Mengjiang (蒙疆, Měngjiāng) was a Japanese puppet state established in 1932. Its stated purpose was to create a Greater Mongolia. However, the main purpose was to exploit the reserves of coal and iron in Mengjiang, and export it to Manchukuo and Empire of Japan. It was bordered by Mongolia, China, and Manchukuo.
The Three Proposals
The political status of Mengjiang was unclear during its existence. At least three proposals where planned of its future:
a) an independent state, advocating or becoming a future Greater Mongolian State,
b) an autonomous territory of Manchukuo, or
c) an autonomous province of the Chinese State Union. In any case all alternatives, would depend on the near future on Japanese advisors at all levels of the administration.
The Mengjiang United Autonomous Government is chaired by Territory President, assisted by State Council. Japanese advisors are designated at all levels of the government. The Pan-Mongolian Peoples League was formed as the sole political party of the Mongolians in accord with the principles of Pan-Asianism and also to help maintain public order and promote Japan's Pan-Mongolism.
The Central Bank of Manchukuo was in charge of its finances and treasury by means of a delegate and a local branch.
A Mengjiang National Army was created from the previous Inner Mongolian Army that served as auxiliary force in the occupation of Mengjiang from China. The Mengjiang National Army was a Kwantung Army special force group under direct command, having native commanders alongside Japanese commanding officers, as in other auxiliary outer sections of the Kwantung Army. It participated as auxiliary to the Japanese Imperial Army in the campaigns of the North.