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Mauretania
Timeline: Differently
Flag Emblem
Location of Mauretania in Northern Africa
Capital
(and largest city)
Volubilis
Official languages Mauretan Berber
Government Federal presidential republic
 -  President Abdelmadjid Tebboune
Area
 -  Total 785,100 km2 
303,129 sq mi 
Population
 -   estimate 35,740,000 
Currency Mauretan drachma

Mauretania, officially the Berber Republic of Mauretania, is a country in northwest Africa. It borders Ghana to the south, Carthage to the east, Central Sahel to the south east and is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the west and the Mediterranean Sea on the north.

With a surface area of over 785 square kilometers, Mauretania is the 12th-largest country in Africa and the 34th in the world. It has a population of 35.7 million inhabitants, making it the 13th-most populous country in Africa and the 42nd globally.

History

Formed in the 3rd century BC by semi-nomadic Berber peoples, the country was a Roman province for centuries but achieved independence in the 6th century, becoming an important trade post since then. It is a close ally of Carthage.

A son of Pharaoh Cleopatra VII took the throne of Mauretania during the early Roman dominance, but his line was deposed and exiled to Egypt. After the Roman Empire fell, the throne as reclaimed, and the Caesare-Mauretan line was founded. The royal family retained power throughout the next millenia, surprisingly without any interruptions.

The government grew increasingly unpopular following the turn of the 20th century. The ruling party, the Conservative Party, got increasingly authoritarian as the years progressed. Finally, in 1948, angry liberal protesters called for an end to the party. Both the government and the monarchy refused, and with parts of the army organizing a mutiny, a full-blown civil war broke out.

The Civil War lasted six months before the Liberals stormed Volubilis and executed most of the Conservative politicians. The King was publicly beheaded alongside the former Prime Minister, and his son was installed as the Provisional Ruler.

Following the events of the Civil War, a Moroccan revolt was harshly put down, and a Spanish cargo ship that had crashed on the shores of Mauretania resulted in a big diplomatic failure. A referendum on the monarchy was held, and 63% of the population supported the removal and execution of the Royals, with most of the votes against the monarchy in urban areas. The Provisional King was beheaded, and the rest of the family was exiled "permanently" to Egypt. A dominant-party presidential republic was established, which has remained to this day.

From the 1950s onward, the Liberal-dominated government of Mauretania grew increasingly dictatorial, which has created a very authoritarian nation in Northern Africa. Elections were constantly rigged, and people in the cities often protested. The only legal party is the Liberal Party, which has 100% dominance over the government. In 1977, the President of Mauretania dissolved the Berber Republic and formed the Great Democratic Socialist Republic of Mauretania. This caused a lot of dissent among the Berber population, and numerous rebellions broke out, all of them which were eventually quelled.

In 2011, anti-Government rebels sprung up all over Mauretania. Up until then, the President was a "figurehead", but in reality he held the country's power. With support from European forces, the Great Democratic Socialist Republic of Mauretania was slowly chipped of it's land until the final capture of Volubilis. After the president's death, revolutionaries installed Abdelilah Benkirane as the president of the new Berber Republic of Mauretania.

Anti-government rebels continued to ravage Mauretania between 2011 and 2021, with many considering the nation a dangerous place. In 2021, President Abdelmadjid Tebboune signed a ceasefire with the rebels, ending the decade-long strife.