West. With business opportunities aplenty in Cuba, Brazil, the Philippines, the Viceroyalty of Liangguang,and Mexico, US companies continue to grow and be established to make use of the resources the US has access to in these regions due to treaties, concessions, and tax incentives.
  • Brazil: We Accept the loans but due to recent French hostility we refuse to sign the Treaty of Paris, rather we propose Emanopolis. In the Presidential election Afonso Celso is elected President. The Emperor abolishes money for the duration of the war and rations will be given equally to all people. The only Person with money will be Minister of Trade who will do foreign deals. We decide rather to have France “Slow Trade” us we rather stop trading all together with France.
  • Argentina:Saenz Pena offers a joint meeting for all th leaders of America’s to discuss the Monroe doctrine. And the unity of the new work to stop the bullying of European powers.  (North and South American player/mod responses) President Roca thanks the Americans for their loans and seeing the military connection President Roca ask for and Official trip to meet Roosevelt, and if American machine guns may be Produced in Argentina. (American Repsonse). With the pulling out of British investors the rail lines are nationalized to ensure their continued maintenance. All banks are finally merged into the central bank and exports to Latin American markets increase. As does trade with America, Brazil, And Germany. New telegraphy lines begin to lead south of Viedma adding more jobs to the economy and allowing industry to expand. The middle class begin to see great growth despite Britain backing out. The resource richness easy Lin’s from the government push the nation faster to autarky. Investment continues into the AR.1and medical practices. The cities are being cleaned. Private companies temporarily take over for naval designs to save money. Boers and Dissidents from any British colony are given access to easy immigration and citizenship (Mod Reaponse)

    • United States of America: The United States attends the conference expressing interest in Argentina's plans regarding the Monroe Doctrine. Due to the fact that machine guns aren't produced by many companies, the US is willing to purchase Vickers and Maxim machine guns and sell them to Argentina to be paid for at a later date by the Argentinian government once its financial matters are resolved.
  • France: We will reaffirm that the Brazilians were the aggressors and the Europeans are just replying to their response. We will warn that no false statements will not be tolerated. Meanwhile, a new campaign is launched, to help lower discriminatory behavior from French citizens. French Guinea continues to the fortified. We will also begin to slow trade to Brazil, but with much lighter effects.

  • United Mexican States: With the UK breaking all economic ties with Argentina and Brazil and imposing a blockade on both nations, Mexico finds itself as the premier trading power in Central and South America. With the major South American trade nations blockaded, Mexican markets soon begin to fill with foreign goods while Mexican exports of raw materials and agricultural products sees a dramatic increase. With British trade shifting towards Mexico, Mexico sees a flurry of economic activity and a minor economic boom. Diaz sees an opportunity to radically advance his agenda to encourage foreign investment into Mexico and thus passes a series of legislation that protects businesses in Mexico, providing government protections against market fluctuations as well as lowering business taxes. While Diaz’s efforts do encourage more British, American and other foreign merchants and companies to start doing business with Mexico the idea of Diaz protecting businesses while not protecting the people with the reforms he promised infuriates the local peasantry. Madero’s support swells, to the point that he becomes a clear challenger of Diaz even without announcing his candidacy for the 1904 elections yet. Diaz finally takes notice of Madero and recognizes him as a possible electoral threat. Diaz is convinced however that his policies will see a dramatic increase in Mexico’s prosperity which will translate into votes. For his part, Diaz publicly states he is committed to a legitimate democratic election and will defer to the votes of the people and recognize the outcome of the election even if it is a Madero victory. In the meantime Madero visits towns and cities throughout Mexico, being greeted with huge crowds of people eager to see the social reformer in person. Diaz sends a diplomat to the United States to inform them that Mexico will follow the United States' lead on the crisis in South America and is prepared to support any military intervention the United States may see fit.

  • Romania: We talked to the Serbian king that he can withdraw from the war but our war with the Ottomans will carry on due to our Total War Policy with the Ottomans. (SERBIAN RESPONSE) At the same time we slowly kicked the Ottomans out of Montenegro after our victory. We planned to invade the Macedonia region in the start of July.
    • Serbia will end their involvment in the war, and must insist that Romanian forces withdraw from Serbia as well. Without a land border with the Ottoman Empire continuing the conflict would seem impossible.
  • German Empire: Theodor Bergmann intrigued by the italian request agrees to go down south alongside Breda, Louis Schmeisser also submits a request to join their team to which they agree. The three make a formal submission to the Italian military offering to work with the Italians to develop a new light machine Gun. The petition also draws the interest of Ludendorff who sends an envoy to the Italian government inquiring into potentially working together to work out new war time scenarios that would take into account new military technologies. He sends Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck recently returned from China to deliver and oversee this, after having a read a memo of his describing the demoralizing affects of Guerillas on German forces during the boxer rebellion and on the need to develop suitable counter measures to such an issue (Italian response). In the Reichstag the debates over electoral reforms, and for overall greater political reform citing the continued lack of oversight for the actions taking by the Crown and by the Chancellor.  The Conservative Coalition continue to hold tight on their refusal to change the status Quo and the Kaiser himself is incensed at this questioning of his authority however the more liberal KronPrinz Wilhelm disagrees with his father's belief in the aboslute authority of the crown drawing heavily publicly defending for the first time the need for greater representation of the people to avoid greater aggitation. While he disagrees with the more conservative inclinations-s of his father he also fails to fall in line with either the SPD who advocate for drastic social changes and economic reforms that would weaken Germany in his eyes, the Crown prince begins making closer ties with many of the Ruhr industrialists ,and with the National Liberal party. Thre Crown Prince and the Princess Margeret of Great Britain finally wed midst a jouyous ceremony in Potsdam attended by many major dignataries from around Europe and the Western Hemisphere. Thew newlyweds spend their honeymoon in the Bavarian Alps.  In the second Naval conference held by the Germans and the British in the aftermath of the Wedding. The Germans request that the German navy be allowed to retain a number of battleships equal to a ratio of 4 to 3 (4 british to 3 german) and that The Germans sand British cooperate on protecting sealanes for both German and British trade (British response). An offer is made to the Ottmans military and administration to help them begin major and meaningful reforms to begin reversing the declining fortunes of the Ottomans. In particular German observers and advisors who also double as infromal agents of the German intellegence amke an offer to the Young turks and the mjunior military offi ers who have begun to   see the need for change. The German government makes an offer to extend the loans, educators, engineers, and other specialists neccesary to begin reforms in the Ottoman Empire (Mod Response required)
    • Italy will agree to these terms.
    • The Otttoman Empire graciously accepts the aid. - Mod Steph
    • United Kingdom: The British accept.
  • Kingdom of Italy: The passage of the Boxer Protocol and the first delivery of silver from China is a massive boon to the Italian economy. The quarter million pounds is invested in public works and social reforms to lift the poorest off their knees. This wealth allows many small farmers in Southern Italy to modernize their holdings or sell and move to growing cities and seek a new life. Palermo, Naples, and Taranto all experience increasing urbanization and population booms as the reorganization of farmland and the social spending incentivize resettlement in these burgeoning towns. Such investment bolsters the weak Southern Italian middle class. Investment in education across the country, but specifically in the less educationally achieving south reduces crime and increases positive outcomes throughout the country. In terms of small arms the Machine Gun Race as it is coming to be known enters the first phase of design and submissions. Breda forms a coalition with Theodor Bergmann and Louis Schmeisser and begins working on a weapon based on the short recoil principle with a toggle lock similar to that on Vickers’ guns. Meanwhile, several Madsen guns are trialed, and while effective work on the gun at Breda is ordered to continue. On the naval side of things, the Regia Margheriti class is fully refunded with the first shipment of Chinese silver. Work accelerates on the class with emphasis placed on completing the hull quickly so that they may be launched and fitted out in port freeing up drydock space for other orders.
  • Kingdom of the Netherlands:with the war finally ended but the continues British blockade continues the Dutch follow suit, but do not impose the blockade of imports to the Argentinas. The chiefs abdicate, those who resist fall and be executed within days of fighting, thus. Showing the Dutch supremacy over its colonies. With many appointed native and Dutch governors beeing appointed to the new devised provinces of the lands of Dutch Westren Papúa, with its ruling diversity organized many entrepreneurs and business men shift their attention to those new lands that attract many people to question about such wealth and profit chances awaits. The Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij contributes to the improuvment of the new captured lands wich the D.E.I government funding the K.P.M to construct railways and roads and improuve the mobility, many new harbors and ports are beeing upgrade and majority erected to ensure the union of the shipment of Dutch products. Plantation business men open in various forms with banks and other buildings appear in certain major cities in the area. Large tabacco, weed, Coffee, spice, other luxury and exotic plants are beeing planted as labors are imported from Dutch suriname that is beeing also upgraded by its infrastructure and fortified well. With all beeing taken in place to ensure the productivity of the colony. The shipbuilding program continues as the Indonesian archipelago fleet or:de Indonesische Archipel vloot is still imporuving with new battleships beeing built to ensure the safety of the Dutch waters that they dominate. 3 bathleships were ordered last year in Batavia and Bandar Lampung to be built with 1 light cruiser in KutaRaja. Wich were already been in progress of building some time ago and are expected to be finished on August as well.100,000 surinamese labors or slaves (the minority will be slaves majority of them serfs) will be brought to Dutch western paupa New Guinea to be held as labors to the plantations centers and factories that ship raw rubber to be produced. after the marriage with the king William III and his sister having a great time and meeting with highest rank officials of many European countries, he comes back to hamburg with a automobile, he accounts that he enjoyed the technology of the automobile that it can go longer than a horse without stopping by to resupply and replenish his hunger, after he reaches hamburg he then takes a train to reach Amsterdam and get back to the royal palais with his sister. a fleet of suriname (Surinaamse Nederlandse vloot) is beeing orginized and harbored at the Ports of suriname to protect the intrests of the Dutch in that region. Seeing that the Dutch imports have decreased in Brazil due to the blockade, the Dutch shift its interests in imports to the Thai kingdom as a proposal will be made to expand our trading relationships into a vast array of range [Ratta's response, please]The intrests of the Dutch in morroco has long been from 1900. By photos and Dutch tourists and observers accounts the area has a good reserve of this needable material for agriculture. With the Sultan proposal beeing given by a Dutch embasidors a treaty will be proposed to be signed at New Fez Port (OTL Rabat). The terms of the treaty will include:
-New Fez will be the main harbor for Dutch imports and exports (minor exports)
-a location of a vast land of Phosphate in Khouribga and Southern region of medium Atlas shall be bought by the Dutch economy government and a bunch of entrepreneurs for 100,000 Riyals (Morroco's currency then)
-The Dutch will treat the morroans equally with any morrocan immigrants will be accepted in Rotterdam to create the first morrocan Ghetto In there.[Morroco's response, please]
  • Under pressure from French advisors the Moroccans refuse. 
  • The Ratta of Thailand wish to remain neutral but do offer a modest trade arrangment.

1902 - July to September

The Netherlands benefits from the chaos of Brazil's near-war with the United Kingdom as investment in its rubber, coffee, and sugar products increases.

St Mark's Campanile in Venice collapses

Felix Pedro discovers gold in modern-day Fairbanks, Alaska.

A statue of Joan of Arc is unveiled in Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier, the French town which she stormed in 1429.

Mount Pelée again erupts in Martinique, destroying the town of Le Morne-Rouge and causing 1,000 deaths. In the Dutch controlled ports of Makassar a series of small rebellions break out amongst the local inhabitants and native merchants in protest of Dutch rule.

The Aro Confederacy has begun a campaign and started expanding its boundaries leading to war with the Sokoto Caliphate against whom they score multiple decisive victories as a result of their army being better equipped and government more unified driving the Sokoto Caliphate further inland

  • United States of America: In response to the interest of Argentina in discussing the Monroe Doctrine and in consideration of the Guyana Crisis, the US seeks to unify the Americas on the global stage by proposing a mutual defense agreement between Brazil, Mexico, Cuba, Uruguay, and Argentina called the Mutual Defense Pact of the Americas with the hopeful goal of promoting economic cooperation as well (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Mod [Cuba and Uruguay] Response). In the interest of establishing a friendly government in Colombia in line with US ideals as well as securing control over the Panama Canal in which President Roosevelt has garnered an interest for, the US has decided to intervene in the Thousand Days’ War in Colombia in support of the Liberals, Panamanian Rebels, and Venezuela (Mod Response [Venezuela and Liberals]). Supplies, weapons, food, and money are funneled into the Liberals with a US fleet being moved into the local waters in the Pacific and Caribbean. A force of 12,000 US troops are ferried to Puerto Rico in anticipation of the response from the Venezuela which would permit US troops to land in their ports and establish secure supply routes into Colombia. The United States Bureau of Reclamation is established within the US Geological Survey. In Birmingham, Alabama 115 people are killed in a stampede at a Church. As a result of America’s commitments, economic and military assistance to Cuba and the Philippines is lessened. US companies continue to pursue opportunities in Cuba, the Philippines, Brazil, and Mexico due to treaties and cooperation between the US government and the federal governments of the region.
    • Mexico response: The Diaz regime is happy to form a defense pact with his neighbors to ensure peace throughout the American continents
    • Emperor Emmanuel is happy to ensure American peace.
    • The Liberals and their Venezuelan supporters are happy to recieve American support. 
  • Romania: With Serbia out of the war we won't send any more troops through Serbia to help our army. However, our war is still going in our favor as we start moving our army into Macedonia. However, by the start of September, we stop moving as we camp here. We talked to the Ottoman Gov to sign the peace deal we made or we will move into the capital at the start of 1903 (OTTOMANS RESPONSE) We also planned an election in our homeland in mid 1903 to see which party wins. (MOD RESPONSE) We also talked to the Italians attacking the Ottomans in Libya and Albania if the war carrys on. (ITALIAN RESPONSE)
    • Romania does not share a land border with the Ottomans and thus cannot support an invasion.
    • Italy declines.
    • (Mod) Ottoman Response: The Ottomans are unaware that any peace was offered and would like the Romanians to outline their terms.
  • Argentina: Roca agrees to the American deal with Senate leader Saenz Pena happy to have Argentine goals acknowledged. Argentine engineers also offer to help with a rifle to replace the AR.1 and the American Krag. (American Response) Pena is also happy that Maericans to look forward to aiding each other instead of allowing the Europeans to divide them. Industrial growth continues as does the opening of a new school in Viedma. Prospectors continue to look for resources in Patagonia.
    • United States of America: The offer to develop a new rifle is declined due to the US currently investing its resources into the M1903 Springfield rifle
    • Argentina: we offer to preorder 60,000 rifles 
  • United Kingdom: Many regard the Treaty of Rome, in Britain, as a betrayal of the Empire. Campbell-Bannerman is accused of going back on his promises to "get tough" with Brazil. Nevertheless, others commend him for his peaceful resolution of the Guyana Crisis. Many patriotic businessmen and bankers make trade difficult with American countries that sided against the UK during the crisis. The Empire regards the United States of America's new-found friendship with other American powers warily. Meanwhile, a conference held in London supports the policy of Imperial Prefernce (free trade between nations within the Empire). Elsewhere, the government attempts to nationalize the publishing industry, but this lasts only briefly: a huge fire consumes the manuscripts of books and short stories set to be published this year, including The Tale of Peter Rabbit, Heart of Darkness and the Hound of the Baskervilles - all lost forever. Meanwhile, filmmaker Will Barker founds Ealing Studios in Ealing Green in Western London, and soon they become well-known for producing highly popular and successful films.
  • Kingdom of Italy: Investment in southern Italy continues, specifically in modernizing agriculture. Strengthening the middle class of the region improves the economic competitiveness of the region relative to the north, strengthening the nation overall. The Machine Gun Race continues with five submissions, two from Breda-Bergmann, one from Breda-Schmeisser, one Fiat–Revelli submission, and the Madsen. The trials of the guns will proceed next quarter. In the shipyards of Venice a new class of protected cruisers is laid down with 4 ships ordered for completion by the 2nd quarter of 1903. The Regia Margheriti class is launched and by the end of the quarter their armor is largely fitted.
  • German Empire: Berlin sends an offer to the Aro confederacy to support them financially and military seeing their martial prowess and  hoping to take advantage of the situation and expand German influence in the Niger Delta region (mod response required). Investments into the ottoman empire begin as private loans provided by wealthy German industrialists and banks to begin helping the Ottomans develop begins this is combined with Berlin sending a special envoy to Michael of Romania insisting thaty his kin end the war for the sake of peace and stability in Europe. Industrialization and urbasnization continue to grow rapidly.
    • The Aro accept limited German assistance, but they wish to retain their independence and will resist peaceful pacification. 
  • France: We will continue with our programs to improve roads and facilities in the French Mainland and Africa. We will also offer several containment of supplies and weapons to the Aro, as a gift of friendship and a chance to expand French Influence around the Niger delta, which is of particular importance to French Interests. (MOD RESPONSE).
    • The Aro Confederacy accepts these gifts and the offer of aid but emphasizes its desire to remain independent and will resist takeover attempts

1902 - October to December

Venezuelan President Cipriano Castro refused to pay foreign debts and damages suffered by European citizens in a series of recent Venezuelan Civil Wars. Merchants and citizens from the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy call for some form of intervention to secure their assets.

The first Aswan Dam on the Nile is completed.

King Leopold II of Belgium survives an attempted assassination in Brussels by Italian anarchist Gennaro Rubino.

Many within the British Empire from politicians to citizens grow concerned by German and French involvement with the Aro Confederacy which disrupts the activities of the Royal Niger Company and demand action be taken due to prior agreements between France, Germany, and Great Britain regarding the region

In an effort to remove German and French influence from the region, the Royal Niger Company begins to discreetly supply arms and ammunition to Sultan of Sokoto, Muhammadu Attahiru I, and his forces in the hope of weakening the Aro Confederacy whose actions have disrupted its dealings greatly leading to a balancing act in terms of military power between the two states with Sokoto forces slowly taking back territory with no decisive battles yet to be fought

The Hanoi exhibition, a world's fair, opens in French Indochina.

  • Romania: We show the Ottoman Gov the peace treaty we made with Bulgaria. We know that our war can not carry on without troops moving so we talk to them of meeting at Athens for a alternative peace treaty. (OTTOMANS RESPONSE) At the same the election is coming up really well as the king has talked to the Parliament of the future if any party wins.
    • Ottoman declines. 
      • An evoy is sent to ROmania from Berlin with thwe Kaiser implying to his cousin that the Germans would be inclined to support the Ottomans and implores the ROmanians to seek a white peace or spark a larger conflict that would help nobody.
  • Brazil: The Emperor reestablished the Brazilian currency and envying Argentina starts constructing their own national railway. The President invites the Prime Minister of Guyana to discuss possible loans. 
  • United Kingdom: Many of the British continue to resent the Guyana Crisis. The Governor-General of Guyana, as the representative of the British monarch, instructs the Prime Minister of Guyana to avoid becoming too friendly and helping Brazil. Elsewhere in Mexico, the British ambassador is in a rage after hearing various Mexican government officials as well as the President crowing over what they consider a "Brazillian victory" over the "weakening" British Empire. The ambassador communicates the general feeling in Mexico to the British Parliament, which is also infuriated. When the Niger Delta Incident occurs, the Parliament is further incensed, having already been riled up by the South Americans. However, the Prime Minister and the Government remain on good terms with the German government, remembering that they must maintain their informal alliance. King Edward VII blames it darkly all on his nephew the Kaiser, but he and the British public warm once again to Germany following the announcement that Princess Margaret is pregnant. Banners go up in towns and cities all round Great Britain, celebrating the imminent birth. Following the incident's resolution, the British government nationalizes the assets and territory of the Royal Niger Company on the grounds that it is too difficult for a mere chartered mercantile business to compete with countries like France and Germany.  
  1. German Empire: The Niger delta incident causes an uproar in the Reichstag as both the National Liberals and the SPD demand an explanation. The SPD angered at the spending money to get involved in the internal affairs of a region under a foreign power while the money should be spent on infrustructure projects and with the consent of the masses while the National Liberalsa and Kronprinz WIlhelm criticize the move as an act of hostility towards the brits who the Kaiser has so coveted as an ally for so long. Many of the Junkers now find themselves at odd with the both the Liberals and the SPD over the same issue. A motion to abandon the expedition and support for th e Aro confederacy is narrowly defeated by the Conservative coalition with some of its own members voting in favour. Only the solid vote of the Centre party keeps the passing of the bill leading to a crisis where the catholics hold the majority vote in the Coalition leading to them demanding greater autonomy  for the catholic church while the SPD party members leave the Reichstag in an outrage. Unsure what to do and hearing critizism from all sides the Kaiser hasa breakdown and shuts himself out from the world for a week leading to tensions rising high in Berlin, Bavaria, and other cities as strikes start to build up as coal prices go up do to the strikes in the ruhr region and rationing being enforced. In the end the the Junkers crack and they agree to withdraw their support from the region as the kaiser unable to respond to the crisis leds to his son taking command of the situation and ordering a wtihdrawal from the niger region to Kamerun an action that is bitterly resented by many of the the ruling elite as an snub of their authority and giving in to the masses not to mention the Kaiser himself feels humiliated refusing to see his after the incident for a few days. In Happier news the Princess margeret is found to be pregnant leading to celebrations in the Hohenzollern Family and over the holidays. While the cold winter breaks up the strikes however tensions remain high in the cities as the SPD begin to organize marches for the Spring. 
  • Ottoman Empire: Ottoman is furious at Romania's dumb proposal and sends 2 battleships bought from Britain and 2 from Germany, and 3 cruisers bought from Germany and blocks all the ships trading with Romania. But they were given a clear order not to shoot them.
    • The Germans agree to support the Ottomans and they also moblize 10,000 men.
  • United Mexican States: The news of Brazil's victory over the United Kingdom causes celebration throughout Mexico, as the people celebrate the defeat of yet another colonial power. The memory of the French attempt to place a puppet Austrian monarch on the throne of Mexico is still fresh in the minds of many Mexicans and thus the news of the United Kingdom being forced to make concessions to Brazil causes much elation. Spontaneous celebrations occur throughout Mexico while many politicians, military officials and peasants praise the Brazilian Emperor for his courage in liberating Guyana. While Brazil took heavy damage and Guyana remains a Dominion of the British Empire, the fact that Brazil was able to force concessions at all marks the war as a victory in the minds of many Mexicans. Diaz sends one of the swords he carried at the Battle of Puebla to the Emperor Emmanuel and a letter praising the Emperor and congratulating him on his victory. Many in Mexico believe the war to mark the high-water mark of colonialism and believe the war to be a sign the colonial empires of the past are declining. Encouraged by Britain's seeming weakness, many in Mexico begin pushing for Mexico to be more active in helping liberate Caribbean colonies. In order to begin building up Mexico's presence in the Caribbean to aid this cause, Diaz sends a team of diplomats to Cuba to open diplomatic relations, establish embassies in each other's capitals and discuss the signing of a trade deal and a treaty of friendship [MOD RESPONSE FOR CUBA NEEDED] 
    • Cuba Agrees to the embassies and is amicable to a treaty of friendship, but would like the United States to approve such an agreement.
  • Kingdom of Italy: In secret the Italian Navy is concentrated at Taranto. Seeing the Ottoman Fleet engaged in Romania the Regia Marina is deployed and an invasion task-force assembled. In a precisely timed operation a declaration of war is delivered to the Ottoman Empire as an invasion force of 50,000 men is landed between Tripolis, Benghazi, and Tobruk. Meanwhile, the fleet departs for the Aegean and the Italian base at Chania from where they will intercept any and all Turkish naval attacks. With the war the strain on the national budget slows construction of the Regia Margheriti class and other shipbuilding efforts. Economic development initiatives are delayed. However, the Machine Gun Race proceeds with trials late in the quarter. (Mod Response for results) Calls for intervention in Venezuela continue, but with the war against the Ottomans they reduce. Italy does dispatch a small force of 2 cruisers and 4 torpedo destroyers to Venezuela seeking compensation and threatening a limited blockade unless the Italian share is paid. The United States is asked to arbitrate the dispute. (Mod and American Responses) 
    • United States of America: The United States agrees to arbitrate the dispute in regards to Venezuela.
    • Both Berda-Bergmann submissions are noted to have numerous flaws from serious overheating to not even firing, there's even an incident where the one of them inexplicably explodes on its testers. The Fiat-Revelli does not perform much better with various flaws being noted such as a horrid design which would inconvenience its user. The Breda-Schmeisser however, performs vastly superior in comparison to the other entries with comments from testers on its ease of use to its ergonomic design but it does suffer from minor flaws.
  • Japan: Japan would like to form an alliance with the Great Britain in light of threats from Russia (United Kingdom response)

1903 - January to March

The Venezuelan Crisis continues with petitions apparently falling on deaf ears in Germany. The United Kingdom distracted in the Niger Delta also fails to apply pressure and with only Italian vessels threatening action Venezuela refuses to pay.

In New York City, the Martha Washington Hotel, the first hotel exclusively for women, opens.

The first west–east transatlantic radio broadcast is made from the United States to England (the first east–west broadcast having been made in 1901).

There is outrage in parliament over the percieved lack of responce for the Aro Crisis. Many call for greater government action to oust French influence from the region.

The Sultan of Sokoto, Muhammadu Attahiru I, is successful in his efforts to defeat the Aro, scoring a series of major victories that leave his opponents severely weakened.

The Colombian Civil War rages on with American support providing enough of a kick to rejuvinate the Liberals' efforts. Venezuela, in order to support the Liberals, directly intervenes in the conflict, sending several thousand troops to secure eastern Colombia for the Liberals.

  • The United Kingdom: The British Government is interested in forming a closer alliance with Japan and sends envoys to discuss the matter. Parliament then focuses its attention on the crisis occurring in Venezuela. A small number of battleships are sailed past Venezuala, but the United Kingdom is willing to allow the United States and Italy to moderate the situation peacefully, as long as British interests are taken into account. Meanwhile, Great Britain supports the conference held in Berlin by Germany to settle matters in the Balkans region and the Ottoman Empire once and for all, with the government hoping to secure Egypt and desired parts of the Levant.
  • Japanese Response: Japan would also like to form an alliance with Great Britain in light of threats from Russia. We would like to sign the Anglo-Japanese Alliance treaty (United Kingdom Response)
  • France: We will send some of the French ships in Guyana out to help the Italians in Venezuela, with 7 ships in total helping. Modernization plans continue. With the many events happening in French Territory such as the Hanoi exhibition and the Olympics, the country's revenue and prosperity rises sharply, and most of these are to be put into the upgrade of French Military weapons, as a sequel to the modernization of French Uniforms 3 years ago. In a bold military action, 60,000 fast moving troops cross the border into Ottoman Libya right as the declaration of war, as they blitz across the south west parts of Libya, supported by small amounts of artillery. 30 ships also arrive at Algerian ports for supplies and support.
    • Italy appreciates French support, but does insist that all of Libya be alloted to Italy at the conclusion of hostilities. Otherwise France will be in breach of agreements held at the Berlin Conference. 
    • It’s not time for the Olympics. They are in 1904 and the mods decide where they are held.
  • Romania: We know that the Ottomans is doing blockage of our trade but then we heard that the Italian is now attacking the Ottomans in Libya. We thank them for attacking the Ottomans and we talk to them of attacking into Albania and help us. (ITALIAN RESPONSE) At the same time we start building defense in our homeland as the Ottomans may attack in our land. We had a election result and the victory is the PNL. (MOD RESPONSE)
    • Great, the PNL is victorious. 
    • Italy will continue its invasion but not wishing to antagonize Austria it refrains from intervening in Albania. 
  • Brazil: The “Undefeated Duke” declares his support for the Americans and joins Columbia, asking Bolivia and Peru to join on our side. The Emperor also leads 100,000 men to invade from the South(Algo Needed). We ask that our allies Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador join the American alliance.(Mod Response Needed)
    • Bolivia and Peru tentatively join the alliance. Peru does expect that Brazil will drop its overlapping territorial claim.
  • United States of America: In response to Italy's request that the US mediate the current crisis with Venezuela, the US proposes that the outstanding claims by Bs150m with 30% of Venezuela's income from the ports of La Guiara and Puerta Cabello to the creditor nations with an initial payment of $27,500 to the countries (Italian Response, Venezuela/Mod Response). The Oxnard Strike occurs becoming the first time in US history where a labor union is formed from different races and manages to achieve most of its demands. US involvement in Colombia remains ongoing with a force of 12k from Puerto Rico being transported into a Liberal held port and advances on Colombian troops with supplies, money, and arms continually being shipped to the Liberals and Panamanian Rebels. The Department of Commerce and Labor is established with the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey is transported to the new department. The US offers its political support in regards to the Berlin Conference concerning the negotiations and also offers US financial support with interest at 2.1% interest rate (Ottoman Response)
    • Italy agrees to these terms.
  • German Empire: Berlin sends an envoy to Vienna requesting that the Austrians help in ending the conflict in the balkans so that the Germans and Austrianscan begin securing peace in the region and to prevent the rise in ethnic tensions in the region (mod response required).  With Austrian support a final reuquest is issued to Romania to agree to a White peace and in exchange The germans will assist with investments in Romania, should they decline the Germans will join the blockade formally against them and will cease any arms sales and advisors sents to Romania, furthermore the Germans request the British formally join this. The Germans propose that a new Conference will be held in Berlin to discuss teirritorial disoutes between the parties of the Balkans League and the Ottoman Empire. A request is also made to ROme and to Paris to cease hostilities and to come to the table as well so as to preserve peace in the region. Protests and strikes continue in the Rhineland and in Silesia as the SPd in cooperation with the Anarchists and radical socialists due to the growing frustration of the SPD leadership with the lack of progress for political reforms. The Centre Party and the Conservatives have a spate over the lack of representation of the catholic church in state affairs. While the coalition doesnt collapse it becomes apparent that without catholic vote the coalition is unable to maintain power. The national liberals guided by Kronprinz Wilhelm approach the Centre party about a potential alliance to stabalize the political situation and begin discussing reforms. The venezuelan crisis comes at an extremely inopportune time and Berlin sends an envoy Rome and to the Americans differingto them the handling of the cirsis and promising to back whatever decision they come to aslong as German interests are taking into account (Italian and American responses)
    • Austria is interested but would like to avoid a war or the destabilization of the Ottoman Empire. 
  • Argentina: We send three armored cruisers to Colombian waters to show solidarity with America and support for the liberals. A marine brigade is landed with American troops. The naval yard in Viedma is complete with the first ships being laid down small torpedo boats. While the naval arsenal in Buenos Aries lays down 3 more torpedo boats and a destroyer. The first of National design. With the American declination, the AR.1 is further refined with many reports coming from soldiers being fed directly to the weapons designers. More industry grows to support the nation relying less on the international market especially that of the British. More iron and coal mines are opened up with immigrants still streaming in, especially to get away from the brewing troubles in Europe. More farms are also set up hoping to become the breadbasket of South America
  • Kingdom of Italy: Fearing that France will attempt to secure Lybia for themselves, work on the Regia Margheriti class is redoubled with construction of the recently ordered class of protected cruisers halted. The ships are now expected to be finished just before the end of 1903 and currently have their armor and most of the their main battery installed. All that remains is the completion of their armament and the addition of communications equipment, amenities, and smaller subsystems. The success of the Breda-Schmeisser is noted and the gun is declared the winner of the race. Schmeisser is offered a large prize of some 30,000 Lira, a handsome sum for the rights to his work on the firearm. He and Bergmann are also invited to stay in Italy for the remainder of the year and beyond to continue refining the design more and to oversee its testing. Bergmann determines to return home to Germany to continue developing his pistols, while Schmeisser agrees to continue refining the gun. With minor improvements made to the reliability, including the addition of dust-covers and the strengthening of the loading system the production Breda-Schmisser Model 1903 Mitragliatrice Leggera, or the ML 1903. The gun features a short-recoil operating system, a Carcano-style rotating bolt, and a semi-detachable magazine. The magazine is the area of greatest trouble with the rifle, as even though the feed lips are internal to the gun, the box magazines are prone to distortion and failure after even limited use. Efforts to resolve this result in more expensive magazines and greater overall weight. Regardless of the challenges the Great Italian Machine Gun Race is considered a resounding success. An order for 10,000 guns is sent out with delivery to be taken in by 2nd quarter 1904. The war in Libya continues. The Italian Army extends itself over the coast in a series of navaly-supported offensives, driving the Ottoman garrison into the desert. Unrest in the Libyan population is put down with impunity and machine guns are used extensively. Civilian casualties are severe due to a mixture of Italian reprisals, famine, and indiscriminate use of artillery.
  • Ottoman Empire: Ottoman sends 40,000 soldiers to Italian Eritrea. (Algo Needed) Ottoman also sends diplomats to Romania to surrender. (Romania response needed) Ottoman sends diplomats to ask Britain and Germany to tell Italy to stop this war. (Germany and Britain response needed.) Ottoman contacts Ottoman Libya and the Senussi order and starts gathering troops.
    • Italian Response: Since the Ottoman Empire clearly intends to turn this colonial war into a much more expansive conflict the Regia Marina is ordered to interdict and disrupt any efforts to supply the Ottoman forces in Eritrea. Meanwhile, the Aegean Fleet recieves orders to begin bombardment of Ottoman coastal cities, primarily targetting those with large Turkish majorities so as to not antagonize the Greeks. Furthermore, Greece is secretly offered all of Ottoman Macedonia, Thrace, and Smyrna if they will join the war and allow an Italian Army to deploy to Greece. (Mod Response) Austria and Germany are notfied of the expansion of the war from a local conflict to a broader war and are asked to remain neutral or join under the terms of the Triple Alliance. (German and Austrian Response) Austria is further offered negotiations as to the borders of Italian-Austrian areas of influence in the Balkans. (Austrian Response)
    • Romania Response: We talk to the Ottoman that we fight to the end as part of our Total War policy. We also talked to Bulgaria to join in war in our side so they can inveded southern bulgaria and get a east part of Macedonia and Thrace. (Bulgaria/Mod Response) We talked to Serbian gov of rejoining the war due to the turning tide (Serbian/Mod Response) We are shocked to see the Ottomans is turning a Balkans War into a Great European War and Talked to Austria-Hungary of joining in to help not just Italy but us as well. (Austrian Response)

1903 - April to June

After much external pressure, Venezuela capitulates to the negotiated solution presented by the United States, Italy, Germany, and Great Britain

The inactivity of the British government in regards to French involvement in the Niger region prompts politicians with backing from the Admiralty and military to issue an ultimatum declaring the Niger region within the British sphere of influence and that France withdraw its support and assistance to the Aro Confederacy

The first heavier than air flight occurs in the United States as the Wright Flyer soars into the history books.

Russia, much interested by the activities in regards to the Balkans begins to leverage its position by offering support to the state of Serbia (Karađordević family) to which it guarantees its independence and support. With Japan gathering allies in Great Britain and Japan's refusal of its initial offer, Russia moves to fortify its Siberian and Manchurian holdings by moving a portion of its Black Sea fleet and military into the region

The Conservative party in Colombia begins to quickly lose ground as Liberals and MDPA (Mutual Defensive Pact of the Americas) forces push into the region comprised of 12k US troops, 100k from Brazil, and Argentinian forces plus additional Venezuelan forces securing much of the Eastern and Southern portions of the country and the Conservative Navy all but decimated and its military in retreat

Serbian King Alexander Obrenović and Queen Draga narrowly avoid assassination in Belgrade thanks to the efforts of loyal troops guarding the palace grounds due to tensions with the Ottomans, by the Black Hand (Crna Ruka) organization. The result of this is a crackdown on the army and people in an attempt to root out the traitors leading to a divisive situation politically with Peter Karađorđević and many pro-Russians denouncing his actions and beginning to consolidate their position politically with the Communist doing the same.

The Ottomans recognizing that they are in no position to fend off the ever increasing number of enemies they face proposes secret negotiations with Italy offering to sell Libya to Italy for an appropriate sum. Further terms would be that in order to prevent losing face, Ottoman forces would put up a token resistance before being returned to the Empire as well-treated POWs and those residents who wish to leave Libya can leave without harassment. Additional terms include that the Italians permit the Ottomans to appoint naibs and kadis to represent the Caliph with their expenses covered by the Ottomans and appointments run by the Italians.

The Aro Confederacy manages to fend off recent Sokoto advances as their ill-supplied army begins to suffer from overextended supply lines for their massive armies resulting in a stalemate with neither side able to push the other further. At home, Sokoto experiences unrest from various Emirs who are devolving into factionalism in regards as to how to resolve the supply crisis as food and resources are devoted to the war effort leaving some with little to no food and increased prices on goods

  • Romania: The Romanian naval is sent out and attack the Ottoman ships we don't had a huge naval but we can sent small ships to raid the huge ships. Meanwhile the Romanian Armed Force in Romania has planned a defense if the Ottomans attack our land.
  • Argentina: We ask Chile to join the MDPA and to discuss the border. Yriogen with the help of Pena offers any Ottoman citizen seeking asylum free passage to Argentina.(Mod response) The AR.1 is finally remade based on designs submitted by marine Edgar Ricco. The weapon is shortened by 2 inches, a new sturdier bolt, with other improvements to make it an able replacement. The weapon is sent to the marines in Colombia first then supplied to the rest of the armed forces. Along with the new rifles comes food ships to aid the Colombian populace. The naval arsenal in Buenos Aires sees an extension begin to continue on for the next few years. Urban and rural development continue. Senators debate removing the electoral college but with the Progressives siding with the president and Autonomist the electoral college will remain. However, Yriogen puts his hat in for the presidential election next year. The Autonomist begin campaigning Alecotera and the progressives are spilt mostly toward the UCR and Yriogen. Yet, they put the Lawyer Carcano as their front runner. More money is invested into the education system. Yriogen begins attempts to ally the Maupche people to his party. 

    • Currently no Ottoman citizens are fleeing the region
  • Brazil: We celebrate the Argentinian support in the American alliance. We ask that Theodore Roosevelt comes to Emanopolis to meet the Emperor and taste newly harvested coffee.(American Response Needed) 

    • United States of America: President Roosevelt is unable to make the journey personally but does send the American ambassador in his stead
  • Japan: April is supposed to be the time Russia withdraws from Manchuria after dealing with the Boxer Rebellion but the withdrawal is yet to be seen and the fortification of Russian holdings in Manchuria further frustrated the Japanese. In June, Emperor Meiji concluded that a war with the Russian is inevitable.
  • United States of America: US forces and resources are continually poured into assisting the Liberals in Colombia in the interest of establishing a friendly state to US interest. The US offers its political support in regards to the Berlin Conference concerning the negotiations and also offers US financial support with interest at 2.1% interest rate (Ottoman Response). US companies continue to expand into foreign markets, specifically Brazil, Mexico, the Phillipines, Viceroyalty of Liangguang, Cuba, and MDPA states due to the government's encouragement in developing as well as utilizing US allies and friends to benefit both the US and them. Following the crisis in regards to Venezuela's debt, the US offers Venezuela a place in the MDPA to prevent events similar to it from occurring again (Venezuela/Mod Response).
    • Recently flush with cash the Ottomans refuse. 
    • Venezuela Agrees. 
  • Austria Hungary Empire: Austria starts building more cruisers and battleships. Austria sends diplomats to make an alliance with Bulgaria, and in return, Austria will promise protection.
  • Kingdom of Italy: The Ottoman Empire is offered 500 Million Lire for the sale of Libya and their total withdrawal. They also insist that a meeting be arranged with prominent leaders of the Senussi so as to attempt to negotiate peace. However, the move is secretly intended as a means of identifying and potentially pacifying notable threats. (Mod Response) Not wishing to be outdone by Austria, an alliance is sent to Greece, excluding the current Libyan War. (Mod Response)
    • The Ottomans consent so long as the other terms are agreed to as well and bring along with them Ahmed Sharif as-Senussi who serves as the nominal head of the Senussi Order but other leaders remain at home preferring not to deal with the heretic invaders
    • Greece opts to decline the offer of an alliance in the meantime until certain assurances can be given in regards to its goals and objectives
  • United Kingdom: Certain politicians with military backing demand France withdraws any assistance to the Aro Confederacy, and Parliament decides to also back this request. The Prime Minister says he is open to negotiations of territory and conflicts, but first the area must be established as Britain's sphere of influence and no-one else's. Britain tells Japan that they will assist them should Russia start a war. Meanwhile, British diplomats attend the Conference of Berlin, where they are instructed to secure Egypt as a direct protectorate should the opportunity arise. They also have interests in Palestine and Mesopotamia. 

1903 - July to September

The first Tour de France bicycle race is held; Maurice Garin wins it.

The Second Congress of the All-Russian Social Democratic Labour Party is held in exile in Brussels, transferring to London.

The Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising, organized by the Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization, breaks out in the Ottoman provinces of Macedonia and Adrianople. The Kruševo Republic is proclaimed in Ottoman Macedonia; it is crushed 10 days later.

Pope Pius X succeeds Pope Leo XIII, as the 257th pope.

In Serbia, the situation continues to deteriorate as the divisive situation between the Karađorđević's, Obrenović's, and Communist escalate with small skirmishes breaking out in the streets of Belgrade and across the country. In an effort to secure supply lines to Russia and allies, Peter Karađorđević approaches Romania to request their support in the upcoming conflict citing the authoritarian actions of Alexander Obrenović. King Alexander Obrenović approaches Austria-Hungary to request its support as a response to Russian backing for Peter Karađorđević

Russia continues to fortify its Manchurian and eastern holdings to the best of its ability and makes an overture to Japan stating its willingness to compromise in regards to the region with the support of Tsar Nicholas II.

MDPA forces manage to force the Conservatives out of the capital of Bogota and into the western reaches of Colombia. With defeat on the horizon, the Conservatives reach out to offer a surrender albeit with the condition that they are pardoned for their crimes and are given some monetary pension.

The Aro Confederacy and Sokoto Caliphate sign a treaty after a decisive battle in which Aro forces were crushed wholesale with the terms requiring reparations, arms, and goods. Despite Sokoto's recent victory, chaos stirs at home as some Emirs plan to take advantage of the Caliphate's weakened state to become independent once more.

  • Romania: We heard Karađorđević calling for our support and in reponse we start sending 330,000 of our Troop's some that are newly trained into Serbia thus declaring war on Obrenović kingdom. We enter the border as we start marching to Belgrade. Meanwhile the naval is carrying on raiding some Ottomans ships. (Naval Algo Needed)
    • Note: The Serbian War hasn't started, currently its just an increase in tensions
    • Retcon: The Troop's of 330,000 has gone towards the border.
  • Andorra: We are a small country, let's merge with Spain!
    • Spain dosen’t accept Andorra, telling Andorra to Merge With France.
  • Japan: The Japanese ambassador in Saint Petersburg, Kurino Shinichiro received instructions to go to the Russian Foreign Ministry to oppose the Russian occupation of Manchuria for the past three years. We declare that Manchuria and Korea are outside of Russian influence; Russian occupation of Manchuria were only supposed to deal with the Yihetuan Movement and were supposed to withdraw in April, and we demanded that Russia withdraws. (Russian Response)
    • Russia refuses to withdraw its troops from Manchuria with the Tsar commenting how it's his "God given right to liberate the land from the Yellow Perils.". Russia does offer to have it so Manchuria is within its sphere of influence but recognizes that Korea is in Japan's (Japan Response)
    • Japan Response: The Japanese refuses to take the offer after hearing the derogatory phrase towards Asian people and Russia's unwillingness to withdraw. Diplomatic relations are disestablished as Kurino Shinichiro presents himself to the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lamsdorf to leave Russia.
  • Austria Hungary Empire: Austria promises support. Austria also asks Russia to stay neutral. (Mod response needed) Austria also asks the leader of the Serbian communist to ally with pro-Austrians to destroy Pro-Russians and Romanian troops. (Mod response needed). After annexing Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Novi Pazar, Austria sends 2.5 million Lira to Constantinople.
    • The Communist Government refuses. 
  • Kingdom of Italy: With the official war over Italy begins imposing control over the coastal regions of Libya, intent on rooting out resistance across the region. An occupation and pacification force of 20,000 men is left to secure the country with the majority of forces returning home. Seeing the poor state of Italian finances, the government tones down spending on ships and military equipment. The Regina Margherita Class are nearing completion, but subsequent proposals for new dreadnoughts are cancelled for the time being. The previously ordered protected cruiser class is delayed again with minor design changes. The Breda-Schmeisser ML 1903, which was deployed in small numbers in Libya, receives some updates based on experience gained in the Libyan War. The open-magazine architecture is replaced with a more-effectively sealed box magazine system. Some of the ergonomics issues are worked out and an updated version enters production as the Breda-Schmeisser ML 1903*, borrowing from the British system of naming.Internal efforts to improve the strength of the Southern Italian economy continue with education and improvements to the efficiency of agriculture. Land re-organization has improved the overall ambition, strength, and efficiency of Italian agriculture to the point that it can compete more effectively with international markets, if only because the cost of transport is much lower. The low food prices do benefit the economy as a whole, which continues to diversify into new technologies. Automobile racing becomes something of a national pastime with dozens of autodromes opening across the country. Automobile manufacturers all over Italy are known for their stylish, elegant designs, and use of powerful engines. Owning a car of exceptional power becomes a fashion resulting in increasingly large and powerful engines, some reaching even as large as 8 or 10 cylinders. Meanwhile, news of the inventions of heavier-than-air-craft leads to a wave of copy-cats. Several Italian engineers attempt to replicate the success of the Wright Brothers. Several are successful others fail miserably with a number of unfortunate deaths.

1903 - October to December

First African American Woman to charter a bank

The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party splits into two groups: the Bolsheviks (Russian for "majority") and Mensheviks (Russian for "minority").

The Ottomans having made peace with the Italians propose to Romania a return to status quo peace as neither side is currently willing to invest the resources to bypass their geographical obstacles.

The Sokoto Caliphate erupts into chaos as a group of Emirs attempt to break from the Caliphate leading to a civil war within the country. The Caliph utilizing the resources given to him from the Royal Niger Company in his prior war with the Aro Confederacy manages to win multiple battles with his battle-tested forces but due to the scope of the Rebellion he is unable to suppress all of it by the years end.

Serbian Communist Government is the first to strike in the rising state of tensions in Serbia launching simultaneous attacks against the other two factions crippling their logistics. The three factions within Serbia shortly go to war against each other with the Obrenović and Karađorđević factions savaging each other in a series of bloody battles around Belgrade. Peter Karađorđević requests that Romania remains largely out of the conflict due to his desire to win the country on his own terms with the exception of supplies and funding from Russia and Romania

With the end of the Thousands’ Day War, the Liberals secure victory in Colombia and Panama gains its independence due to its agreement with the Liberals.

Sales of Automobiles pick up globally as the machines grow increasingly useful tools for rich and poor alike.

  • Romania: Realizing that Italy is now out of the war and the war is a stalemate. We talked to the Ottoman of making peace returning to status quo. (OTTOMAN RESPONSE) At the same we stay out of the Serbia war as Karađorđević requested it unless he's at risk we also start funding him with weapons.
    • The Ottoman Empire Agrees to a Status Quo Ante-Bellum peace. 
  • Kingdom of Sweden-Norway:The king travels to Oslo where he holds a speech about the common heritage of Norway and Sweden and how the union has made them stronger.This speech is celebrated widely over the union as tensions remain calm with the new representation.
  • Austria-Hungary Empire: To bring order in Belgrade, Austria sends 20,000 soldiers. Austria also sends 10 soldiers to protect the king.
  • United Kingdom: The former Prime Minister the Marquess of Salisbury dies this year, and he is greatly mourned by the nation, and by his nephew the former Prime Minister Arthur Balfour. The newspaper the Daily Mirror is launched. British diplomats conclude their negotiations at the Conference of Berlin, having secured Egypt as a direct protectorate. They also plan to advance their influence over various territories in the Levant, Mesopotamia and Palestine in the near future.
  • German Empire: Efforts to develop a new LMG using Louis's Schmeisser as the led developer alongside Theodore Bergmann who are contracted by the Spanddau Arsenal to develop a new LMG under the orders of Ludendorff whose vcalls for a change in doctrine based on new technologies developing. Colonial development continues. the crisis in Berlin and the Rhineland continues to escalate as tensions between the government and Socialist protesters breakdown with the Unions getting behind the strikes while the Junkers finally crack and order the troops to mobilize and put down the strikes and restore order after riots break out in berlin and the Ruhr Valley. With the inaction of the Kaiser due to his declining mental health the Reichstag enters chaos as the conservative's cpoalition collapses with the Centre party defecting to the National Liberals who call for a vote of no confidence much to the surprise of both the conservatives and the SPD who having boycotted the Reichstag sessions for months have been completely outmenuveured by the Kronprinz and the Liberals. The SPD now looking at becoming politically isolated in the party system begin making attempts at an approachment wit the Prinz WIlhelm whose own issues with the conservative elites of his father's generation and before might prove more willing to negotiate in earnest with the Socialists. however many amongst the protestors and rioters refuse to negotiate unless real commitment to reform is promised and followed through upon. 
  • Kingdom of Italy: The Regina Margherita Class of battleships enters service, bringing the total number of modern Italian Battleships up to 4. The economic reorganization of the South has had dramatic impacts on the direction of growth in the region. Urbanization trends continue at the expense of emigration. With farming becoming increasingly efficient and mechanized across the south, central and north of the country. The modernization and improvement of farming creates a growing middle class throughout the south which had never existed previously. This change turns into a self-reinforcing cycle as the growth of the middle class contributes to the conditions that enriched the group from the beginning. In the cities, a growing upper-class throws itself into automobile ownership and racing. The fad becomes something of a cultural marker, especially in the Po Valley and the wealthier parts of the South.

1904 - January to March

The Obrenović and Karađorđević factions suffer numerous casualties in a series of bloody battles. Meanwhile, the Communists gather support as they engage the Austrian "Invaders" in Belgrade. Their struggle inspires many non-partisan but nationalist Serbs to take arms in support of the Communist cause.

Officers in the Imperial Japanese Navy develop a plan to destroy the Russian Far East Fleet in harbor using a flotilla of Torpedo Boats and Destroyers. They ask the government permission to carry out their plan and secure Korea of the empire.

Halford Mackinder presents a paper on "The Geographical Pivot of History" to the Royal Geographical Society of London in which he formulates the Heartland Theory, originating the study of geopolitics.

80,000 demonstrators gather in Hyde Park, London, to protest against the importation of Chinese labourers to South Africa by the British government.

The Herero Rebellion in German South-West Africa begins.

Henry Ford sets a new automobile land speed record of 91.37 mph (147.05 km/h).

  • Romania: We had warned the Austrians to withdraw by July 1904 or else. (AUSTRIAN RESPONSE) At the same time the troop's we had put on the Serbian border has doing some training. The naval has returned to our base. We also talked to the Russian gov about helping us if our country has been taken and to helped the Karađorđević faction's. (RUSSIAN RESPONSE)
  • Russia: Will Germany Merge in with my country?

Austria declines.

  • Argentina: The race for president is not a close one up to this point. Carcano being third in the polls formally withdraws and puts his support behind Yriogen, boosting his popularity further. He campaigns all around the nation promoting workers and immigrant rights. The torpedo boats and destroyers are complete, allowing the old ironclads, and monitors to be scrapped and reused on new ships. The new class of destroyers being called Rosa. Two more Rosas are laid down in Viedma. While the naval arsenal in Buenos Aires refits the torpedo Cruiser Patricia and the old armored cruiser Patagonia. Domestic artillery production also commences to compliment the AR-1 with a 65 mm light gun and 120 mm field gun. Production starts off slow but picks up gradually. With the rise of automobiles oil prospecting begins in Patagonia as does the opening of more iron mines.

  • German Empire: The Herroro rebellion begins at an inopportune moment as Berlin is racked by internal strife as a new round of national strikes occur as the Conservative government collapses. Kaiser WIlhelm's inaction further galvinizes the protests as the COnservative party and the Junkers unwilling to see the writing order the military to restore order in the streets of Berlin and other major cities suffering protests. This action causes a problem as the General Staff refuses to obey the orders of the Rump Reichstag stating that they only follow the orders of the Kaiser, however son of the junior officers tied to local families or beaurucrats agree to the command and shots are fired into a crowd of protesters after a brawl breaks out. In total 23 protesters are killed and protests and riots take a turn for the worse with acts of terrorism occuring as anarchists incited and the previously mostly peaceful protests turning into full scale riots in cities in the Rhur region, and in Silesia's industrial region. startled by the violent actions of the more radical members of the reform movement most of the SPD leadership decides to break with the brewin revolution to negotiate with Kronprinz WIlhelm who makes a solemn promise to commit to reforms aslong as the SPD can reign in enough support to end the riots. Most of the unions alarmed at the turn to violence readily agree to negotiate fearful of a larger crackdown, while the SPD realizing the Kronprinz's genuine desire to oversee reforms to the political system agree to assist him> The Kronprinz appeals to the General Staff to reign in the insoburdinate officers and soldiers which annoys many of the general staff,however eventually WIlhelm reasons with them that despite the fact that he isnt the Kaiser yet, his word should still carry some weight, and he also highlighys how their insubordinate actions and the indiscriminate killing of their fellow citizens will only incite a breakdown of social order. These arguements sway some of the senior genral staff to bring the others members around and call the troops back to their barracks or face a court martial on the grounds that his majesty the kaiser has not commanded their actions. This makes most of the officers fall in line with only a few hold outs getting arrested by their own soldiers unwilling to face the displeasure of the General staff and the Kaiser to whom they have sworn is also noted that the State of Bavaria remains relatively peaceful with the the King of Bavaria ordering his military not intervene in the issues. With the crackdown coming to an end and the Kronprinz starting to mediate a resolution to the crisis towards the end of the winter promises of a new election in the Spring. In namibia and the colonies the local garrisons are promised support soon and to hold out for few months nutil the istuation in the homeland is stabilized. Berlin declares it is unable to commit to the brewing crisis and sends a private envoy to Vienna urging thme to withdraw as the growing domestic disputes at home prevent Germany from engaging in this regard. 

  • Austria Hungary: Austria sends troops 5,00 more troops, but also sends diplomats to Romania asking them that there will be peace. (Romania response needed.)

    • Romania did not respond.
  • Kingdom of Italy: With the Italian countryside reorganized into a neat and efficient patchwork of modest, but efficient estates. The development of these efficient holdings has led to a general increase in the national wealth and the wellbeing of the population. The Libia Class Protected Cruisers enter service after a long, delayed construction schedule.

1904 - April to June

Serbia's civil war turns into a desperate struggle as the Obrenović and Karađorđević factions are driven from several major cities by their communist rivals.

Great Western Railway of England 3700 Class 3440 City of Truro becomes the first railway locomotive to exceed 100 mph (probably).

Finnish nationalist Eugen Schauman assassinates Nikolay Bobrikov, the Russian Governor-General of Finland, in Helsinki.

Roger Casement publishes his account of Belgian atrocities in the Congo.

Argentina once again struggles with the development and production of the high quality steel and machining needed for its 65mm and 120mm cannons. The AR. 1 too continues to struggle as its production is marred by a lack of consistency and low quality tooling.

  • Romania: The 330,000 Romanian troops are started to move inside the Serbian border as the Romanian gov declares war on Obrenović and the Communist faction of Serbia on May 20th, 1904. We know that the Austrians may go to war on us so we start to conscript our people in the army to prepare for war. At the same time some people in our country are talking of a Great war is coming. (Mod Response) We talked to the Russian Tsar to protect us if our nation is at risk. (RUSSIAN RESPONSE)
    • Seeing the Chaos in Serbia, Italy offers to step in and negotiate a truce before war is inevitable. 
  • Austria-Hungary: Austria officially declared war on the communists and sends 20,000 troops to important communist base. It asked the pro-Austrians to support them. (Algo and mod response needed). Kingdom of Hungary also mobilizes after Romania ignored Austria's offer to maintain peace.
    • Pro-Austrians send 5,000 troops.
  • United Kingdom: The United Kingdom sends the fittest athletes to the Olympic Games. Lord Meath introduces Empire Day to the United Kingdom. British trawlers become a common sight in the North Sea. Arthur Balfour is narrowly elected to become Prime Minister for a second time. Then, on the 27th April, a diplomatic incident occurs. King Edward VII visits France, hoping to secure good relations. However, after a mob of people come to see him break free of police restraints, they swarm round him, bustling him. As they are pulled away, Edward VII stumbles and falls off a wharf onto a small floating platform below. He is knocked unconscious, and is discovered to have twisted his ankle and broken his right arm and left leg. The incident is first considered a merely unfortunate accident, but one man, named John Kellery (in the King's household) claims to have seen the King being pushed. This results in a torrent of contradictory eyewitness accounts, eventually resulting in the British Government demanding an investigation, and that the French Government arrest every Frenchman present at the scene. (French or MOD Response).
  • French Response: We do as such, but we also arrest some British men, including two who beat up a Frenchman for "Looking at them suspiciously"
  • France: In accordance to the trade and Friendship deal with Austria-Hungary, we send some advanced weapons to aid Austria Hungary, along with some gold. (AUSTRIAN HUNGARIAN RESPONSE) Senegal, the pride on French Africa, experiences a sharp increase in revenue, which helps the French Economy boom once again. The Modernisation Programmes finally seem to be paying off, with greater agricultural returns and Manufacturing revenue, along with shorter travelling times between cities.
  • United Kingdom: The Englishmen arrested turn out to include Prince Arthur of Connaught and his friend the Duke of Devonshire. This causes a great scandal.
  • France: There are also scandals caused by this event, but for different reasons. Many French are disgusted by how such high ranking British nobility could disrespect such common friends and humans.
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