|Republic of Maharlika
Republik Mahardika (Maharlikan)
República Maradíca (Portuguese)
|Motto: "Bangsa Raya di Laut"
("Great Nation of the Sea")
|Official language||Maharlikan (national)
Portuguese (working language)
|•||Prime Minister||Abu-Hamza Sri Laminta|
The Republic of Maharlika (Maharlikan: Republik Mahardika, Portuguese: República Maradíca) is a country in Maritime Southeast Asia. Bordered by Taiwan to the north, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei to the south, the South China Sea to the west, the Maharlika Sea to the east, Maharlika consists of 1,708 islands, including a portion of northeastern Borneo.
Maharlika's history is very interconnected with that of the neighboring Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei. Maharlika's recorded history begins around 800 A.D., with the records of the islands in ancient Chinese, Siamese, Srivijayan, Majapahit and even Indian texts. Many trading kingdoms were established in modern-day Maharlika, with the most well-known being those of Ma-i, Bohol, Madja-as, Maynila (also known by "Selurong"), Tondo and Namayan. Later, Indianized mandalas in Visayas were formed with the arrival of migrants from Sumatra, such as Sugbu, Bohol and Palawan. Islam was introduced in the 1400s, due to the Islamization of the Malay world, and Christianity was introduced in 1521.
The western half of the archipelago resisted the Spaniards, and adopted Islam as their faith. The Muslim sultanates of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago, and the Muslim rajahnates of western Visayas, Palawan and south-central Luzon formed a loose confederation that resisted Spanish rule, while the eastern half of the archipelago submitted to Spanish rule and became Christianized, forming the Spanish East Indies, and for decades, the Muslim states went to war against the Christianized native kingdoms, who became vassals for the Spanish Empire to form the Spanish East Indies.
In the mid-1600s, many of the rajahnates adopted the sultanate system, and In 1640, Sultan Muhammad of Sugbu rallied the other Visayan Muslim rajahs to ally with the British as a means of protection against the Spaniards and Christian Filipinos. The western half of the archipelago remained under British control, and predominantly Muslim, while the northern and eastern half became part of the Spanish East Indies and was heavily Catholicized and Hispanized.
In 1898, the Philippine Revolution created the First Philippine Republic. During World War II, the entire archipelago was attacked and occupied by Japan. Both Maharlikan and Philippine guerrilla units resisted the Japanese, the first-such cooperation, with Philippine guerrillas often-not, being taught sabotage tactics by Maharlikans.
After World War II, a number of independent nations emerged, the Sultanate of Maharlika (a constitutional monarchy utilizing Westminster politics), Republic of Visayas, Republic of Mindanao and Sultanate of Sulu.
However, in 1947, a large number of irredentist movements saught to unite the natives of the archipelago, similar to the events that united Indonesia and created Malaysia. In addition, the Catholicized natives began to reject the "Filipino" name and identity, favoring Maharlika. In 1950, the the First Constitution of Maharlika, known as the Tondo Constitution, was ratified. Bashir Kala became elected the first President and Joseph Abital becoming his first Prime Minister.
Maharlika is a founding member of ASEAN, and a member of APEC.
The Sultan of Brunei peacefully occupied Palawan and the Indianized kingdoms of Maynila, Namayan and Tondo. Bruneian and Bornean missionaries introduced Islam to the native Kuyonese, Palawanese, southern Tagalogs and Kapampangans as far as Cavite. Rajah Aceh, the King of Maynila, became a naval commander in Brunei's forces.
Colonization & Spread of Islam and Christianity
Allied with the Sultan of Brunei, Rajah Sulayman immediately sensed that the Spaniards were coming to colonize them and purge the Islamic faith from Manila, and immediately called for a war against the Spaniards. Lakan Dula befriended the Spaniards, converted to Roman Catholicism, and allowed them to trade, much to Rajah Sulayman's disgust.
Rajah Aceh is evacuated to Brunei, since Sulayman feared that he was too old to face off against the might of the Spaniards. Aceh gave Sulayman an ultimatum, if he failed to defeat the Spaniards, he would not inherit the throne.
He installed one of his allies, Datu Atangan, to lead the naval forces of Maynila. Another datu, an individual by the name of Datu Balani, went to send message to the Sultan of Brunei that invaders had come to Luzon. Rajah Aceh travelled with Datu Balani to Brunei, where he went to live for some time.
Rajah Adar of Sugbu sent Visayan Muslim and Tausūg warriors to reinforce Rajah Sulayman's forces. The first Battle of Manila ended with a Muslim victory, thanks to Manila being fortified and armed with cannons. In Tondo, Datu Magat Salamat, son of Lakan Dula, waged the Battle of Tondo.
Meanwhile in Visayas, Moro, Malay and Indonesian princes infiltrated the ex-Hindu turned-Catholic nobility, and Islamized Visayas, waging their own war against the Spaniards.
Rajah Tupas II of Sugbu, the Sultans of Sulu, Maguindanao, Brunei, Malacca, Aceh and Mataram contacted Rajah Sulayman II, as well as King Sri Bunao Salamat of Tondo and Rajah Sjarif of Namayan, for a united holy war against the Spaniards.
Martín de Goíti is killed in battle. However, the Spaniards halted their attacks, and focused on solidifying their control of the eastern half of the archipelago.
During the reign of Rajah Hidayatullah of Sugbu, Sultan Kudarat of Maguindanao and Sultan Mu'izuddin of Sulu, as well as Rajah Suwaboy of Manila and Rajah Sri Bunao II of Tondo, the Muslim states of Maharlika, with aid from Bruneian and Bornean warriors waged their greatest offensive campaign against the Spaniards and Christian Filipinos, culminating into the successful raid on Cavite, in which the force of Islamic datus freed the imprisoned Ternate sultan and his family, and installed them as the rajah of the confederation of Muslim kedatuans in Palawan.
For the next few decades, the Islamic states of Maharlika would engage in a back-and-forth war against the Spaniards and their Christian Filipino allies. This devastated the Muslim population of the archipelago, due to the costly nature of the war, and the tendency of the Spaniards to have the upper hand in battle, due to experience in fighting the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula not too long ago.
The Spaniards were able to force Roman Catholicism as far into northern Palawan, converting many Muslim Tagalogs to Roman Catholicism, despite fierce resistance from the Muslim Tagalog and Muslim Kapampangan rulers, and fierce killings of Spanish friars. It is estimated that by 1599, as much as half of the natives of the Pasig River region, as well as the southern Tagalog and Kapampangan regions of south-central Luzon had been successfully converted to Roman Catholicism.
Therefore, the succeeding King of Sugbu, Mohammad Tupas, as well as Sultan Abdullah of Manila, considered the highest sultan of the Pasig River kingdoms, above even the sultans of Tondo and Namayan, called for an alliance with the Portuguese Empire, seeing as to how the Portuguese were a direct rival of Spain, and despite successfully conquering the Malacca Sultanate, didn't force or coerce the native Malays to convert to Roman Catholicism.
In addition, Rajah Mohammad knew that the Spaniards would never attack their own Catholic brethren. The Captain-General of Malacca happily lended his hand to the Moros of Mindanao and Sulu, and promised them protection against all foreign hostilities, the Spaniards were alarmed and infuriated at the situation. The Portuguese Empire sent a soldier by the name of Gaspar de Calisto to lead expeditions into the Maharlikan Archipelago.
The Spanish Governor-General, Juan Manuel de la Peña Bonifaz, in Cavite sent Gaspar de Calisto, who would become the first Captain-General of Portuguese Maradicao, a letter of admonition.
"My dear brother from the other side of the Iberian Peninsula, what have you done? Do you not know how these Moorish mongrels work? They will pretend to be your friend, and then they will backstab you! Subjugate them now, and turn them to Christ now, before it is too late!"
Datu Badr al-Din Sulayman, Sultan Abdullah's nephew-in-law, also issued to him a similar admonition, once Sultan Abdullah of Manila adopted the same move later on.
In Visayas, the Portuguese referred to Rajah Mohammad as "Sultan Mohammad Tupas of Sugbu", sending waves of Goanese Muslims, who also referred to Rajah Mohammad as the Sultan, forming the Sultanate of Sugbu, as a protectorate of the Portuguese Empire, including all of the rajahnates and kedatuans that revolved around its sphere of influence.
Due to Sugbu's influence on the other Visayan kingdoms, the Portuguese considered Sultan Mohammad to be the highest-ranking Visayan ruler. They referred to him as the "King of Visayas".
The Sultanate of Brunei ceded Palawan to the Portuguese, via an agreement with the Portuguese conquistadors that the Sultanate of Brunei may maintain close relations with the Maharlikan peoples, thereby - all of western Visayas became Portuguese territory. Much like the port city of Ambon in Indonesia, Butuan, which was part of New Spain, was used as a meeting point between Portuguese and Spanish conquistadors.
Feeling content with Portuguese vassalage, for the next centuries, the Islamic states of Visayas allied with the Portuguese against the Dutch, and after the Dutch conquered Malacca. More Malays migrated to Visayas after the Dutch conquest of Visayas.
Sultan Abdullah of Manila, was finally convinced that the Portuguese could protect the Muslim peoples of Maharlika, and also allowed Portugal vassalage over the southern Muslim Tagalog regions, causing more feelings of uneasiness against the Spaniards.
Sultan Abdullah, considered by the other two sultans, to be the highest-ranking sultan of the Pasig River settlements, took care of negotiations with the Portuguese in the same regard as the kings of Sugbu who were considered the highest-ranking Visayan rulers. The Sultan of Manila agreed to let the Portuguese use Manila as the capital city of the Portuguese East Indies.
However, the Portuguese wanted to find a new settlement, to be able to convert natives to Roman Catholicism without interfering with the lives of the Muslim tribes of the Pasig River. The Sultan came to a new agreement with the Portuguese, and allowed them direct control of the descendants of Tagalog Christians, those who were converted to Roman Catholicism by the Spaniards, and remained Christians even after Rajah Sulayman and King Sri Bunao's victories over the Spaniards.
The Portuguese eventually found a settlement along the Parian Creek, a population of native Tagalogs following a form of Folk Christianity, a very syncretic form. The Portuguese would eventually establish their capital city based on this settlement as the Rio de Pasig. Despite being found as a Catholic settlement, both Muslim and Catholic Tagalogs would call this place home, cathedrals were built alongside mosques.
Portuguese friars urged their Spanish counterparts to make peace with non-Catholics, even to the point of demanding collateral damage for their wars against the Muslim natives. The Spaniards were at a loss, since they did not want to imprison a Catholic friar, Sultan Mohammad of Sugbu knew that his scheme had manifested.
Manila, Jolo, Kota Bato and Sugbu both became important cities for the Portuguese East Indies, as these were used as rich trade cities with the Ming Dynasty.
The Treaty of Cavite ensured peace between the Portuguese and Spanish East Indies, the Spanish Empire would no longer attempt to invade the Muslim kingdoms of Maharlika, if the Portuguese helped prevent piracy attacks against Spanish and Christian Filipino settlements.
The Visayan sultans, rajahs and datus aided the Portuguese, and the Sultan of Sugbu often-not, urged the Malaccans to stop fighting the Portuguese.
During the Second World War, the entire Maharlikan Archipelago was invaded by the Japanese Empire. The Islamic Maharlikan sultans adopted a policy of fighting the Japanese to the death, as they did against the Spaniards.
Sultan Yusuf Tupas, the sultan of Sugbu at the time, united the other Visayan Islamic kingdoms and states, to form "the Visayan Empire" (Visayan: Karajaan sa Bisayas, Malay: Kerajaan Bisaya), to fight against the Japanese, using Sri Lumay's same tactic of scorched-earth tactic. Japanese soldiers considered it, "the land where we perish in the flames of martyrdom".
Yusuf Tupas regarded the Visayan Empire to be the successor to the Srivijayan and Majapahit Empires, and proclaimed to be the "High King", or "Sultan Raya".
After the Second World War, the Maharlikan Archipelago began to fracture into many independent states. The Tagalog Sultanate, State of Pangasinan, Republic of Luzon, the Visayan Empire (West Visayas), Kingdom of Visayas (East Visayas), Sultanate of Sulu, Islamic Republic of Lanao, State of Maguindanao and the Republic of Agusan-Surigao to be specific.
The Muslim Visayan Empire would eventually unite with Catholic East Visayas to form the Visayan Republic.
However, Atiqullah Gumabay, a Tagalog Muslim nationalist, pan-Malayan and one of the first "Maharlikan nationalists" who had deeps ties to Sukarno of Indonesia and Tunku Abdul-Rahman of Malaya, initiated the seeds for what would, become the unification of Maharlika. Gumabay chose Malay to be Maharlika's national language, and much like the situation in Indonesia, Maharlikan Malay was nationalized simply as Maharlikan, or Bahasa Maharlika, adding many indigenous loanwords into it. One large distinction from Indonesian and Malaysian, is that Maharlikan lacks Arabic loanwords, apart from Islamic terms.
Many of the Catholic Maharlikans began to drop their Spanish surnames, reverting back to their Old Sanskrit and Old Malay names, with the exception of the Portuguese Maharlikan community, who were allowed special protections. Members of native elite also began to an aggressive pogrom to purge eastern Maharlika from Spanish influence, targeting other elite - who had served under the former American and Spanish administrations, seizing their property. The first such was Sergio Campavilla, who changed his surname to Old Sanskrit name to Dula Tangkas, and Cavite native Don Pablo Mendez, who changed his name to Paras Sri Magtanggol.
Known by "Datu Paras", he led a personal raid on Intramuros, and took over it, ordering all of its inhabitants to drop their Spanish surnames, and adopt Old Malay and Austronesian names, and encouraged a mosque to be built inside of it, to signify the unity between Catholics and Muslims, though this said-mosque was never actually built.
There were fears and common rumors that Datu Paras had converted to Islam and that he was trying to convert eastern Maharlikans to Islam, however Datu Paras stated in his Cavite Speech, that he was a Roman Catholic and that mass-converting eastern Maharlikans to Islam was not in his goal. Datu Paras had in reality, ordered his forces to treat the Catholic clergymen with respect, as well as the families that they had come in contact with.
Datu Paras issued a public apology to the Muslims of western Maharlika "for the sins of my ancestors", referring to native Christianized Filipinos who aided the Imperial Spanish Army in their war against the Muslims of western Maharlika. Datu Paras targeted the descendants of Filipino soldiers in the former American and Spanish administrations, ordering them to support the revolution and renounce their ancestors' service to colonial powers.
Sri Magtanggol convinced future Maharlikan prime minister José Havantes to change his name to Labaya Abital (from Old Sanskrit "Avitar"), Sri Magtanggol, Abital and Tangkas were responsible for indigenizing and syncretizing the Roman Catholic Church in Maharlika, and re-introducing pre-colonial practices back to the Christian communities of eastern Maharlika.
After his death, succeeding city governor Bantuk Marikit renamed Cavite to Datu Paras, and Intramuros was renamed Kota Raya Kedatuan, or "fort of the datus". During the Cold War, the Maharlikan government chose a path of neutrality with the United States and the Soviet Union. It allowed both to dock warships at Selurong Bay, however out of convenience, Maharlika remained militarily closer to the Soviet Union, purchasing a large number of Soviet warplanes.
In 1970, under the ultranationalist leadership of president Pua Magundadatu, a descendant of Sultan Kudarat, and Catholic prime minister Sri Manibog Timbankaya, a descendant of Lakan Dula, the Catholic church in Maharlika broke ties with the Vatican, due to associations the Vatican with colonialism. This led to an influx of Maharlikans out of the country, thanks to President Mangudadatu and Prime Minister Timbankaya's iron-first dictatorship.
President Mangudadatu fostered close ties with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev.
However, sectarian violence mushroomed between Muslims and Christians, with Islamist groups carrying out attacks on Catholic churches.
Leonid Brezhnev agreed with Pua Mangudadatu to support the Maharlikan claim on Sabah, and to protect Maharlika from China if Maharlika orbited around the Soviet Union, to which President Mangudadatu and Prime Minister Timbankaya agreed to.
Therefore, the Maharlikan invasion of Sabah was Soviet-supported, beginning the Sabah War, against the NATO-backed Malaysia. Indonesia supported Maharlika, thanks to Malaysia being weaker and smaller, Maharlikans emerged victorious. Soviet Navy warships backed and reinforced the Sulu Sea, and stationed forces in southern Palawan.
In 1982, Pua Mangudadatu was murdered by the Ampatuans, leading Sri Manibog to become President of Maharlika, the first Christian president of a predominantly-Muslim nation. However, Sri Manibog continued the tyrannic rule.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, coinciding with the overthrow of Sri Manibog, fears in Maharlika were raised about Malaysian and NATO forces taking advantage of Soviet/Russian troop withdrawal. Therefore, succeeding President Amaluddin Dewas signed a new agreement with President Boris Yeltsin of the newly-formed Russian Federation to keep Russian forces stationed in the Sulu Sea. President Dewas worked to restore severed relations with the west and allowed NATO troops to cooperate with Russians forces for peace-keeping missions.
In 1993, the Catholic church in Maharlika finally re-established ties with the Vatican. Under the leadership of President Dewas, Maharlika opened the first Israeli embassy in Pasig.
As such, Malaysian insurgents attempted attacks against Maharlikan troops, re-igniting the Sabah War, with near-daily engagements between Maharlikan and Malaysian forces. Russian, British and American peacekeepers were sent to the region. In addition, despite having high hopes of having Maharlika's economy boosted by high ties with the West, society broke down, followed by sectarian violence between Visayans and Mindanaoans, as well as Muslim and Christian militant groups. Indonesian and Malaysian Islamists took advantage of the situation, to carry out attacks against Maharlikan Christian and Maharlikan Hindu communities, the worst of in-fighting took place in 1998, with the outbreak of the Asian Financial Crisis.
Like in Indonesia, Maharlikan natives blamed the crisis on Chinese Maharlikans, and a new wave of horrible attacks ensued against the Chinese Maharlikan community.
The presidency of Abdulmalang Bontoyan, relations with the West improved, with President Bontoyan taking a liking to Barack Obama. However, the Sabah conflict flared up again, with President Bontoyan being criticized for being ineffective against Malaysian militants.
His successor, Ja'far Guinayamat, rekindled military ties with Russia, Russia began to involve itself in the Sabah conflict back to Soviet-era levels.
Maharlika currently runs on a presidential parliamentary republican form of government. The president is considered the head of state, as the prime minister is considered the head of government. The president and prime minister are both elected every five years in Maharlika.
Maharlika is divided into four main regions, Luzon, Sri Visayas, Mindanao and Sulu.
Maharlika is Southeast Asia's second-most linguistically diverse nation, home to over 202 languages, with the overwhelming majority being part of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian languages. Most belong to the Borneo-Maharlika sub-group.
The most spoken are Maguindanaoan, Tagalog, Sri Visayan languages, Ilocano.
The Maharlikan language, Bahasa Mahardika, is Maharlika's national register of the Malay language, the most-spoken language in Maritime Southeast Asia. Much like the differences between Indonesian and Malaysian, Maharlikan contains differences that makes it unique from both Indonesian and Standard Malay/Malaysian.
Maharlikan contains many loanwords from indigenous languages, containing loanwords mostly from Maguindanaoan, Sugbonese and Tagalog.
One thing Maharlikan is known for is the lack of Arabic loanwords, other than Islamic terms, to which other Malay dialects, including Indonesian, is known for being riddled with. This was done by Maharlikan nationalists in order to promote national unity, and not favor either Islam or Christianity, something that noted Maharlikan nationalists such Paras Sri Magtanggol, Jabar Sri Abidin, Muhsin Sulayman and Najibuddin Dangwa brought up. Instead, Arabic loanwords have been replaced with either those from indigenous languages, or those of Old Sanskrit origin.
Two languages that aren't Austronesian languages are Portuguese and Chavacano. Thanks to the friendly relations between the Maharlikans and Portuguese colonists, Portuguese remains widely-spoken in Maharlika, with 61% of Maharlikans reporting in some fluency in Portuguese.
Maharlika has its own dialect of Portuguese, Maharlikan Portuguese, or Portugues Maradicao. There are many Portuguese-language news outlets in Maharlika. Portuguese is one of the official languages of the city of Pasig, the capital city of Maharlika. The National Islamic Organization of Maharlika, as well as the Council of Imams and Grand Muftis, used Portuguese as one of their main languages of publication, alongside Maharlikan, English and Arabic.
Chavacano on the other hand, is a Spanish-based creole, known as Chavacano de los Maradicanos. However unlike Portuguese, due to the negative connotation attached to Spanish colonialism, Chavacano is widely dying out. It is mostly spoken in the former Spanish Philippines, native to Cavite.