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After a long trek through Asia spanning two decades, Venetian explorer Marco Polo published the compiled journal of his travels in 1295. He described in great detail the Near East, with its many castles and fortresses held by many mighty empires. He entered the Gate of Iron, through which Alexander crossed into the east millennia ago. He toured the eight kingdoms of Persia and witnessed scores of miracles and wonders, many of which he dared not publish for he felt his audiences would not believe what he wrote. He described in great detail the exploits of the great Kublai Khan, the intrigue in the Emperor's court, the sprawling landscape of Yuan China, and the massive battles that took place during his stay.

Polo named his work Livre des Merveilles du Monde - Book of the Marvels of the World. In publishing these journals, he brought knowledge of the eastern world back to Europe and vice versa. Just like that, the world got a little bit smaller. The Holy Roman Empire - locked in a state of interregnum with no end in sight - became aware of the wars of Kublai Khan. The faltering Byzantine Empire and its breakaway state of Trebizond became the subject of discussion from Lisbon to Kathmandu. The wealthy Abu Bakr II of Mali would seek to follow in Polo's footsteps, paving the way for the rise of Mansa Musa. The Kamakura Shogunate of Japan defeated wave after wave of Mongol forces while, an ocean over, Mesoamerica was still reeling from the fall of the Toltec Empire.

Merveilles du Monde is a spiritual successor to the Principia Moderni franchise. It sets the clock back to the year 1295, in the Late Middle Ages - in other words, an era of great change and great suffering - an era in which nations rose and fell - an era in which power was cemented ...

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MdM 1423

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1420

The reversal of Louis XI's decision causes the papal schism to steadily implode on itself. All public support toward Clement VII across the French nobility evaporates, leaving only some nominal political support in Portugal and Ireland. Clement barricades himself in the Episcopal residence in Paris, while all the remaining schismatic Cardinals go to Rome to seek clemency. The local clergy and bishops appointed during the schism, however, still remain.

With the end of Louis XI's excommunication, the previous nobles fighting against him find an amicable rapproachment. This reduces the Burgundian side of the conflict by 4,000 troops. However, due to the recent nobles that switched sides as a result of the death of John the Fearless, the Burgundian side is restored 2,000 troops.

The years of conflict have exhausted much of the resources in Burgundy, causing a large national deficit and shortage of anual crops.

Prince Frederick "the empty-pockets" of Germany officially sends 3,000 volunteer forces into Lotharingia to help quell the Taborite revolt. Using the Wagenburg tactics, a Hussite military named Jan Franz (ATL Jan Zizka) makes a startling victory against the Royal Forces at a battle near Namur. Sigsmund of Brandenburg-Bohemia requests that the Pope should sanction a Crusade against the heretics. So far, the actions of the Patriarchate of Catholic Hussites have pacified much of the German population outside of the Rhine.

Over the course of this generation, the Germanic language in the Lowlands begins to shift sharply from the language of the rest of the Holy Roman Empire. Retroactively, linguists would refer to this phase as "Middle Franconian", which begins to differ significantly to German.

Another gradual development at this time is the use of gunpowder. Having been at war the most in the last century, the Kingdom of France develops some of the revolutions of gunpowder technology this decade. The first is the arquabus, known in French as the punaise gun. The second revolution is a lighter siege cannon, able to also be used in field combat. Quickly, however, this technology is also adapted by Spain.

Wallachia revolts from Hungary, with 5,600 troops are organized under the banner of Prince Dan II, supported by the Tsardom of Bulgaria. He crosses over the Danube and approaches the regional capital.

In China, the cult of the White Lotus begins organizing a conspiracy to revolt against the Tian Dynasty, centered around the eschatological worship of the "Unborn Venerable Mother".

Florence Cathedral, which had been under contsruction since the early 14th century, is now almost complete, but is only missing a dome. The clerics of the Cathedral demand that there should be no scaffolding in the interior of the Church, or it would disturb their daily prayers. The Republic of Florence holds a competition across Italy, surveying if any genius of the Renaissance can figure out some way to construct a dome with no scaffolding.

In the wake of the Marcian schism, the French theologian Pierre d'Ailley writes that the College of Cardinals should be held to a standard of infallibility, as a check of power against the Pope.

A massive earthquake strikes in Chile, shaking much of the southern Andes Mountains. This is largely unnoticed except by some local Amerindian tribes. However, tsunamis caused by the incident strike against the coastlines of Japan and China.

The offices of the Knights Templar in Portugal petitions the Queen of Portugal to sponsor their ongoing Crusade along their trading missions abroad.

The Forbidden City is constructed in the Capital of China.

  • Hanseatic League: As a new year dawns and the Baltic thaws, the non-stop trade of the Hanseatic League continues to guide German economics into a daring, new age. Every year, representatives of the Hanseatic League (Ratssendeboten) meet at an assembly in Lübeck known as the Tagfahrt. However, since the mid-14th century, the aldermen of the League have had the true say in what happens in these meetings. The League has come a long way since the days of its early inception. Civility reigned; if a consensus was threatened that may benefit the League as a whole, an alternative idea was not proposed. Something, after all, is better than nothing. Now, however, the central states of the Hanseatic League dominate trade and therefore hold significant sway over the politics of the region. The Hanseatic League recognizes four men who represent the entire central political entity and who also hold considerable sway over those who may not be governed by Hanseatic ideals. They are as follows: the Bürgermeister of Lübeck and Hamburg - Heinrich von Bardewik, who share a mayor and who hold the final say in where shipments throughout the four regions go; the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who determine the prices of salt; the Prince-Admiral of Rostock, Anton von Warnow, who holds a permanent hereditary military position; and Prince-Archbishop of Bremen Johann Slamstorp, who holds significant sway over ecumenical politics in the Baltic. The amber trade throughout northern Europe continues to bring in wealth for the Aldermen, who petition the Ratssendeboten for the ability to determine the price of certain goods. This petition is rejected, meaning the central Hanseatic states retain control over the price of amber. However, a petition to rejuvenate the Hanseatic navy with new ships - namely bulks rather than cogs - is accepted. The shipyards of Rostock are put to good use this year as old ships are scrapped and new ships are built with the usable parts. The docks of Rostock swell with new ships and their banks swell with more coin. Additionally, the newly-founded University of Rostock, the first university in the Baltic or Northern Europe, brings in a plethora of new thinkers, from new men from ambitious families to those from older families aiming to give their prospective heirs to their fortunes the best education money can buy.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: With the integration of the rebel vassals underway and with key administrators and military forces in place, the Emperor turns his attention toward running the Empire. Emperor Tewodros inherits a relatively centralized and prosperous Empire from his father, heavily profiting from numerous trade routes to India, the Swahili states, Egypt and Mali. The Empire’s economy is also supplemented by a diverse array of other trades, including a growing domestic textile industry, a strong agricultural system and productive mines, with currency now being used to greatly facilitate trade and economic production. The Empire also maintains a stable and relatively efficient administrative bureaucracy, with the mesafint of the Empire becoming a heavily literate and prominent class of bureaucrats. Corruption still plagues the mesafint. However, as numerous bureaucrats attempt to place family members in profitable and key positions. The Empire also maintains a strong military, with thousands of feudal levies supporting a strong corps of trained veteran citizen soldiers, whose loyalty is to the throne. With such a strong state and with few enemies posing an immediate threat to the Empire, the Emperor Tewodros shifts the focus of the government from foreign conquests toward building Ethiopia domestically. Emperor Tewodros focuses on improving the capital, hiring more workers to help clean the streets of animal and human fecal matter as well as attempting to keep main roadways clear of impromptu shacks and merchant stands. Seeking to further improve Barari as a city and remembering the stories of the magnificent European Christian cities of Italy, the Emperor sends diplomats to Rome to ask the Pope if he might be willing to find Italian engineers who would be willing to come to Ethiopia as honored guests to help improve Ethiopia’s capital. This would include artisans, architects, road engineers and more. [PAPAL RESPONSE, PLEASE]. They would be paid handsomely and be treated as high-ranking members of the Imperial bureaucracy. The delegation is also instructed to collect information on Europe and collect whatever information the Ethiopian clergy in Rome have gathered. 
  • Dai Viet: The Le Loi army has reached 20,000 men, and with Tran support, the army has a total of 30,000 men, overpowering the Ho army of 10,000 men. And so, on 14th February, Le Loi decided to wage his troops and attack Tay Do. He divides his troops into two units, one infantry unit with 20,000 men and one naval unit with 10,000 men. The infantry unit would march from Thang Long to Tay Do. There weren’t any other routes instead of going straight because the narrow land borders of the country. Otherwise they would have to cross the Lan Xang border which can cause annoyance to the Lan Xang king. The naval unit would go by the Red River to the Eastern (South China) Sea, sailing by the shoreline then cross by the Mã River. They would carry most of the artillery since carrying them would be difficult for the infantry unit as they would have to cross a mountainous terrain. Hồ Nguyên Trừng sends a number of troops to try stop the army from advancing but there’s no use. Because Le Loi army is stronger than the Ho’s, plus they had the people support so they can have supplies of food and cereal crops, the Ho army can only hold on for two months before Tây Đô eventually fell. Before Le Loi’s army can capture Tây Đô, the Ho royal court has fled to Cambodia by boat. The war resulted in victory for Le Loi. However, some historians and former officials of the Tran dynasty are questioning Tran Thiem Binh's legitimacy as they do not recall him whatsoever. After an investigation by Nguyễn Trãi and well-respected historians throughout the country, Lê Lợi finds out that Tran Thiem Binh is not a descendant of the Tran dynasty in any kind. In fact, his family name is not even Trần - his real name was in fact Nguyễn Khang (阮康). Tran Thiem Binh had convinced the Tian Chinese Emperor that he was the son of Emperor Trần Nghệ Tông, which historians can confirm that Trần Nghệ Tông had no such son with this name. This was confirmed by his former boss Trần Tông who is now in jail after he recognized the Emperor is actually his former farmer which was arrested for treason at the time the Tran army was in war Champa, as Trần Tông turned to Champa instead. Lê Lợi first plan to kill Trần Thiêm Bình and seize the throne but remembers that Binh has the support of the Tian dynasty and Dai Viet might get invaded by Tian China if he does so. Knowing that Binh has deceived the Wushu Emperor by making him believe he was a descendant of the former Tran dynasty, Lê Lợi sends one of his generals, Lê Lai to China to prostrate before the Emperor and explain to him that Trần Thiêm Bình has been deceiving him this whole time and he was pretty much like how Hồ Quý Ly did to the Emperor. Should the Emperor allow Lê Lợi to take the throne he would recognize the Heavenly Kingdom and pay annual tributes, as he got the Viet people’s support throughout the whole country. (Mod Response needed).
    • The Tian Emperor agrees to change their support to the Le Dynasty, provided that he provides the same tributary status as before.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: After losing the Battle of Montauban in 1416, our army has pulled back to the town of Brens. With this defeat, Duke Phillip III the Good conceived a defensive strategy to force France to peace out, instead of giving up all hope and allowing the usurper Louis XI to steal his rightful titles. A grand scheme began in 1417, with a lot of resources invested upon Albi, hoping to fortify it to weather the incoming storm. The fortifications of Albi are greatly expanded, by constructing five-metre high stone walls to protect the entire city. These walls link with castle Château de Castelnau-de-Lévis, previously serving just as an outpost on a hill, now serving as the citadel of the city of Albi. Taxation on the still prosperous and largely unaffected by the war, parts of our realm such as Flanders and Artois is increased to pay for these works. Unlike the wartorn Duchy of Burgundy and the Counties of Burgundy and Nevers. However, whenever the French King attempts to invade either the Duchy of Auvergne or our domain, we dispatch the majority of our forces, 15,000 men, under the command of Duke Phillip III the Good to assist our ally. If the French choose to engage us in open battle a flanking maneuvre is carried out against them by our experienced commander, Phillip III the good, learning much from his father's cunning and prowess in battle, John the Fearless, before his untimely passing, using our superior numbers and the terrain to our advantage to encircle the French forces. Since His Most Holiness, the Pope, in essence is appointed by God and creating an Antipope is questioning almighty GOD himself, our bishops as representatives of the Catholic Church denounces the vile Anti-Pope Falkenstein. Given the dire state of our economy and our war weariness, we plead Emperor Francisco of Hispania to military and financially assist us in our efforts to reinforce the defenses of Albi, as losing the south of France would lead to terrible consequences for all of us. The same plea is extended upon the Swiss Confederacy, offering to renounce once and for all our claims, recognizing the Swiss annexation of the south part of the County of Burgundy that was lost to in our previous war with them, in exchange for financial support to resist the efforts of King Louis XI to forcibly annex us into France. Also we plead King David III of Scotland, our fierce ally, to help as financially in our efforts to reinforce the defenses of Albi, as losing the south of France would lead to terrible consequences for all of us. We also request from the Hanseatic League to loan money to be able to defend ourselves against France as well as mercenaries. [Hispanian, Scottish, Swiss and Hanseatic Player Response].
    • Swiss Diplomacy: The Central Council accepts this deal and will aid Burgundy financially.
  • Kingdom of Tondo: By 1419, the Battle of Potrero River was the turning point in the conflict where the Yellow Faction forces tactically won the battle against the defending Red Faction forces although the Yellow Faction faced heavy casualties than the Red Faction forces. The forces of YF lost 20,000+ forces while the RF lost almost 10,000 forces. The forces of the Red Faction broke their morale as their overall leader, Datu Maitan - was slain by Lakan Lontok himself and were dispersed across the central Luzon region. The aftermath of the battle led to the Battle of Kulyat where the Yellow Faction decisively won the battle. Malatarlak; the last rebel stronghold, surrendered to the Yellow Faction which means that the Red Faction is now a fracture of its former self (although they still exist, they are now just a group of resistance cells against the new ruling dynasty) even though the War of the Tondoese Succession hasn't ended yet due to spillover war between the two empires of Brunei and Majapahit and the two empires must yet create a treaty to formally end the succession war. Commanders and loyalists of the rebellion were hunted down under the orders of Prince-turned-Lakan Lontok of Brunei and the Yellow Faction finally consolidated its rule over Tondo, the respective houses of Gatchalian, Kuwanko and Sambal were heavily punished by rebelling against the new ruling dynasty although Lakan Lontok doesn’t want to execute the entire household as it is not the “way of Islam”. Lakan Lontok also ordered a crackdown of Red Faction sympathizers although the aftermath of Battle of Kulyat has led to the Invasion of Caboloan (and Brunei-Majapahit spillover war) a year later which the remaining combined 35,000 Tondoese, Bruneian and Maynilan forces led by Lakan Lontok and his ally Rajah Majul marched to Caboloan (OTL Pangasinan), their war of justification against Caboloan was to punish supporters of the Red Faction and to end the anti-Bruneian/Islam influence in Luzon [MOD-RESPONSE NEEDED].  Meanwhile, incoming Majapahit goods that were sent to supply the Red Faction in the conflict attracted the Moro pirates/raiders that were affiliated to the Sultanate of Sulu (Yellow Faction). 50 pirate war galleys (lanongs) equipped with cetbangs/cannons attempts to attack the Majapahit trade ships that are roaming around Maynila Bay and the west coast of the kingdom to plunder and loot their goods (ALGO NEEDED) since they somewhat intervened in the succession war by attacking the Bruneian Empire in Sarawak. While Lakan Lontok is leading the invasion of Caboloan, Lakambini Dalangitan is temporarily the one who is leading Tondo at this moment. The couple discussed the future of Tondo and the Lakan himself agreed to his wife’s suggestions. The ruling dynasty will continue to follow Lakan Sukwu’s accomplishments. Despite the ruling dynasty bearing the Muslim faith, they continue to tolerate any religions despite the ruling dynasty’s beliefs were Islam (especially that Lakambini Dalangitan converts to Islam) to avoid religious rebellions thru out the Kingdom although this beliefs would soon clash between Hindus, Buddhists and the ruling Muslims. Former rebel cities that are currently devastated from the succession war are now in the process of rebuilding, most of the funds were used to rebuild the cities who were devastated in the war in which the new ruling dynasty is unable to fund the colonization and expansion efforts in the Visayas region. Meanwhile, the three nations of Brunei, Sulu and Tondo entered into a dynastic union as both of the ruling monarchs came from the House of Bolkiah. Lakambini Dalangitan also expressed his support to his father-in-law’s domain (Brunei) in its war against the Majapahit Empire. Lakambini Dalangitan also issued an order that any Majapahit ships that are lurking in the region will be harassed and the Kingdom of Tondo (same as Rajahnate of Maynila) will send its goods to fund Brunei in its war against Majapahit.
  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We do more baby making. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improved over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation, peace for now is declared in a state of security for the expansive territories of each tribe. We start to train in canoe warfare and keep making giant war canoes. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Papal States: In Rome, Pope Martin V welcomes the cardinals that supported Falkenstein during the schism. He says to the cardinals that they are pardoned and reinstates their functions in the College of Cardinals. The pontiff writes to the clerics and bishops that were appointed by the antipopes during the schism saying that they can continue in their positions if they swear allegiance to Martin V [MOD response needed, please]. Cardinal Julian Cesarini is chosen by the pope to the position of General Commissary of the Church. Pope Martin V calls Pierre d'Ailley to Rome, seeking to understand his ideas about the College of Cardinals [MOD response needed, please]. The pope starts the construction of gardens in the Vatican, using the projects made by the deceased Alexander V during his papacy. This year, the Holy Father creates as cardinals Juan Cassanova (España) and Louis Aleman (Kingdom of Arles). With Sigsmund of Brandenburg-Bohemia asking to the formation of a Crusade to fight the Taborites, Pope Martin V writes to Jan Hus and Cardinal-Patriarch Jacob of Mies, asking if they think that a military intervention is necessary to deal with this group, which violence is growing fast. He wants their opinion because the Taborites are also a problem of the Catholic Hussites, this way the pope don't want to interfere in the matters of the sui iuris Church without asking their opinion about it [MOD response needed, please]. Leonardo Da Nacho, Headmaster of Saint Augustine's University, continues to act as a father to Ari VI. After returning from Migliarelli, Ari Sturlungur is able to meet with Sister Anna Forti and the two talk about her visions of Our Lady of Hope.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles, Tripolitana and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grown in number.
    • The cardinals accept the agreement.
    • Pierre suggests that the College of Cardinals, being infallible, should collectively have power in conjunction with the Pope, similar to a kind of parliament.
  • Empire of Japan: The arrival of a Tsunami in the Nankai region devastates coast parts of Shikoku as well as the port facilities in Osaka. Thousands are reported dead and the Emperor is forced to send elements of the army as a labor force to help pick up the pieces from the devastated region. Digging into food surplus as well as budget surplus the Emperor invests heavily into restoring the region hoping to affect its rebuild time into roughly a decade with much to be seen as back to normal within four-to-five years. The issue of the Wokou is noted now, and a serious garrison is sent to Tsushima to raid and destroy various pirate hideouts and a more noticeable addressing of the issue if produced. The navy would actively assault and destroy pirate outposts, and free slaves and captives hopefully to return them to their home country. This is somewhat of a daunting task since the concept of "Wokou" due to Japans strong and widespread trade network has become widespread reaching as far south as Vietnam and the northern islands of Majahpahit. The navy in this instance happily welcomes a new ship. Inspired greatly by Chinese designs from Zheng He's fleet and with the great increase in Japanese ship architectural skill, a ship of somewhat smaller size to the Great Warships of the Tian (which also served as their treasure ships) are built matching roughly the dimensions of the Chinese equivalent. It effectively serves as a hybrid battleship/transport ship and models of both are constructed in order to fulfill both roles. It is said that these ships in the trade or troop capacity can carry double even possibly triple of the current largest Japanese ships, and could carry nearly 400-500 troops per ship highly simplifying some of the transport issues the army has. The new Trade zones of the Zaibatsu have now been fully realized as each as adjusted to their new region and more thoroughly ordered trade within the Empire. The veritable goldmine of Furs coming out of Kowa to the north prompts notice from the Crown Prince who hoping to make a name for himself in the investment and financial world sends a hefty sum to the Trade guilds operating the Kowa settlement with clear orders. "Turn this place into a thriving town, great riches lie in this region". This prompts an expedition of nearly 100 freemen and engineers and artisans who are to arrive and establish a more thorough and dynamic domestic economy for the growing town. This is also to expand the port facilities and build housing in which two-to-three years time the families of those married freemen will arrive as well as women who have taken to escaping their former lives in the main islands who have begun migrating to frontier regions. The usual internal migration seems to begin to annoy the nobility who within their own lands attempt to lower the autonomy of the Peasants to prevent their flight to frontier regions as freemen. There are also growing conflicts between the Freemen and the nobility as their class is purposely marginalized in favor of Noble authority within territories. One of the Joen Daimyo, however, pushes this too far. A unit of nearly 1,500 Veterans forming from an unusual concentration of Freemen veterans within his territory have taken up their old arms against the Daimyo. While raising his own 4,000 strong force to crush this revolt and place his utter control over the Freemen in his domains, the Freemen revolters are proven to be much smarter than the Daimyo and his leadership cutting his army down nearly in half and forcing him to agree to their demands of guaranteeing their further autonomy outside of the Peasant system. Many other Daimyo pause at their own actions with their freemen now beginning to realize that for the first time in centuries. the Samurai and Daimyo did not necessarily have a monopoly on trained military manpower. Many of the Ronin had been funneled toward the Growing Kensei order which while keeping Japan stable, has limited total manpower that could be called from lone wanderers or free samurai companies. Their own inferiors, the Freemen are noted to be excellent soldiers, while lacking the Japanese code of the warrior, they are the literal backbone of the Imperial army and generally speaking if these men have served, they have served with the absolute best Japan has to offer. It's a terrifying thought, however, with prior noble revolts unsuccessful, and their lands having been regranted as the final relaxation following the nearly century old restorations aftermath at this point, the Daimyo of all walks of the social spectrum begin to settle down and just try to improve their holdings and maintain the current power they now control.  Seeing growing unrest in the Azuma Island kingdoms specifically Tondo embroiled in their Civil war, a presentation is made by the the trade guilds and some opportunistic naval captains. Intervene and secure Tondo as a vassal to the Japanese empire and use that as part of the springboard for the rest of the islands down the line. This is wholeheartedly accepted and the Imperial army marshalls 15,000 troops which arrive on Fort Koba late in the year preparing for next years campaign. The explicit war goal looks to be to enforce Hegemony and end the civil conflict affecting the trade of the region. The arrival of the troops strains the supply in the region overloading many of the new dockyards in Appari. However, with the arrival of the Army, so is the arrival of the armies engineers who quickly and efficiently begin building more jetties and docks expanding the small settlements modest trade jetties into full blown military jetties heavily increasing the supply through the port. The arrival of more men from the home islands as well prompts the construction of quarters for the new men who are practically shipped in to deal with the increased supply through. This also prompts a massive embarking of the Japanese navy which brings 30 of its great Atakabune, 15 of its new massive Chinese based War/transport ships as well as nearly 50 medium and 70 light ships which are added to the regular patrol pool until the war is to begin. A practical fortune is spent in building up the storage and supply facilities as well as the ports for the Imperial army.
  • Georgian Empire: In 1418, Esfahan finally fell to Georgian hands. With the Timurid remnants relocating to Kerman, Bagrat's claim on the Persian throne was virtually unchallenged. However, in the aftermath of the siege, it was found that Rostam – his favorite in court and beloved cousin, had died. Allegedly, upon the sight of the latter's body, Bagrat had reportedly "wept like a woman"; due to his popular image of virility, contemporary accounts of the siege and its aftermath, often excluded or modified this narrative – for example, claiming instead Bagrat had vowed to honor his death as the latter was in his final moments. Regardless of the actual events, Bagrat would be greatly affected by this loss; for the last decades of his life, he would withdraw from public life and relegate his kingly duties to the Crown Prince in perpetuity. After the capture of Esfahan, Georgia did not press farther east: this was attributed to both the death of Rostam, as well as the perceived lack of need to – as the eastern Iranian plateau was assessed as not a major threat due to its sparse population and low level of development. With the imposition of the Georgian social order upon his new subjects, Bagrat resettled tens of thousands of aznauri (lesser nobles – accompanied by their serfs and retainers, in Iran and Mesopotamia. Most of them came to reside in administrative centers such as Mosul, Baghdad, and Esfahan – all three and many other cities in the region developed separate Georgian quarters, which often grew from pre-existing Armenian or Arab Christian ones. Following Byzantine and Italian examples, the Gelati and Ikalto academies began granting their students degrees – this would mark their transition from monastic schools to true universities. The core curriculum was comprised of the three preparatory arts of grammar, logic, and rhetoric; and the four liberal arts of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music theory. However, theology, medicine, law, and philosophy was also taught. Having developed from monastic schools, most students were destined to become monks or nuns. However, nobles were encouraged to send their sons and daughters in emulation of the Bagrationi's (who began sending their princes and princesses to these centers of learning commencing with Anastasios I the Great in the early 14th century). With peace restored, trade resumed unperturbed by war. Georgia benefited from the control of trading routes, as it allowed the expansion of trade with the East (which brought silk, spices, dyestuffs, and sugar) and access to new markets for its own cotton and woolen textiles. Taxes on imports also constituted a new source of revenue, particularly on the lucrative spice trade.
  • Hindustan (Gurkani Dynasty): After breaking away his share of the Empire and having to contend with several rebellions, the Amir, Shah Rukh Mirza sat about to consolidate his possessions with the help of Ulugh Beg, his eldest son in the year 1413. He attempted to take over Samarqand and the surrounding areas which had been marred by chaos ever since Timur’s death while Ulugh Beg sat out to create an administration for the various Indian cities with the help of the few officers who had been a part of the older administration. Ulugh Beg created a second army under himself formed of the Turkic and other tribes of the garrison towns of Hindustan, and began a campaign to suppress the rebellious factions beginning with the Havali-i-Dilli (Region of Delhi) in 1414 which was brought firmly under the control of Delhi by 1417 and also helped in securing the region between Delhi and Punjab. Amir Shah Rukh twice attempted to capture Kabul but failed to do so and on the advice of his eldest son retired himself from the army and took to solving matters of his Empire in 1417. Borrowing heavily from the aspects of the old administration, the Sarais system was reinstated and a small pseudo-police force on horseback was established to patrol the main trade routes and roads to protect the traders. Officials were appointed for all the major cities. Ulugh Beg sets out to conquer the weakened state of Bengal, remnant of the Khilji Empire, undergoing a civil war between the members of the Khilji dynasty. Most of the Timurid army perished in Amir Shah Rukh’s attempts on Kabul and only 20,000 of the original Timurid troops remain and were settled in the Havali-i-Dilli in villages and in the cities. Ulugh Beg's Indian army comprised of Afghans, Turks, Jats and Rajputs numbers around 120,000 and is based on the Turco Mongol style but slightly different from the Timurid armies. Ulugh Beg marches with his army toward Bengal and captures Gauda by the end of this year.
  • Vinlandic Peoples: Ólaver Leifsson has reached his middle ages, being 39. Yet he remains spry as ever. Voyages of discovery commence once more with stable societies in both Daelstaðr and Vinland. Settlements are made on Île Saint Quentin, which is named Fjlótenya, and in Glace Bay, which is named Leifsland. Attempts are made to locate good sources of iron, as the Vinlanders successfully made a working forge and have made iron with it, and wish to repair and make tools and weapons. Additionally, the Beothuk and Vinlanders collaborate to try to produce some fabric substitute, as all the sheep died a long time ago. A cotton-like plant is suggested, but it's difficult to process. As for now, sailing ships are impossible, with the ships used being longship hulls without the sail. Farming continues to become more common. 
  • Wattasid Kingdom: The sultanate of Morocco known as Abu' claim the Mozarabs people did enjoy equal right under Islamic rule in Magbreh and they greatly affect the interior of Morocco even thought the development hey managed to control some possessions on the Moroccan coast  and seapost colonies of their own' to outlive the reconquista so far even since the principalities has create among high office in the colonies and vassal tribes (including with the south's contact) with the authorities his own goal is that is to morderising and gain rights under Islamic rule also the point is that to better counter the hilal nomads in the region' and relation politicals with the alomhads caliphate the capture of septa as been controlled by the Wattasid and the alomhad in north of position due lack of invasion at real point the true is that the Mozarab did NOT enjoy itself under Islamic rule and practice their own religion from avoiding the persecution follow their fugitives it is supposed that the Mozarab were tolerate as the  Dhimmis (non-Muslims) and valued taxpayers, however, which is why the Moroccan church is suffering in Granada position at al Andalus (Spain) which the Muslims eye to had provided to be a failure of their own culture and being Islamiced which why the Mozarabs has been refuge in the North African territory to avoid those Islamic law and had own peace in our part kingdom to not had any protest risk again' speaking of in our course of development we sent up payment and seizing Afro-coastic Island also seaport in under alomhard rule commerce has become a social society in both which fez and Casablanca is one focusing in important power to gain more influence Islamic and merchant in retrospective we do more agriculture at the point additionally to gain more office and modernising to benefit it' and the greatest thing is Morocco instituted a series of development plans to modernize the economy (to gain more organization) other major goal is was achieving a growth rate processes and supplies need' to had more vassal asunder the vizier and miner as mines to exploit cobalt, coal, silver, lead, and copper deposits, and oil-shale development whoever this settlement was mean a good richesse resource found out in Morocco's history to let believe of good hour' and currency pay revenue insist that the high officer as forcer to took over the principalities and share own accord with Abu as reign in Ifriqya (Africa OTL) we also do main trade interest and establish communications toward of interest agreement they had a potential degree overall the culture to itself finest well we make more laws to continue as for now the ships is sourrounding in our position of building and pay repair to make such tools also foods in adventure and colonies in our way we do from the tribes trade is that is increase the limit and own sell to them for being used as trade slave and payment tribe but we don't do that anymore for our own new rule he attemps that Abu claim again take over of Tangiers used as a city and sea colonies to face the control in trade commercial and establish those goals objective of what they dreamed the settlement of refuge in Maghgreb become a friendly targest toward the persecutions and tribes some theologians under Islamic law learn the Christianity and life of Jesus to gain more society discusion and arguably topic of interesting laws also artisan has increase the economy settlement to gain more money and thus so far we always expand our enjoyment under Islamic right with the development of Muslims trade was combined with other callings, such as politics, scholarship, or medicine in organization theory and southward expansion that is in common and we do more religious practice settlement and gain more money colonies.
  • Swiss Confederacy: The Swiss bishops and the Central Council are pleased about King Louis XI of France acceding to the Treaty of Saint Vith, and thus will stay officially neutral in the current conflict in France for the time being, and no Swiss soldiers or mercenaries are sent out of the country currently. However, the Central Council does agree to Burgundy's deal where they will aid Burgundy financially in exchange for Burgundy renouncing all claims to the Swiss Canton of Pontarlier. Meanwhile, as Savoy and Auvergne have since 1414 had a trade agreement where Auvergne will trade directly with the county but not lower nobles, putting economic pressure on said lower nobles; Anna von Lenzburg, regent of Savoy in her last year of regency before Count Gustav reaches adulthood, asks the lower nobility if they would like to revise their opinion on her 1413 proposal of Savoy joining the Swiss Confederacy. (Mod response) About one-half dozen scholars from the Zürich Library travel to Florence to take part in the architectural competition for the dome of Florence Cathedral. (Mod response for results) As King Louis XI of France has ceased being schismatic, the joint military of the Confederacy now places less focus on being ready for immediate deployment to France or Germany, and instead work is done on fortifying mountain passes on the southern border of the nation in the Cantons of Geneva, Sion, Uri, Disentis and Chur. Domestically, the government focuses on recruiting peasants to be soldiers in the joint military to help replenish it, and also does some work on improving roads around the city of Schwyz where the Central Council is convened. Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg visits Hermann II, Landgrave and (according to the Imperial Charter of 1357) Elector of Hesse and proposes a marriage between Ulrich VII's daughter Catherine (b. 1400) and Hermann II's son Louis I (b. 1402). (Mod response) Henry of Geneva-Lenzburg (1372-1420), Bishop of Chur and brother of Amadeus V, Count of Geneva, dies of a disease. Johann Naso succeeds him as Bishop of Chur.
    • Marriage accepted.
    • Florence says thanks.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: The queen sign the treaty of Saint Vith but relations between the queen and the pope remains strained due to her excommunication. Meanwhile, during a trip to Madiera, the queen begins funding roads and ports on the island which now has a population of 250 permanent inhabitants. Moreover, the army and navy is reformed and modernized to be up -o-date with the latest tech. The queen begins writing her memories as a book about her life and her struggles with her sister Princess Triss. The queen begins reaching out for better relations to Mali and offers to meet with their so-called Musa or that the Musa should come to Lisboa. (MALI RESPONSE NEEDED).
    • Mansa Musa II does not personally wish to visit Europe at this time. However, he sends an ambassador from Niani of 60 scholars to visit Lisbon with a small gift of two kg of gold and five kg of salt.
  • Roman Empire: Basileus Herodotus has another child whom he names John. Commerce continues as a major part of the economy and the incorporation of businesses grows more popular. The move away from family or individual owned trade enterprises to more widespread ownership accelerates the growth of the middle class. Investment in the arsenal system is increased with trade revenues. Specifically, five more war galleys are launched to secure Roman naval supremacy in the region. Work on cannons and guns is also increased, specifically working to develop longer thinner barrels.
  • Kingdom of Hungary: Enraged by the uprising in Wallachia and the Bulgarian support, King Stephen VII and his nephew Istvan are preparing their armies. Istvan raises a total of 3,000 men, mostly infantry while a huge force consisting of 7,000 Hungarians is marching toward Wallachia, many of them cavalry. the forces meet near Targoviste and the rebelling forces are encircled by the Hungarians, while supply lines are cut off. As Istvan is an experienced leader in battle, he personally visits the battlefield not only to overview the advance, but to boost the morale of his soldiers as well. However, the objective is to capture as many soldiers as possible, not to slaughter them (ALGO NEEDED). (short turn only)
  • Kingdom of Arles: More money is now invested in trade and farming. It asks the Burgudians and Spanish for donations of arms of money. They ask the French if they could occupy Dauphine and Vivarois. The army starts research on stronger Burgundian weapons. The Kingdom of Arles decide to send some money, but not too much to support Hungary.
  • Tripolitania: This year, a number of local Christians (who speak Arabic and are increasingly learning Africae/Latin for commercial/church purposes) seek an audience before the Curia. Seeming unusual, the Curia grants the petition. Speaking on behalf of the North African Christians, a local merchant indicates that there has been an increased level of tension between the Christian population and Muslims. The incidents seem to bear the marks of the Hafsids, as they occur more frequently along the border towns in the West. Recognizing that this might pose a serious threat to stability, the Curia for the first time since the Lex Tripolitana was issued make a request of the monarch, King Sigismund. Delivered by Philippe Leonard Seghers, a Cardinal and the most respected member of the Curia, they request no new churches be added to be constructed for the time being, instead focusing on recruiting more Europeans to settle in Tripolitania. The King assents to this request, believing that his Curia - which has four members of the clergy as members - is looking for the best interest of the realm. However, in addition to taking their advice, he begins to grow increasingly suspicious of the Muslim population he governs. Sigismund sends a team of diplomats across Europe to encourage migration to Tripolitania, promising great wealth and opportunities in the cities and in the caravan trade.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": With Prince Frederick "the empty-pockets" of Germany sending 3,000 soldiers against the Taborites. These are the most radical of Radical husieren rebels, as they are not to be negotiated with. Their "Krijgskarren" being infamous for their effectiveness in Namur, the Taborites winning in the battle of Talpa Tsland. The Taborites being a small but a very devoted gruop of religious Husites, who exchange numbers for pure fanatasy to their Husite interpretation of the Christian faith. King Feinsan fully denouncing the movement as heretical and pseudo paganism, as even Cardinal Werner von Falkenstein found these movements extreme. Thus all efforts a collective 12,000 strong force existing of German and Lotharingian soldiers are focused on this small radical group. The soldiers near Talpa island surrounding them and making camp on both sides of the Muese river, their camp being only 1.2 Brabantine miles (five km) away from Namur city. In the town of Vaals and Kelmis the Friedists continue to convince the locals of Overmaas to support Prince Godfrey and his movement, Godfrey not openly supporting or aposing the opinion. As he does not want to anger the Parliamentists nor the friedists more then they already are, His father Feinsan believing that negotiations would be the best action. As both sides are still willing to hold talks and if needed even have a truce until the most radical of radical forces, the Taborites have been beaten. On the seas The Jersey-cogs begin to slowly gain in size, as the "Den Rote hand Compagnie" need more storage. This storage is most importantly needed for keeping the crews of the Voyages to the land of Gold and spices, the Land of Hendrickus Pisacus. The voyages send by the "Rote hand Company" Either coming back without having found the land of Gold, or not returning at all. With six of the ten voyages not returning back to Mokadoor Island, three out of four getting lost and then returning due to their magnetic compass having found nothing. One voyage reaching some islands owned by the Spanish, and on the coast hearing stories of White men farther south of these islands. This Mythical people being refered to باباني (The Babani), a People who make a Pa sound. A sound foreign to Arab and very common in Franconian, which combined with rumours of silver like skin are quite interesting to the "Hertog Jan I 3rd seetoght". The sailors and captain telling the local master of Mukadoor Island about these Pa-pa people. The Captain called "Egbert de Leeuw" together with the headmaster of the Mukadoor component, they request to the headquarters in Antwerp for possible funds to find the Land of Gold and باباني (The Babani). As they believe more spices and gold can be found and bought more cheaply, spices being highly sought after by those in Europe thus having a good profit.
  • Kingdom of France: The forces in Auvergne number 15,000. A further 15,000 are sent to Albi with cannon and torch to sabotage the Burgundians, destroy their makeshift walls, ramparts and scaffolding, and bring the area back under French control. With Scotch Auvergne under partial military occupation, the Bishop of Clermont attempts to increase his influence in that region. John I, Duke of Bourbon, successfully asserts his authority in opposition to the bishop, and lays claim to Auvergne by his right as Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, and as Dauphin of Auvergne, a title inherited from his late mother Anne. He raises 4,000 troops to enforce this.

1421

The Marcian schism officially ends with no more secular powers supporting the Antipope. Clement VII continued to push his claim until he died of disease toward the end of this year.

The Hussite Crusades begin this year as Prince Regent Frederick Habsburg organizes the Prince-electors into an army lead by Sigismund Premyslid. He calls on the support of Lotharingia and Luxembourg from Vincent, as well as King Stephen of Hungary. He designates the leaders of Hesse and Nassau as generals of the Crusader force. A total of 10,000 troops of Germany cross over the Rhine.

The "Red Hand" trading company of Antwerp makes a failed attempt to chart the west coast of Africa, losing one ship in the process.

A significant flood takes place in Lotharingia on the Feast of Saint Elizabeth, as the dikes around Dordt fail and destroy 72 villages, resulting in the death of 10,000 people. The ultra religious leaders of the Hussites and Counter-Reformers alike see this as a Biblical sign, knowing the words of Jesus that the Judgment will come "as in the days of Noah".

Upon signing the Treaty of Saint Vith, Queen Cyrilla of Portugal is confronted by her nobles to recognize her marriage with the Sturlungur family once again, since the dispensation of her divorce was given by an illegitimate Pope.

Zheng He, after returning last year from his voyages that took him as far as Malindi, departs for another voyage on the orders of the Tian Emperor. Once again, the effort is intended to impress the known world of Chinese influence and power - the treasure fleet carries great wealth out and brings back emissaries from India and the Muslim world to China.

With the Kingdom of Tondo in chaos, Zheng He lands a sizable expedition on the Island of Luzon, with the intention of restoring order. He brings 8,000 troops in favor of the Bolkiah dynasty, compelling the king to submit as a full tributary state of the Tian Dynasty.

Yaluk II of Mexico dies, leaving behind a power struggle over who should succeed his place as ruler of Mesoamerica. His biological son is officially crowned as Yaluk III in Michoacan, but his adopted son Ikel manages to raise a significant amount of support across the territories east of Cholula. This results in a civil war between the two claiments. In the Mayan Empire, a great library of written material is constructed at the city of Ceh Pech.

Despite the variety of applications to the contest of architecture in Florence, Filippo Bruneschelli stuns them all by his remarkable technique for the construction of domes. This technique, he says, was rediscovered from the Ancient Romans by studying the translated works of Vitruvius. The D'Medici family of Florence likewise creates the first patent office.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We do more baby making. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improved over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation, peace for now is declared in a state of security for the expansive territories of each tribe. We start to train in canoe warfare and keep making giant war canoes. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Roman Empire: Witnessing the Anagennisi appear to be thriving in the Latin lands, Herodotus determines to construct a grand library to cement Constantinople as a center of learning and the arts. He orders several city blocks cleared and solicits architects and designers to plan a massive complex in the classical style. Marble columns are preemptively prepared for what is expected to be one of the largest buildings ever constructed. By the end of the year preliminary designs show a massive three story cathedral to knowledge with six halls surrounding a central dome. The halls: mathematics, literature, strategy, philosophy, medicine, and theology, each represent a specific topic. The center spire shall host the most important texts, as well as be the center of administration and study for the library. Work will begin next year and shall consume perhaps 50 years. Enterprise and trade continue to grow the middle class as thousands invest in small trade companies and corporations. Banking, long the pursuit of solely the Jewish population, begins to be conducted by corporate entities which are swift in displacing their more traditional and small-scale rivals through more aggressive lending and the ability to secure larger pools of financing. The insurance of cargo and ships also grows into a massive industry as corporate entities demand greater assurances and avoidance of risk. With complex financial and inventive activity on the rise the news from Florence of a “Patent Office” induces the Syndikátoi Empóron and Mathimatikós to petition Herodotus to establish such a service. The Basileus agrees and a new office for the distribution of patents for new technology for a length of up to five years is established. With generous funding, the arsenals are tasked with developing lighter, more maneuverable siege weapons with utility beyond just bombarding stationary defenses. More war galleys are ordered, baiting Venice into a naval arms race.
  • Majapahit Empire: Following the defeat of the trade guild fleet in Maynila Bay, a force of 150 Djongs and 400 other vessels of various sizes are removed from the blockade around Borneo to enter Maynila Bay and sink or seize every ship on the side of the Yellow Faction from trade ships to military ones, the ports held by the Yellow faction are ordered to be decimated from cetbang, rentakas, and three meter long cannons with all ships equipped with scattershot and normal ammunition for engagements. For any engagements against massed forces, the larger djongs are ordered to move in formation with the smaller ships filling in the gaps (Mod Response/Algo) The ships are also armed with troops wielding hand cannons and smaller variants of cetbangs (can be used by one person). With the defeat of Brunei at Serawak, 6,000 troops are reassigned from the forces present their to Balikpapan through Majapahit territory on Borneo. The remaining 27,000 men are order to deploy in order to eliminate any enemy troops that are still continuing to flee by horse but are ordered to stop at engaging large massed and prepared forces of Brunei. They are also ordered to entrench and fortify their position in case of an enemy counterattack. The forces at Balikpapan have been given orders to continue efforts to sap the defenses and are supported by artillery fire from blockading ships and siege engines (Mod Response/Algo, note: 6,000 men reassigned from Northern forces). The trade guild is ordered to move their ships in groups of at least 50 vessels if passing by Maynila Bay, but the supplying of Red factions are halted until the Navy crushes any Yellow faction forces. The trade guild is ordered to use Khmer ports as stops rather than those going by the Phillipines or Borneo in order to keep away from the dangers of enemy raiding fleets. The Majapahit Raja reaches out to pirates in order to offer them employment and greater pay then Yellow to looti and raid Yellow Faction vessels and also offers any defectors of the Yellow Faction as well as any willing informants pay in exchange for their services (Mod Response). The Majapahit Navy, consisting of 450 djongs and 800 smaller vessels (armed with cetbangs, rentakas, and 3m cannons, still blockading Borneo are ordered to begin burning and decimating Bruneian ports and sinking Bruneian ships in order to keep them from supporting the Yellow Faction. Majapahit vassals and tributaries are ordered to cut trade with Brunei on the occasion they escape the blockade and contribute their navies to decimating Brunei's fleets and port infrastructure (Mod Response/Algo). The shipyards at Cirebon are comandeered by the government in order to devote all production to the war effort but shipyards across Majapahit continue with production of smaller vessels for other purposes. An appeal is made to China to withhold themselves from involvement in the Civil War until after the Yellow Faction is suppressed in the tribute mission to China. (Mod Response).
    • A few pirates agree to be employed
    • Zheng He will coordinate his forces with the Majapahit, a loyal tributary
  • Kingdom of Arles: They ask Burgundy if they could join the Alliance. The current Arlean King, Louis I, decides to spend more in food production technology, increasing revenue. Seeing that the French are at war with one of their allies Burgundy, 25,000 men are dispatched to Defend Auvergne while letters are sent to our allies the Swiss to financially support us.  Letters are also sent to north Italian states and Rome to lend us military support. Our Navy Blockades the ports of Toulon and Marseilles.
    • Icelandic Dip to Arles:  Though the King is ready for war he believes that Arles doesn’t know the military backing up Auvergne and suggests pulling out.
  • Dai Viet: On April 10th, 1421, Le Lai has returned to Dai Viet by boat. As the Tian dynasty has accepted for Lê Lợi to seize the throne, he revealed Tran Thiem Binh’s crimes to the public at Bo De, Thang Long. This news makes the people of Dai Viet furious. Immediately, Tran Thiem Binh knows about this which made him furious and worried at the same time. He denies all of this and orders for his soldiers to execute Le Loi. However, the majority of his troops has turned on him, and later, Lê Lợi bursts into the imperial court and captured then beheaded Tran Thiem Binh. On April 15th, Le Loi had his coronation done in Đông Kinh, Thăng Long and took his era name of Thuận Thiên. He enforce a new set of law, stating that: ”From ancient times until now, ruling a country requires law and order, if not then it will be chaos. So similarly to the former dynasties I must set up laws to tell the officials and the people what is right and what is wrong, so they could do the right thing, avoid doing wrong things and break the law.” He divides the country into five provinces. Below provinces are prefectures, counties, communes and villages respectively. Each has their own mandarins to govern the respective administrative division. He orders each household should get a housing book that documents their household and land status and ownership. If there’s abandoned farming land in one commune, people from others are highly recommended to take them for their farming. He orders the soldiers to temporarily return to their hometown and reclaim the farming land to avoid land contention. He orders to return the land and household for the arrested citizens in Tây Đô during the Hồ war. He encourages people to report local corrupt mandarins to imprison or execute them. The current army comprises of 35,000 men and he divides them to go back home to farm, guarding each province and guarding the imperial palace respectively. He had scientists studying the gunpowder and artillery science to create and produce them, as well as ships and weapons. Also, the first annual university exam during his reign results in 32 valedictorians. He sends an ambassador to Cambodia and Lan Xang, hoping the rulers of the countries recognize the new dynasty and build better relations, as well as send gifts of their will, not as tributes but as a symbol of friendship to congratulate the new Emperor. [Mod Response]
    • Lang Xang gladly accepts the diplomat. Khmer has poor relations with Vietnam, but tentatively accepts the gift.
  • Iceland: More regulation is put on food storage to prevent food famines in the future, Ari announces that in six years he shall resign. The people of Iceland grow more anti-Vatican since they have never seen their Pope so prince Andrès Heinrich offers the Pope to visit Iceland. (Papal Response Needed).
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Martin V leaves the Papal States with a commitive to visit the people of Iceland. A member of the papal commitive is Frederick of Habsburg, son of Ernnest of Habsburg.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: The delegation of Ethiopians arrives in Rome, where it makes contact with the local Ethiopian clergy there. Together, they petition the Pope for an audience to request that the Pope if he might be willing to find Italian engineers who would be willing to come to Ethiopia as honored guests to help improve Ethiopia’s capital. This would include artisans, architects, road engineers and more. [PAPAL RESPONSE, PLEASE]. They would be paid handsomely and be treated as high-ranking members of the Imperial bureaucracy. The delegation takes notice of the prominence of cannons on European vessels now, and sees that many fortresses and castles are now defended with similar cannons. Back in the Empire, the Emperor uses the Empire’s vast wealth to improve the nation’s two universities, granting both universities substantially larger subsidies in order to incentivize more Ethiopians to become scholars and academics. The Emperor also asks the Order of St. Anthony to begin providing classes in Greek and Amharic writing to all Ethiopians, regardless of class or wealth. In exchange the Emperor will pay a large subsidy to each monastery which does so. Monasteries slowly start to introduce an additional sermon to educate people in reading and writing Amharic and Greek. Indian merchants along with some Ethiopian merchants to India mention rumors that a powerful Christian Empire has conquered Persia. Seeking to investigate the rumors, the Empire sends five dhow staffed with Imperial trade agents to Persian cities. In Egypt, Ethiopian merchants also hear news that a large army of Christians has conquered territory far to the west of the Nile. These rumors are substantiated by Egyptian merchants arriving in Ethiopia. The Emperor  sends a delegation of trade agents to Egypt to attempt to find this new kingdom as well. The rumors of two new Christian kingdoms, combined with the recent discovery of the Christian Roman Empire and Christian Europe, causes a massive surge of Christian pride. For centuries Ethiopia had believed that it was one of the few Christian kingdoms in an world of Muslims. Now the Empire has come to realize that there are many Christian nations, and that Ethiopia is not alone. The faith of the Empire dramatically increases with this revelation. The merchants of Ethiopia find heavy success in trade, profiting greatly from renewed trade to India, Egypt an the Swahili city-states. Some merchants with large amounts of wealth begin to buy lands from impoverished nobles or nobles who simply wish to sell. This causes a stir amongst the nobility, as for centuries only nobles had been wealthy enough to own land.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Martin V meets with the Ethiopian delegation and sends a group of workers to help improve their capital.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: During a trip from the Madieras, Prince Alphonso the navigator discovers and claims the islands of the Azores which are immidiately given 200 people as permanent inhabitants. (approved by Nate). Meanwhile, the fort and the wall in Gordes sees more funding as a huge effort of modernizing the defenses of it begins to take place in Portugal.
  • Wattasid Kingdom: We took succesfully the siege of Melila and no longer Spanish influence on it we gain opposition of those colony claim as in our port but the military success contrast with the Wattasid policy conciliation toward the Catholic kings to the north Abu took over the capture of Asilah and become a seaport in trade commerce and show up a new territory far the rumor told up Abu has gain to all state and introduce themselves from Europe to Africa he manage to control the Afro-coastic Island and morderising in his own view. Anyway, the authorities have entered a new model ideal toward the principalities and payment taxes resource they gain them and his delegates locals who face him was emerging as an exporter of manufactured and agricultural products due political reason those rumor show Morocco had achieved some nicely work and high control economy in regardless and begin to pay commission to relation trade stablish whoever so far the kingdom had a high influence of what they diccus cause a massive development to had benefit relation with nation and discusion' see many fortif and resource water are in position to morderising alongside with the help of Abu his popularity and power was still strong enough to secure the appointment of his nephew ali ibn yusuf esnured religion authorities and the living member of the idriss member confirm it and a huge diccusion to the alomhad back to Tanger,we still more developing factions and request this commision is a need help from the principalities to size them and some merchants improve their skills and trade from Europe they took promise of controlling the ship to morderising and those new movement and Anarchy would continue to prevail in Morocco's nowaday and in cueta is was lifted (save from occasionally makeshift puritan column that marched up the wall of Cueta to demand a trial of arm like in OTL) any of his idea Abu might have his now popular and powerful minister were sheveled. But we are still more making progress in our nation idealist concept we engange delegants in trade commerce to combine with oil and huge mix supplies of what we have and we pay them is make a nice huge effort to make those modern movement and helpful which is in our state they success become built more port and seaships to gain promotion in our country and the fort arre well builted in final conctrustion which lead the open of our door we also do more principalities control to have more people who can control and is a reason that why we need trade socializing and goodness Abu feel himself proud with mohammed and his nephew they make good effort and gain control payment of currency taxes and Islamic law establishment in his own rule at our rank and nobles are whoever can control the upper level principalites to gain more limit colonies and border from south and development is doing well.
  • Swiss Confederacy: The Central Council continues to pay close attention to the ongoing conflict in France, including the actions of Arles, but continues to remain officially neutral aside from providing financial aid to Burgundy as part of their 1420 agreement. The Central Council also pays attention to the Hussite Crusade taking place in Lotharingia, but they or the Swiss bishops do not endorse this yet as Pope Martin V has not endorsed said crusade yet. The Central Council sends an envoy to Pope Martin V while the Canton of Montfort sends an envoy to their eastern neighbours the Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg (which does not include the Free City of Augsburg), proposing that the Prince-Bishopric join the Swiss Confederacy as the Canton of Augsburg (similarly to the Prince-Bishoprics of Basel, Constance, Lausanne and Sion) for the benefit of greater protection against conflicts in the increasingly unstable Holy Roman Empire, more trade and more opportunities for interaction with the bishoprics and abbeys already in the Confederacy. (Papal response) The joint military of the Confederacy focuses on improving the fortifications of Zürich, the largest city in the nation, by building new defensive moats outside the city walls. Domestically, the government works on increasing lumber production for construction and trade by encouraging and teaching peasants to become lumberjacks. Debates between Swiss nobles on the relative merits of the Zürich Library and Bern Library's books on the game of chess continue. The Zürich scholars who went to the architectural competition in Florence return to their hometown after Bruneschelli's victory, but have now become interested in establishing their own patent office after the example of the Medici. Johanna von Lenzburg (1347-1421), mother of Amadeus V, Count of Geneva and aunt of Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg dies of natural causes at the impressive age of 74. Ulrich VII's daughter Catherine von Lenzburg and Louis I, Landgrave of Hesse have their first child, a son named Hermann III (b. 1421) in honour of Louis I's father.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Martin V allows that Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg be part of the Swiss Confederacy.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": On Talpa Island the Ardennes Crusades continue's. As the Emperor and the German states have arived in the ardennes to end the Taborite movement once and for all. As no secular power in catholicism recognises the Taborites or the Markish schism, thus their legitimacy is waning. The king feinsan informing Frederick von Habbsburg, that he will allow the German soldiers to squash the Taborite movement. The king telling them to be hard but just and thoroughly, meaning they are allowed to punish Taborites but have mercy on those who surrender. (Mod Response?). The faith of the Taborites who surrender being either Jail, Public shaming, or forced community work combined with having to renounce taborites and recognise the Pope. One of the things that is meant to prevent the Taborites getting stronger of Tabor is keeping archers on the island so that if one gets close to the waterline to fish, wash and resuply. This causing the suplies for the Talpa Taborite to slowly deteriorate, although there are taborites in different parts of the Ardennes. As it's easy to hide in the Ardennes Forest for these Taborites, the Crusaders being allowed to hunt these Taborites down. This disturbing trade in Lotharingia which causes companies in Lotharingia to look outward and inward. The "Rotterdamsche Handels Compagnie" trading more and more Norwegian cod while selling Lotharingian fabrics for the local population. The "Lakenhalle" producing more and to a higher quality as foreign demands for this fabric increases, these halls being able to produce high quality and high quantity. These halls being very commen in medium sized up to bigger cities, cities including Mechelen, Düren, Louvain and Zoutleeuw, Zoutleeuw having the oldest Lakenhal in the whole of Lotharingia. These halls employing high numbers of skilled workers to create good wool and maintain the machinery of the halls. This wool being the main commodity that Lotharingian trade companies, The "Rotterdamsche Handels Compagnie" being the main seller of it. This company working together with the Holland and Zeeland, as dikes and dams break. The government asking for companies to repair the main damage as cheaply as promised, The flood killing more people then the Lotharii-Burgundy war. Thus the king decides to lower taxation and interest rates for the affected area and the rest of the Zeeland Country, done in the hope that peasants are able to pay to rebuild the dikes and dams. The king personally visiting the affected area as he is in shock of the damage that has come to Dordt. While close to the town of dordt, King Feinsan accepted the "Rote hand Company" request for extra funds. The catch being that they have to help with the rebuilding of Zeeland, as to do their duty. The specific contract of this mission being rather short, as they get a contract to explore the باباني (The Babani) and bring information, gold and spices. While also having to record their encounter and represent the Lotharingian crown and not to start any possible conflict. Thus "Egbert de Leeuw" with new funding from both the Government and "Rote hand Compagnie" begins his new journey from Mokadoor island. The "Hertog Jan I 3rd seetoght" after three weeks discovering new land on a peninsula 290 Brabantine miles (1420ish km) from the original camp in Mukadoor island. "Egbert de Leeuw" and his loyal three ship crew being amazed at what they see and here, as they here a language very simmilar to that of their forefathers. This combined with their lighter skin tone and population that follows Lotharingian traditions, the People refering to their old homeland as لوثارينجيا (Utharengjia). This name being close to Lotharingia, the Lord of this nation talking about their Founder Hendrickus Pisacus - Al ismak. This ringing a bell with one of Egbert's sailor boys recognising the name, as he tells the captain that Al ismak was a local of his town who visited all of Africa before visiting his home town and leaving again. The interaction with the men of the city being bit tense due to different interpertations of history although they do all remain friendly and formal. Egbert bringing back some books, Gold, spices and one Nomand slave. "Hertog Jan I 3rd seetoght" returning successful to Mukadoor Island, where the captain writes about his visit. This report being taken seriously by the "Rote hand Compagnie" as it is known that Pisacus setled close to the Empire of Gold and spice. Thus the "Rote hand Compagnie" Requests even bigger and more formal contract with and from the government. As the "Rote hand compagnie" sees this as a way to cut out some of the middle men in the spices trade and all of the middle men from the African gold trade. A Lotharingian noble bring a variant of the Hand cannon called the Punaise, this having a different firing mechanic then the regular Hand cannon. The Lotharingian noble agreeing with the "Messenkempher compagnie" to inspect this cannon as to find out if it is better, and if it is worth selling and making in Lotharingia itself. Or cheaper for the "Amstelse Handels Unie" to import these cannons from France, due to their technological edge in with weapon.
  • Papal States: With the Schism finally finished, Pope Martin V removes the excommunication of Queen Ciri of Portugal. The idea of Pierre d'Ailley about turning the College of Cardinals in a parliament, impresses the pope. This can help stop abuses made by the pope. However, he don't agree with the College being considered infallible, since the cardinals also showed their corruption when some supported the antipopes during the Schism. Pope Martin V thinks that as the cardinals oversee the pope's conduct, the Ecclesial Tribunal should oversee the College of Cardinals' acts. For Pierre d'Ailley (France) brilliant idea, the Holy Father creates him as cardinal. The construction of the gardens desired by Alexander V in the Vatican starts and plans are made to bring plants from various regions of the world. The conflict against the Taborites isn't see as a Crusade by the pope, but as a military intervention by the German States against a group that proved to be violent and dangerous. However, this doesn't stop the pontiff of making one last attempt to stop blood from being spilled, he writes to the Taborites, pleading that the they become part of the Catholic Hussites and accept the authority of the Hussite Patriarchate of Bohemia [MOD response needed, please]. The pontiff also writes to Cardinal-Patriarch Jacob of Mies, asking for the establishment of a Catholic Hussite embassy in Rome. [MOD response needed, please]. The pontiff makes a pastoral visit to Iceland. Leonardo Da Nacho, Headmaster of Saint Augustine's University, continues to act as a father to Ari VI and the boy start to be tutored by professors of the University. After his meeting with Sister Anna Forti and influenced by the workers of John Duns Scotus, Ari Sturlungur starts to write about the Virgin Mary and her place in the Economy of Salvation. His writings focus mainly in her perpetual virginity, about she being the Mother of God and her Immaculate Conception.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles, Tripolitana and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grown in number.
    • Jacob agrees to make an embassy in Rome.
    • 'Nobody responds to the Taborite request.
  • Kingdom of Scotland:We continue to fight against the French attempts to invade Auvergne and usurp the rightful lands of the duke of Auvergne, King David III of scotland. We move our forces from Albi to Auvergne to fight the heretic Usurper and false king, and call upon our allies Arles and Burgundy to do the same (Burgundy and Arles responses).
  • Arles response: We have done so, as stated in our eariler action.
  • Tripolitania: With the kingdom's soldiers on high alert, a small incident breaks out in Misurata, where a Nubian Christian soldier is accused of wrongfully killing a Muslim merchant who is suspected to have ties with the Barbary pirates from the Hafsids. The King orders a redoubling of the guard in Misurata, where tensions are already quite high. A small riot breaks out in the Muslims slums of the town, which is swiftly put down by highly-skilled, combat veteran knights. The Order of Bari is called into Misurata, and an increased effort is placed on converting the moderate Muslims in that city. In other news, Sigismund and Caitrìona Bruce have a third child born in Tripolis, a son named Alexander. Efforts at recruiting young unlanded European nobles continues, selling Tripolitania as fertile ground for crusading and leading a chivalrous life, something that is increasingly being lost in Europe.

1422

The Anti-Hussite Crusade in Lothiringia succeeds in recovering several towns from Taborite control, and strikes multiple major victories against the Parliamentarians. However, Jan Franz proves to be a very formidable miltiary leader, winning multiple decisive battles against the Crusaders.

Domestically, some factions of the Hussites establish an anarchic society of communal living, calling themselves the Adamites. This is criticized and suppressed by both Jan Franz and Jan Hus. Hus in particularly writes against the Taborite movement, and strongly condemns the shedding of innocent blood, even if their cause isn't wrong.

King Henry V dies in England. Having no children, the throne passes to his brother, the Duke of Lancaster and Earl of Bedford, who takes on the name King John III. This sudden change of power causes a drastic reduction of the King's direct power over England. This does not hamper his ability to conduct the ongoing Anglo-French War, but it does cause further discontent among the nobility, particularly the northern nobles being led by the Duke of York.

Despite the Majapahit's policies toward foreign immigration, ongoing appearence of Muslims in Indonesia begin to present a problem across the northern territories. Sufi Bhakti missionaries from Bengal see significant conversion among the people of Malaysia and Aceh, particularly as conversion is offered to princes as a prerequisit of buying their spices. Starting this year, the ongoing conflict against the Muslim hegemony in Brunei and Tondo galvanizes Muslims in the empire to cause general civil disorder.

Constantine II of Bulgaria dies. Having no children, the throne of Bulgaria passes to his son-in-law, Stefen the Tall of Serbia. This forms a personal union between Serbia and Bulgaria, known by historians as the formation of the "Second Serbian Empire".

In an unlikely turn of events, Ikel wins decisively against the claiment Yaluk III of Mexico at the Battle of Uatlan. Yaluk's forces quickly implodes over time, until Yaluk himself is captured after the Siege of Colima. The epic history of Ikel's biography would detail Yaluk as a ruthless tyrant, and the downfall of his empire was likened to the epic heros of Mayan mythology.

The nobles in Portugal suggest that Queen Cyrilla should despense with the "Caesar era" of dating events, which dates events starting with the conquest of Spain by Julius Caesar in 38 BC. Instead, they should change over to the Anno Domini calendar as the rest of Europe uses.

At this point in time, the Republic of Florence is the most democratic nation in the world, except possibly for the Nordic commonwealths. 2.5 percent of the nation's population at this point has the right to vote.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We do more baby making. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improved over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation, peace for now is declared in a state of security for the expansive territories of each tribe. We start to train in canoe warfare and keep making giant war canoes. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Wattasid Kingdom: We increase the economy with column and built fortifications we had some new principalities under in our control at ranking our colony' Abu and his vivzer quickly emerge the opposite ruler opportunistcally the nasrid ruler of granada and  Abdalwadids of Tlemcen they intervented each sponsoring different candidates for the Moroccan throne but the writ of Abu's view did much extend much the beyond the palace' and the forces were to control those situation - but anyway, Abu intervention had been facilitated by the old maranind palace bureaucracy who fear the other candidate would deliver Morocco to foreign domination also was able to cement and extend his power over Morocco we still developing the modern ideal in those stage early were making a series of development and increase produce and the main goal is to included phosphoric acid plants, sugar refineries, mines to exploit cobalt, coal, silver, lead, and copper deposits, and oil-shale development from richesse resource ol' and the Sub-Saharan African are a worker clan class who can export mine and controlling the high office in our principalities also including our limit's colony border and face to face our goal our thing is linked to the Europe's movement economy and morderising such like a rich way and have the position to the nasrid's stage and is describe that we exempt many taxes and religious authority laws from the Christian minority to hierarchy's statues which is still ongoing and Abu is enjoy himself like everyday in his proper claim law of Islamic tradition and Casablanca become a huge key commerce in our major culture and ethnic relation with the tribes the Mozarabs in Islamic rule did pay tribute consisting a yearly supplemented in exchange of the protection it is oftenly mistaken that in Morocco that Mozarab merchant forged a vital commercial and cultural link between the north and the south to Iberian frontiers and in our control of Abu itself well is was probably a huge influence law dominate and maintaining their Christian faith which we still pay' in tager a source is assertion the expansion of the caliphate's rule had come primarly throughout conversion and absorption and only some very throught the immigration and we do welcome the al Andalus people in Maghreb which the community shrank into an increasingly fossilized remnant and is significantly that were still working and had some limit control in our law and controlling Afro-coastic state which we pay to the tribes and we do more work from the oil export and merchants diccusion.
  • Kingdom is Scotland: We continue to fight against the French forces in Auvergne, in defense of our rights as its rightful dukes, alongside our Burgundian and Arles allies. Realizing how few the 7,000 Auvergne forced at our disposal are, even with the help of Burgundy, we seek to complement our forces with foreign mercenaries, and make discreet inquiries to the Swiss confederacy about the possibility of hiring 3,000 Swiss mercenaries to help defend our lands in Auvergne, which would bring us up to 10,000 troops to fight back against France with. (Swiss Confederacy response). We also continue to fight alongside Burgundian forces and, in order to seal our alliance and ensure our continued cooperation in the war, King David III Bruce offers the hand of his youngest daughter, Princess Seònaid of Bruce-Auvergne, to the recently widowed Duke Phillip the Good, in order to deal our alliance fully. (Burgundy Response needed). Meanwhile, in Scotland itself, the Clergy of both the Roman Catholic and Lollard Celtic Catholic Churches continue to offer prayers for the interssesion of Owain Lagoch, still seen as a great hero and blessed figure. There is even a supposed account of a miracle this year, as a Noble whose wife had fallen ill and was dying of the Plague who had long ago waned in his devotion and become greedy and sinful supposedly prayed for the deliverance of his dying wife from the illness, only to be visited in the night by the Spirit of Owain, who extracted the promise of renewed devotion and charity for the poor for the rest of his life from the noble in exchange for healing his wife. The noble agreed, and continued to pray, seeing little improvement until, in the third day his wife rose, healthy and cured, and the rejoicing noble began to fulfill what he had promised, generously donating his wealth to the poor in what many saw as a miracle. Roads also begin being constructed toward Iverness, to connect it to the rest of Scotland’s vast road network, as it has becoming an increasingly important port through trade through the northern sea with Iceland, Scandinavia, and some other places, in order to ensure its thriving trade and increased wealth is increased by the rest of Scotland and benifits it as well.
    • Burgundian Dip: Duke Phillip III the Good of Burgundy happily agrees to marry the lovely Princess Seònaid of Bruce-Auvergne to seal his alliance with Scotland/Auvergne.
    • Swiss Diplomacy: Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg allows 3,000 Swiss mercenaries to aid King David III of Scotland, on the condition Scotland pays for them and they are used specifically to defend Auvergne rather than Burgundy.
    • Scottish Diplomacy: This condition is accepted, as we were of course intending to pay for the mercenaries to begin with, and our principle focus is on defending our rightful lands as the Duke of Auvergne.
  • Iceland: We offer the nine-year-old Guðný, Princess of the Isles to Lucas, Crown Prince of Arles. The Icelandic Army joins the Arlean army. (Player Response Needed). The pope reveals his beautiful statue in Engey, the guest brought by the Pope is offered the Beautiful Princess of Jónína. (Papal Response Needed). Prince Domnhall returns to Iceland by boat (The mob attack was made non-canon by Nate) and gets to live in the Winter Palace. An alliance is offered to the Örebro Union to keep Scandinavia on good terms. (Mod Response Needed). Crown Prince Andrés has twin daughters, one named Freyja and the other Frigg. In support of his kinswoman he sends money to prince of the HRE to pay for army maintenance.
  • The marriage is accepted.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Martin V say thanks for the statue and give a papal blessing to Iceland and all the people that lives there. Frederick of Habsburg accepts the Princess of Jónina as his bride and both returns to the Papal States. There they marry at the Church of Santa Maria della Pietà in Poggio Miterto.
    • Norway is displeased by Iceland being an independent kingdom in violation of their earlier treaty, and vetos the union having an alliance with Iceland.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: A lot of resources continue to be invested upon Albi, hoping to fortify it to weather the incoming storm. Works on improving the fortifications of the city of Albi continue after we successfully repulsed the French assault in 1420 to this day. The stone walls of Albi are raised by three metres, bringing them to a total of eight metres on average. Taking advantage of the Tarn river, the right tributary of the Garonne river, that flows through Albi a deep moat is constructed in the Western perimeter of the city, filled with water from the river, in the process to turn Albi into an impregnable fortress. Our citadel, castle Château de Castelnau-de-Lévis is greatly reinforced and expanded, creating solid foundations for an impregnable fortress in the future. Taxation on the still prosperous and largely uneffected by the war, parts of our realm such as Flanders and Artois is increased to pay for these works. Unlike the wartorn Duchy of Burgundy and the Counties of Burgundy and Nevers. [Will add war instructions soon] If the French choose to engage us in open battle a flanking manouvre is carried out against them by our experienced commander, Phillip III the good, learning much from his father's cunning and prowess in battle, John the Fearless, before his untimely passing, using our superior numbers and the terrain to our advantage to encircle the French forces. The marriage of Duke Phillip III the Good of Burgundy and the lovely Scottish Princess Seònaid of Bruce-Auvergne takes place in the Cathedral of Saint Benignus of Dijon this year to seal his alliance with Scotland/Auvergne, after the Duke was recently widowed by the untimely passing of his previous wife, Michelle of Valois this year. Since His Most Holiness, the Pope, in essence is appointed by God and creating an Antipope is questioning almighty GOD himself, our bishops as representatives of the Catholic Church denounces the vile Anti-Pope Falkenstein. Given the dire state of our economy and our war weariness, we plead Emperor Francisco of Hispania to military and financially assist us in our efforts to reinforce the defenses of Albi, as losing the south of France would lead to terrible consequences for all of us. Also we plead King David III of Scotland, our fierce ally, to help as financially in our efforts to reinforce the defenses of Albi, as losing the south of France would lead to terrible consequences for all of us. We also request the Hanseatic League to loan money to be able to defend ourselves against France as well as mercenaries. [Hispanian, Scottish and Hanseatic Player Response]. (MORE TO BE ADDED).
  • Mali Empire: In his old age, Musa II cedes the crown of Bornu to his cousin, Othman Abu Al-Wathiq, who is crowned the new Emperor of Bornu in Njimi. Othman is the grandson of Mustafa, the son of his daughter Rahi who was married into the Sefawa Dynasty. This restoration of the Sefawa to the throne of Bornu came rather unceremoniously. Effectively, Mali had lost direct control over Bornu long ago as a result of the Treaty of Kano. It was at this stage, during the proliferation of scientific and historical literature, that the Chadian version of the Simba epic was first composed, by the restored Sefawa dynasty that despised the Keita oppression. Even so, the Treaty of Kano ensured the two states administration was still closely aligned, as was their ongoing alliances abroad to the Islamic states of Morocco, Tunis and Egypt. Mansa Othman of Chad sends embassies of gold and salt to his allies in Morocco, Tunis and Egypt. We ask if any royal house wishes to marry their daughter to Al-Wathiq, the crown prince or alternatively a prince to marry his sister Aisha. [WATTASID, HAFSID, MOD RESPONSE]. Abu would greatly accept the request of Musa. The caravan trade across the Sahara desert continues to prove immensily valuable, capitlizing on earlier generations of the Hindu-African trade route to keep a steady flow of silk, spices, oils and slaves. The great surpluss of slaves captured from pagan African kingdoms in Nigeria and Bononam prompts Mali to begin selling them off abroad. Mali offers to sell large numbers of African slaves to the Mediterranean market, providing them to bolster the militaries of the Franks and Romans in exchange for sending us more advanced gunpowder wepaons and engineers [TRIPOLITANIA, BYZANTIUM RESPONSE]. The Atlantic sea trade proves to be somewhat profitable at this time period, but drastically competes against the existing caravan trade. A more direct pressence is placed along the Congo River in OTL Angola, and Abu Ismail sends an ambassador to begin trade wtih the Kingdom of the Kongo. Musa sends an ambassador to Spain, and offers to lend them control over the Island of Brotuqal (OTL Ilha de Orange) for 60 years, where they can build and station on it as they please, and have free access to trade in Mali as if they were within the Empire. In exchange, we ask for Spain to sell us more advanced gunpowder wepaons such as guns and cannons, along with engineering texts for the Library of Timbuktu (SPAIN RESPONSE). In the lands of the Sidinate, the first expedition of Egbert de Leeuw went largely unnoticed by the African Empire, predisposed with other matters. A local Amir named Abdul Aziz came wtih 50 Malian cavalry to meet with the Franconian explorer, and provided him a tribute of gold and copper in the name of the Mansa. This was also presented in the present of the Sidi Nuh Al-Ismak, the son of Jibril. In accordance with ancient tradition, the wives of the Sidi are provided from among the harem of concubines from the Mansa.
    • Tripolitania Diplomacy: We eagerly accept the exchange of advanced gunpowder, weaponry, and know-how to the Malians. In exchange we acquire salaves to be sold throughout the Mediterranean - and a number to bolster the forces of the Nubian Knights.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: The queen is outraged after hearing that the Malians are offering territory to Spain but not to Portugal and cancels all diplomatic missions to Mali permanently. Meanwhile, a Portuguese armada is dispatched to Mali to stop any Portuguese ship from selling to them. This is known as the era in which Mali and Portugal became bitter rivals. The queen decides to accept the nobles request of changng the date.
  • Swiss Confederacy: In response to the offer made by King David III of Scotland, 3,000 Swiss mercenaries are readied in the Canton of Neuchâtel for potential deployment to Auvergne, and the Central Council generally pays close attention to the diplomatic situation in France. Meanwhile, the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy heads in the opposite direction to the northeast of the nation to help secure and fortify the new Canton of Augsburg, comprising the territory of the Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg. The new canton is also given a seat on the Central Council, expanding its size to 36 members. The Central Council continues to pay attention to the Taborite conflicts in Lotharingia, with the Swiss bishops still not taking official positions on this issue apart from Bishop of Lausanne Guillaume de Challant, who describes these "crusades" as unnecessary violence. The other Swiss bishops share this concern but are waiting for Pope Martin V to take an official position on this issue. Domestically, the government works on improving roads in the new Canton of Augsburg as well as the other northeastern Cantons of Montfort, Sargans and Werdenberg, to aid the integration of this region and the movement of traders, boosting the local economy. Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg has some discussions with King Domnhall II of Iceland about marriages and as a result of these proposes to arrange a marriage between Domnhall II's son Eiríkur Sturlungur (b. 1405) and Bonne de la Marck (b. 1399), who is the daughter of Engelbert I and IV, Elector of Saxony and Count of the Mark and Ulrich VII's first cousin once removed; per Domnhall's suggestion, this would be a matrilineal marriage. (Iceland response) (Mod response). Ulrich VII also proposes to arrange another marriage, between Engelbert I and IV's son Henry de la Marck (b. 1397) and Blanche of Geneva-Lenzburg (b. 1396), who is Amadeus V, Count of Geneva's daughter and Henry's second cousin. (Mod response) Amadeus V, Count of Geneva (1367-1422) dies from an infection of a wound he incurred during the war in France several years prior and is succeeded as Count by his son Aymon IV (b. 1398). Ulrich VII's son Friedrich von Lenzburg and Freyja Sturlungur have their first child, a son named Gottfried (b. 1422) in honour of the previous Gottfried von Lenzburg (1338-1407).
    • Iceland: We Accept.
    • Marriage with Iceland is accepted.
    • The marriage to la Marck would be accepted if the marriage of consiguity (incest with a second cousin) is approved by the Pope
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Martin V gives his approvation for the marriage.
  • Roman Empire: Basileus Herodotus and his wife have another child this year, a second son, who they name Andronikos. However, the boy succumbs to fever in the winter, leaving John and Sophia as his only surviving children. Work on the Great Library of Constantinople begins this year with the foundations being laid and materials for future construction prepared. The current immediate objective for construction is the functional completion of the central spire and then each of the wings. After the building reaches a usable state it will be decorated and finalized. Banking and merchant corporations come to dominate the financial and trading sectors. Insurance also grows as a business, leveraging the growing capital capacity of the banking sector and the growing demand from trade corporations. The development of patents, having spread quickly from Florence, incentivise many of the Mathimatikoí of the Pandidakterion to work on potentially profitable inventions. Seeing Florence as a potential rival to Venice within Italy, and thus a potential ally to the empire, emissaries are sent to seek a formal military and trade alliance with the republic. (Mod Response). The arsenals continue to work on lighter, more maneuverable siege weapons with utility beyond just bombarding stationary defenses.
    • Florence agrees to a defensive alliance with respect to both their and Byzantium's trade, and they accept the preferential treatment over their italian competitors.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": As a compromise to the current civil unrest, King Feinsan decides to step down from the Lotharingian crown. This being done as his heir to the Throne is popular amongst the peasantry and the military and the more absolutists of Lotharingia. Godfried of Regnier being most popular with the Königlich-Lotharingische Marine, as Godfried has helped funding of the navy. This being due to his strong mercentile beliefs as he was mostly brought up in the city of Antwerp, his father Feinsan sending him to inspect and advise the Lotharingian navy. Godfried being behind the rearmament of the Lotharingian navy, the Lotharingian navy having 75 Jersey cogs, 35 refurbished Cogs and 15 Karabielen. Thus Godfried Regnier of Lotharingia is crowned king of Lotharingia on the 21 of March 1421, Godfried being crowned in the Basilica of Saint Servatius in Maastricht. Godfried becoming the first Rex Lotharrii since the loss of the Imperial title, Godfrey recognising Frederick von Habsburg as emperor of the sacred empire. The "Königliche Garde Johanns des Siegreichen" pleading their Loyalty to the New king, with the motto "Von der see zum das land wir kriegen fur vrieden des Lotharingen". The motto being a sign of Loyalty and strength of the Royal guard, Godfrey wanting to ensure the Friedists that they will not be punished. Godfrey even inviting the Friedists to Maastricht, while also inviting the Parliamentarians to the town. Godfried discussing the issue within the kingdom and specificly the Taborites. Godfried using his best of best Cannons of Lotharingia to bombard Tampa island, this being done by the hand cannons and great cannons. This combined with the starvation of their resources is meant to completely end Taborite resistance against the Royal crown, as the pope has called for a crusade against this movement. The Lotharingian army and specificly the Cannoneers using the krijgkarren, to fight the Taborites as they use these karren too. While in Bruges the Königliche Lotharingische armee recruiting small numbers of farmers, and the king and senate promising more rights for the guilds  and the cities and a the nobility becoming a paid an aristocracy. The nobles being able to hold their lands as aristocrats under the King and Senate, where they will have less responsibilities. Alltough this is offered to those in Bruges the king is carefull to not anger burgundy as this is meant as a measure for favourable peace, with the duke. Godfrey wanting to end most of the violence and begin the rebuilding of Lotharingia and her realm. Parts of the rebuilding is trade of which the "Rote hand Company" is in high speed trying to find the land south of the بابان (The Babani) their masters who they called Mali. Thus "Egbert de Leeuw" returns with his "Hertog Jan I 3rd seetoght" increasing the size of the Voyage with two ships, two karabielen, one Cog and two Jersey cogs. This voyage first going to the باباني (The Babani) from Mukadoor Island this being done from 15th of March to the 3rd of April, where the Voyage rests until the 18th of March. During the Rest Egbert and the Babani trade gifts and stories, as even if their languages differ they are stil quite similar to each other. Egbert explaining the current states of Lotharingia, which they often refer to as Franconia and Francia as those terms are more widely known by the Arabs in the towns. Egbert and the locals making some small trade deals that are easly plausible to expand upon when number of "Rode hand company" voyages increases. After this rest "Hertog Jan I 3rd seetoght" continues to the land of Gold, eventualy landing near a big peninsula they call "Grootduin" the voyagers meeting with the local clanmaster. Then Isaac Alef Vlechter who has some basic knowledge of Arab asks the Clanmaster to whom he swears loyalty, this ending in a small discussion about the state. The clanmaster discribing the land as the biggest Islamic empire in Africa, ruled by the king of African kings. Thus the Isaac is able to get a small deal with the master to return to his lands, in return for passaage and more information he is promised help to his domains defences and even more of their fabric. The fabric being very high quality and very wel adapted for very cold weather as Lotharingia is used for, the fabric being traded for the Spices in his town.
  • Papal States: After returning to Rome, Pope Martin V makes a commission to analyze the best way that the ideas of Pierre D'Ailley can be used. The pope officially declares that the War against the Taborites isn't a true Crusade, but it's a secular military intervention against a group that is very violent and warmonger. However, he don't condemn the actions of the army fighting against the Taborites that are proving to be violent and ruthless. Unfortunately, this military intervention proved to be necessary since these radicals showed great desire for a conflict when they refused all the attempts of peace made by the pope and Cardinal-Patriarch Jacob of Mies, they ignored even Jan Hus himself. The pontiff will not stop any nation that want to help the armies send by Prince Frederick of Habsburg and King Sigismund of Bohemia, but will not consider it a Crusade. Pope Martin V writes to the Republic of Florence, desiring to reaffirm the defensive alliance between the Republic and the Papacy, which existed since the times of Gregory XII [MOD response needed, please]. As an act of friendship between the Holy See and Lotharingia, a Tommaso Perendolli is sent as Papal legate to crown the new king. Cardinal General Comissary Julian Cesarini and Captain General Carlo I Malatesta start a program to modernize the Papal Army and to also increase the use of gunpowder in it. The construction of the gardens in the Vatican continues and it start to be called the Alexandrine Gardens, in honor to Alexander V. Leonardo Da Nacho, Headmaster of Saint Augustine's University, continues to act as a father to Ari VI and the boy start to be tutored by professors of the University. Miracles are reported to be happening around Sister Anna Forti. Ari Sturlungur continues to write about the Virgin Mary and her place in the Economy of Salvation. His writings focus mainly in her perpetual virginity, about she being the Mother of God and her Immaculate Conception.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles, Tripolitana and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number.
    • Florence respects their defensive alliance with the Pope.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: The delegation to Europe returns with a large group of Italian workers, including architects, artisans, engineers and more. The Emperor meets with the group and outlines his vision to turn Barari into an European-esque city. The first step the Emperor wants to take is to pave Barari’s roads and create paved streets. The Italian engineers begin mapping out Barari’s road network and begins making plans to start paving several main roads. The engineers also begin directing Ethiopian workers to begin mixing concrete, a new invention brought from Europe by the group. The delegates also inform the Emperor of how cannons and gunpowder are being used much more extensively in Europe. The Emperor, having been taught of Europe’s prior use of inaccurate gunpowder cannons, is surprised to hear that those cannons are now apparently being used heavily in warfare. The Empire’s wealthier merchants continue to buy land from the nobility. The merchants, rather than developing the lands for agriculture, instead begin building lavish and luxurious houses on the lands, turning them into expensive private estates. Architects from Swahili begin to build large coral-white palaces of graceful arches, while Arabic architects build more brightly colored manors with large domed ceilings. The first notable extravagant palace is built by the wealthy Kaleb Bedria, a trader from a family of prominent spice and silk merchants. Using Swahili architects, he builds a sprawling one-story palace near Lake Tana similar to the Swahili architecture used at Gedi. His estate also includes large gardens, fruit trees, and exotic animals. This achievement and the luxury of it dramatically increases Bedria’s status, and thus many merchants begin to emulate him in building their own palaces. Swahili and Arab architects begin to be hired in large groups by Ethiopian merchants seeking to build their own estates. In Somalia, many, if not all Christian nobles begin allowing monks of the Order of St. Laurentius to begin building monasteries in their settlements. Most nobles remember of the monks paraded the icon of St. Laurentius before the decisive battle which turned the tide for Christianity in Somalia and thus believe in the Saint’s power. This continues to agitate the Order of St. Anthony, which claims to be the only legitimate monastic order in the Empire, including the Somali territories. 
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: King Intharacha, orders the development of irrigation and road networks across Ayutthaya in order to better accomodate its growing position in trade across Indochina. The King supports the spread of Theravada Buddhism across Ayutthaya in order to differentiate Ayutthaya from the neighboring Khmer Empire. Small raids are conducted against the Khmer Empire in order to acquire wealth, gauge their defenses, and to gather slave labor for the Kingdom. The King continues the integration of Sukhothai into the Kingdom taking care to adapt the parts of its culture most desirable for him such as the military tradition of Sukhothai.
  • Hafsid dynasty: Inspired by the former Almohad Caliphate and the long-lost Achaemenid Empire, architectural design is borrowed in pursuit of a more heavenly scene in the Ifriqiyan Caliphate. Caliph Abu al-Aziz II envisions a "Great" Mosque, so great that he puts aside contruction for one in تونس‎ (Tunis) [OTL Çelebi Sultan Mehmed Mosque]. Defenses begin built along the Hafsid-Tripolitania border, with specific fortresses being built in قابس (Gabes) and الجديدة (Matmata). The contruction of the كلية الفنون الجميلة (Academy of Fine Arts) in تونس‎ (Tunis) is finished, increasing the number of produced arts and literature available. Iluminated manuscript, specifically surrounding Islamic mysticism, become more popular as a result. Other institutions, such as the أكاديمية الرياضيات (Academy of Arithmetic) and the أكاديمية العلوم وعلم الكونيات (Academy of Science and Cosmology) continue construction, mostly under the provisions of Amir Muhammad III's experiences at the University of Timbuktu. The border is further secured after the death of an innocent Muslim merchant last year at the hand of a Christian knight "doing his rightful job". Spies in Tripolitania continue to stir discontent among the Muslim population, speaking on about how they outnumber the Crusaders nearly "ten-to-one".
    • Kingdom of Bgayet: Urban expansion is done in Béjaïa, as it continues to flourish with merchants. Under provisions of Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz of the Allamid dynasty and with the recent influx of Christian merchants has allowed for large economic propects. Inspired by ancient Greco-Roman and Umayyad architecure, the mosques are built in these provided architectural designs, as well as high-end luxury palaces. Under the recent vassalized status of Bgayet, the idea of attacks from inferior forces has set in further after rumors of Afro-Islamic genocide going on in Tripolitania. Although still allowing Christian merchants as it is needed for the economy to remain, Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz believes it will be not coming with a prepared declaration. Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz bans Tripolitanian merchants from entering his port cities.
  • Tripolitania: The King continues to monitor the situation in Misurata closely. Meanwhile, a member of the Curia, a Swiss baron, is accused by his fellow members of the Curia of not doing his duty to combat the Islamic threats that surround the Kingdom. The baron, Werner von Salzner, contests this claim and appeals to King Sigismund, who has expressed some fondness of the baron. Ultimately, the King attempts to placate the other members of the Curia, leaving half of them upset and the other half adequately flattered and soothed. The Headmaster of the Order of Bari, Cardinal Philippe Leonard Seghers, is among those who are willing to forgive von Salzner after Sigismund's intervention. That being said, the other ecclesial members of the Curia look much less favorably upon von Salzner, who they see as being cowardly in the face of the Saracens. To prove them otherwise, von Salzner gathers a company of his men and sets out with the infamous John of Sirte to attack Berber tribesmen in the uncivilized inland Fezzan region (MOD RESPONSE ON HOW HE FARES). Later in the year, we receive word that the Kingdom of Bgayet has excluded all Tripolitanian merchants from their marketplaces and port cities. We therefore call on the Pope (PAPAL RESPONSE) to authorize an embargo among all Christendom against the Muslims in Béjaïa - to be enforced by arms, if not by economic sanction.
  • Dai Viet: We highly encourage and send farmers to reclaim virgin land in the rural parts in the country, mostly in the mountainous north, to cultivate; and also to find resources mines to exploit. The court issued orders to the prefecture and counties officials to examine the local grounds, farming land, gold and silver mines, natural resources, the old taxes, and the land that were confiscated from wealthy landlords, people that had no heirs left and corrupt officials. The Emperor orders the royal mandarins to assign farming land to people, from local mandarins to army official, men, women, old people, parentless people and widows. He orders the farming land should not be abandoned in any kind, especially if it is of a mandarin or else it will be confiscated. One is forbidden from encroaching land, whoever violates will face punishment. We recalls troops back for military training then divide them into five units, sending four home back for cultivation and keeping one. The royal court encourages the creation of new markets and market meetings, promulgating specific laws regulating the establishment of markets and market meetings. We also try to boost handicraft production like ceramic, silk, stone sculpture, painting, printing, etc. by encouraging more people to do them instead of farming, all in an effort to boost the economy. We decide to open up two trading ports in Vân Đồn and Sầm Sơn; and would like to establish trading with Ayutthaya, Majapahit and Cambodia. [Mod, Ayutthaya, Majapahit response]
    • Khmer agrees to some trade
    • Ayutthaya Diplo: Ayutthaya agrees to conduct trade with Dai Viet
  • Hindustan (Gurkani Dynasty): The city of Ferozeabad (OTL Rajshahi) fell to the Gurkani forces and the city of Tis Hazari was soon captured, bringing the remaining domains under Khilji control back under the throne at Delhi. Ibrahim Khan Gardi who had sought to take control of the throne at Ferozebad after Nadir Shah Khilji died defected and became a loyal military leader. He was an able commander and was given the secondary command of Ulugh Beg’s force. The Timurid Army was absorbed into the main army which now comprised of Afghans, Turks, Jats, Rajputs and Persians as well. The attempts of the Gurkani dynasty to establish a Persianised state in India was buoyed by the fact that a significant number of Persians had settled in Sindh, Punjab, Gujarat and the Havali-i-Dihli. Most of these Persians were scholars and had established libraries in many of the towns in which they had settled. Now, an even larger number of Perisans fled and came to India fleeing the instability of the other Timurid realms and the Georgian onslaught. Meanwhile, Amir Shah Rukh Mirza fell ill with a fever and died. Ulugh Beg was crowned the Amir without much opposition from his brothers. The ethnic Turks came to be called Turanis and settled all over India in new towns and villages. Having secured control of his Indian domains, he charged Ibrahim Khan Fardi, an Afghani by ethnicity, an able military commander to conquer Kabulistan, Samarqand and Eastern Persia. These campaigns to reconquer the rest of the Timurid domains will come to be known as Gardi’s Campaigns. Ulugh Beg being a scholar started reading about the Great Khilji Sultans and the way they had administered their domains.

1423

The Imperial Diet of 1423 officially elects Sigismund Premyslid as King of Germany, as well as King of the Romans and King of Italy. He appoints his son John to be regent of Bohemia, while Frederick Habsburg "the Empty-Pockets" is allowed to retain a ceremonial position as Prince of the Germans.

Jan Franz, feeling his campaigns in Lotharingia against the Parliamentarians to be a success, attempts a new campaign to cross over and invade Luxembourg. At the abdication of King Vincent, as well as the mediating policies of the Papacy, the Hussites in Lotharingia fall into a civil war among themselves between moderate and extremist factions. Franz falls back to try to intervene in this conflict.

A political crisis occurs in Portugal. Archbishop Fernando da Guerra of Braga writes to the Pope that Queen Cyrilla has been living in adultery, as her dispensation of annulment to her first husband was granted by an Antipope. Thus, her first husband Domnall Sturlunger is her rightful husband, the rightful king of Portugal, and any children by her second husband are bastards.

Angered by the loss of preferential treatment in the east Mediterranean trade, the Republic of Venice launchs an attack against the Byzantine Empire. They siege Rhodes with a total of 10,000 troops and 150 ships, while they attack Gallipoli with 15,000 troops and 250 ships. They call on their alliance with The Latin Empire to push on expanding their territories in Thrace or Ionia. Venice makes an appeal to the episcopal See of the Catholic Church, saying the time is now to eliminate the Orthodox heresy from Europe once and for all.

Taking advantage of war in the Balkans, Stephen the Tall of Serbia and Bulgaria launchs an attack in attempt to reconquer Bosnia, and reclaim their coastline in the Adriatic.

The Tripolitanian Crusaders are marginally successful in attacking remote areas of the Fezzan desert. However, they suffer heavy casualties by an unexpected attack of bedoin tribes.

The monarchs of Scandinavia pressure Valdemar V to finally bring Iceland under terms with their rightful vassalage to Norway, which they have ignored up to this time.

Tired of trying to teach the Korean people how to learn to speak and read Chinese for centuries, King Sejong of Korea begins developing an entirely artificial script, known as Hangul.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We do more baby making. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improved over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation, peace for now is declared in a state of security for the expansive territories of each tribe. We start to train in canoe warfare and keep making giant war canoes. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Roman Empire: The attack by Venice is met at sea before it can land as word of the vast fleet assembling reaches Constantinople through merchants operating out of Ancona. A fleet is assembled, numbering more than 300 large ships including fifty war-galleys and over 250 merchant ships. Many smaller fishermen from Constantinople and Lesbos also participate in the battle, often carrying only small arms. Though the Venetians may possess slightly superior cannon technology, Roman sailors fight in home-waters where they possess the advantage of greater knowledge. Furthermore, the fearsome Greek-Fire catapults and commonplace use of heavy wall-guns provides additional tactical advantages. In Rhodes, as many islanders as can be armed are raised as levies, and the harvest either burnt or brought into the fortified citadel. In total 4,000 men defend the island, employing several cannons and an assortment of wall-guns to fend off the enemy ships and keep them at bay. Work on the Great Library of Constantinople is halted dramatically as the Themes are called up. Alexander Tagaris and 18,000 men are raised in Constantinople and march to Gallipoli to repel any invaders who do land. Additionally, the fortress at Kavala, which sits at the largest mountian pass into West Thrace is reinforced from neighboring outposts and local levies to a strength of 5,000 men. The fortress, though not modern, should hopefully slow the Latins should they choose to intervene in the war, allowing Strategoi Alexander Tagaris time to first defeat the Venetian landing forces before marching north to defeat the Latins. Meanwhile, another 5,000 light horsemen are raised, including 1,000 lower-ranking Muslim nobles. This swift army is headed by the protege of the aging Alexander Tagaris, Iakovos Tagaris, his cousin. The young man is a capable commander, favoring cavalry after witnessing Timur’s campaign across the east. This small force of 5,000 light cavalry will work to harass and degrade any Latin force’s advance into Anatolia from their foothold there. The force ought to be able to evade the heavier cavalry of the enemy, picking-off small scouting patrols and harassing their supply train when possible. Hoping that this will be enough to prevent or at least hold-back a Latin attack on the empire while Venice can be dealt with. Diplomatically, envoys are sent to Hungary, Serbia-Bulgaria, Florence, and Georgia asking them to contribute men and ships if they have them to spare. (Mod, Georgian, and Hungarian Responses). Dobruja’s moderately-sized fleet is employed with the main force of the imperial fleet, but its levies are not raised at this time. In Taurica, the governor there raises a small force of 2,500 in addition to the regional garrisons, but waits for further reinforcement from the capital before striking at the Venetian possessions nearby.
    • Hungarian Dip: King Stephen VII allows for 10,000 troops, mainly foot soldiers, to leave for Greece. However, a monetary compensation is expected. 
      • Roman Response: The Basileus agrees to provide compensation, offering them a bonus if they can reach Kavala before the Latins can respond. 
    • Serbia-Bulgaria spares 8,000 troops.
      • Roman Response: Stephen the Tall is thanked for his aid, and notified that he shall be sent a magnificent statue of himself, paid for by Basileus Herodotus once the war is won.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: Improvements to Barari continue under supervision of Italian engineers and artisans. Namely, the roads in Barari continue to be paved, with the engineers having paved about one-fifth of Barari’s roads. Ethiopian workers under Italian engineers are impressed by the efficiency and knowledge of the Italians, who demonstrate remarkable skill in city planning, maintenance and construction. For example, the Italians point out the need for gutters on the sides of the road for water to collect and be channeled out of the city. The Emperor also takes time to speak to the Italians about their home in Europe, ranging from topics such as warfare to theology to politics. The Emperor also begins sending Italian engineers to other Imperial cities to plan the paving of their streets. With new subsidies, the Universities at Barari and Beri begin attracting poets and scholars from the Middle East and Africa, which begins an intellectual growth in terms of new ideas and debates. Additionally, with his power secure, the Emperor seeks to cement his family’s place on the throne by creating a family and an heir. Seeking a wife and also seeking to continue his nation’s adopting ideas and traditions of Europe, the Emperor reaches out to the Roman Emperor, asking if he had a daughter or family member who would be willing to become the Empress of Ethiopia [ROMAN EMPIRE RESPONSE]. Trade begins to flourish once again with India, as the devestation of Timur’s invasions are slowly healed with time. With stability brought back to India, the economy recovers as well, with goods being produced and Chinese trade flowing through India once more. This allows Ethiopian merchants access to Chinese luxury items once again, such as porcelain. The Order of St. Anthony continues to slowly introduce educational sermons into its schedule, with various monasteries helping to teach Amharic and Greek language and writing to the local populace. In Somalia, however, the Order of St. Anthony comes into conflict with the local Order of St. Laurentius after the Order of St. Laurentius instructs a local town to stop paying taxes and tithes to the local St. Anthony monastery and instead pay to the St. Laurentius one. The Order of St. Anthony’s monks, known as Antonine Monks, complain to the local lord, about St. Laurentius’s monks, known as Laurentiun monks. The local lord, however, is a follower of the Laurentiun monks, and thus ignores the Antonine monks’ protests. Incensed, the Antonine monks send travelers to alert the Monastery in Barari and the Bishop of Ethiopia, who was himself a monk of the Order of St. Anthony.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: Queen Cirí has always said that her ex-husband who is now deceased was once her husbnd, but as he is dead, either way shes a widow - besides which, their only son is dead and therefore the new queen's husband and their son Adalberto is legitimate. (Whoever wrote this event, the former husband is dead). Meanwhile, Crown Prince Adalberto celebrates his third birthday and this is celebrated all over Portugal. Meanwhile, Queen Cirí is getting tired of being opposed by the nobles but decides to be patient and wait for them to cool down before doing anything that could provoke them. Meanwhile, seeing no other option for solving the political crisis, Queen Ciri decides to abdicate in favour of her sister Triss who takes the name Ciri II in honout of her sister.Theformer queen is granted the honorary tirle of Queen-sister and retires to the royal palace in the madeiras.During their trip to the madeiras the royal ship carrying them is sunk during a storm.
  • Iceland: King Domnhall looked relieved when his son Eiríkur left the dock as all his children will now live a full and political lifestyles. The King offers the Queen of Portugal the very much alive Domnhall’s hand in marriage to resolve this issue. (Draf response needed).
    • Portuguese Diplomacy: The queen declines citing her marriage with her current husband but offers the so-called imposter to her sister Triss.
    • Icelandic Dip: We accept.
    • Swiss Diplomacy/note: Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg writes a letter to his friend Domnhall, pointing out that this second marriage won't resolve the issue until and unless Pope Martin V approves the divorce between Cyrilla and Domnhall that was only certified by Antipope Mark II.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: Raids and other aggressive actions militarily continue against the Khmer but don't yet cross into war being limited to the acquisition of resources as well as seizing manpower from the western portion of the Khmer Empire to serve as slaves and laborers. The king has fallen ill from old age with his two eldest sons mobilizing their troops from their respective cities and marching to the capital to press their claims to the throne of Ayutthaya. The youngest brother, Borommarachathirat II, remains within the confines of his city, Chainat, waiting out the conflict between his brothers to see who he will bend the knee to. The Palace Guards and Capital Defense Corps prepare the capital of Ayutthaya for the inevitable bloodshed between the two brothers. The Royal Court in the King's absence, continue to sponsor state infrastructure projects in irrigation to better make use of the floodplains to increase food production with the flating rice strain. They also fund the construction of road projects taking care to be careful with the construction of the roads to avoid the fate of Angkor where there were far too many roads to be easily defensible. State sponsorship of Theravada Buddhism continues under the support of the Royal Court in continuation of the policies of King Intharacha implemented to diversify the kingdim from the neighboring Khmer.
  • Dai Viet: Thanks to the land policies and hard-working farmers, the production of rice has increased. More and more craft villages are established as not everyone can do farming. The opening of the trading ports has allow our craft products to be sold and trade to neighboring countries. This has allowed the economy to steadily increased and recovered from the war. But there’s problem with ships sailing along the Eastern (South China) sea as they could get attacked by pirates. In response to this, the Emperor orders to construct more naval ships to strengthen the navy as well as recruit more soldiers as well as recalling people to fight in the navy. In November, the Emperor sends an army to Thai Nguyen to put out the rebels Bế Khắc Thiệu and Nông Đắc Thái. The Emperor says to his royal court: "To rule a country firmly, one must promulgate strict laws and rules. But if they are too strict and harsh, the people will turn on you. Should anyone find my laws unsuitable for the country, or unnecessary, or too harsh and mean for the people like high taxes and such, then immediately reports them to adjust." The Emperor then decides to reform some taxes and law. More farmers are encouraged to the South to reclaim virgin land to cultivate; but some, finding the area to be too crowded, has moved across the Khmer border to cultivate. To expand the trade more we offer to trade with the Kingdom of Tondo and Majapahit, promising to stay neutral in the war going on in the Indonesian Archipelago [Tondo, Majapahit response].
  • Kingdom Wattasid: Abu has reached the lost caliphate idrisis most of powerful caliphate in our region we took a vassal in the middle south of the desert of a state called Sijilmassa after a week we establish mMslims Berber base and connection trade route from our discusion' and several princes in al-Andalus paid him from the expansion ideology of his main goal and sufi activist has been who had long led the grassroots opposition the regent and rallied with him. A Berber tribes claim that the banu zaydan from the prophet mohammed throught the line of Abu most of Berber tribes has been convert to Islam thanks to in our influence Islamic with Arab connection and as well adopting sufism activist as from Sijilmassa establish as a trade entrepot as the northern is become western Trans-Saharan trade route we establish a development progress state called ''Nekor'' which is under of Berber once but we take it in Abu's law but later he and them deposed in favor one az-zaydir from the nazfar tribes and Abu itself conquer some island east coast. Anyway, the ships are in sailing with the Trans-African to workout with the building and merchants commerce and export exchange supplies in indeed of case and remained here the navy as been in our position but most of Berber play a role in hierachies as a nomadic people or hardworker of what we pay them and the Berber merchants who were reponsible for transporting goods supplies by camel caravans and most of valley has across Northern Sahara in Maghreb and south and incorporate with the lands we also still making development and production are mostly in import and activist continue toward the region thanks to our law and pratice conversion in Islam's position We also would like to trade with Mali and Tunis our good ally from some supplies to the communication's Trans-African route and send supplies to them including with heatlhy foods and good richesse thing such like fish and cannabis also well some production are discover in the mine in our territory gold, oil, etc from such nicely trade route Berber influence would need (hasfid/Malians Reponse needed).
    • Mansa Musa II, the Lion of Africa, Emperor of Mali, etc. etc., accepts this trade and particularly likes to sell our spices and copper in exchange for money. The Mansa also offers the Wattasids to marry into our royal family (see player response in my turn)
  • Kingdom of Arles: With preparation of forces complete, the 10,000 strong Arlean army, Accompained by another 10,000 coming down from Auvergne and 4,000 strong Icelandic force, attack the areas of Dauphiné and Lyon. (algo needed). Meanwhile, Louis I decides to send a small expedition of ships to the coasts of Tunis. Several reforms are written, including the order of the upgrade of ports, which had been in dire condition. The research on Burgundian weapons is complete, and workers are now tasked to create them as they are more technologically advanced. We offer a trade deal with our closest neighbor Monaco (Mod Response) The marriage between Guðný and Lucas is accepted.
    • Monaco accepts trade
  • Mali Empire: The economy of Mali continues to expand as new markets are opened for taxation by the federal government. Slaves are sold to the European market for the first time through our trade in Tripolitania. The new demand of African slaves drastically increases the interest of the market toward Europe, leading many local slave drivers to continue asking to open their market to Europeans, particularly in Greece and Italy. [Byzantine and MOD RESPONSE]. The new military technology from Tripolitania is used to help augment and advance the army, distrobuting purchased hand cannons and large siege cannons to the elite clan leaders of the Gbara. Engeering information on how to manufacture such weapons are translated into Tamashq, and kept in the Library of Timbuktu. Our offer of leasing the isalnd of Brotuqal to Spain for an exchange of military technology is repeated [SPAIN RESPONSE]. The embassy of the Wattasid dynasty is warmly received at the imperial court of Niani, where Musa II and his son Mohammed repeats the ancient agreement of the empire to maintain a close alliance with Morocco. It is offered that a member of the Wattasid royal family should marry the Mansa's cousin Al-Wathiq, or his sister Aisha [WATTASID RESPONSE]. Amir Abdul Aziz, referred to as a "clanmaster" in European sources, met with the leaders of the expedition sent by the Red Hand Company. He agreed to set up a trade of buying European fabrics and clothes in exchange for some spices. He further asks to buy other fine manufactured goods from Europe, such as eyeglasses, ceramics, upholstery and paintings in exchange for salt, ivory and copper. The Amir also asks if the Red Hand Company would be interested in buying slaves, which would be useful in either local housework, tending plantations or as concubinage.
    • Roman Response: Since slavery is not illegal in the empire merchants do purchase slaves from the Malians, but with chattel slavery against customs few are purchased. 
    • Wattasid Reponse: Since of what Mali asked were glad to marry Mansa cousin. 
  • Papal States: With the Hussites of Lotharingia fighting between themselves due to divisions between moderates and radicals, Pope Martin V sees an opportunity in this situation. The pontiff writes to the moderate faction saying that if they accept the authority of the Hussite Patriarch of Bohemia and make peace with the king of Lotharingia, the pope will allow they to live there and will approve the creation of a Catholic Hussite Diocese. However, they must sign a concordat with the king of Lotharingia [MOD response needed, please]. The ideas of Pierre d'Ailly continue to grow in approval in the Roman curia and Pope Martin V start to think in a way to how it can be applied to the Church. With Venice declaring war against Byzantium, the pope decides to remain neutral and will observe this conflict with great attention. The Holy Father creates as cardinal Jean Nanton (Burgundy). The construction of the gardens in the Vatican continues and it start to be called the Alexandrine Gardens, in honor to Alexander V. Plants of different types start to be collected across the Papal States to be placed at the gardens. With the situation of bigamy regarding Ciri I of Portugal, the pontiff propose two options a) She can live the rest of her days as a cloistered contemplative nun as an act of penance or b) She makes a pilgrimage to Rome, walking by foot and wearing simple clothes as an act of penance. In both cases she must abandon her lover. Leonardo Da Nacho, Headmaster of Saint Augustine's University, continues to act as a father to Ari VI and the boy start to be tutored by professors of the University. Miracles are reported to be happening around Sister Anna Forti, with a woman saying that her baby was healed from a fever after the child was kissed on the forehead by Sister Forti. However, Anna denies these miracles and stay more of the time praying alone. Ari Sturlungur continues to write about the Virgin Mary and her place in the Economy of Salvation. His writings focus mainly in her perpetual virginity, about she being the Mother of God and her Immaculate Conception. He started to teach at Saint Augustine's University. During his classes, he talked about his ideas and conclusions about the Virgin Mary and encourages the study of the works of John Duns Scotus.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles, Tripolitana and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. (Secret). Even with the neutral position of the pope with the war between Venice and Byzantium, the Elders sends a letter to the Emperor in Constantinople offering 2,500 mercenaries and six galleys to help in their war. In exchange the Emperor must allow the construction of Ancona's warehouses in every main port under the control of Byzantium (End Secret) (Byzantine response needed, please).
      • Roman Diplomacy: A counteroffer of a one-time lump sum and permission to establish a modest warehouse in Constantinope is presented to the Anconan delegation.
    • The moderate Hussites will agree to be under the Hussite patriarch under these conditions:
      1. Freedom for laymen to preach the Gospel.
      2. Dispensation of the eucharist of both kinds.
      3. Poverty of local clergy.
      4. Fully equitable justice for mortal sins, regardless of social standing.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: Since the war has stalled for three years now, Duke Phillip III "the Good" sues for peace and signs up the Treaty of Aurillac, securing peace between France, Burgundy, Scotland and Lotharingia. In this peace Burgundy cedes the Counties of Flanders and Artois to Lotharingia for some adequate compensation such as a black slave called Robert, among many other stuff. However, we manage to recover the city of Mâcon to our domain that we lost in the previous war, in return for it we gave up our occupation of Albi, Brens, Castres and their surroundings, especially Albi that we have spend much of our resources to fortify these past years. Duke Phillip III the Good refers to Robert as Bob regardless all the time, so Robert gets used to being called Bob. The black slave referred to as Bob proves his worth as a capable administrator, when he is assigned in several posts as a caretaker. For all his services he is annointed into Knighthood, becoming Sir Bob "the Black" of House Builder. Sir Bob "the Black" Builder is then appointed as caretaker for the Burgundian wheat plantations.
  • Kingdom of France: The Treaty of Aurillac is signed, securing peace between France, Burgundy, Scotland and Lotharingia. The city of Mâcon is evacuated, while Albi and the other areas are recovered. The occupation of Scottish Auvergne (that is, the parts of the Duchy of Auvergne not ruled by the House of Bourbon) is lifted, and the property of the Scottish nobles is returned to them, in exchange for a secret bargain with the Crown of Scotland.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": King Godfried of Lotharingia after meeting with both the friedeists and the Parliamentarians. Where he promises both to either edit the Aachen union or give a new constitution fully. The main goal of these negotiations being the re-establishment of peace and Order in Lotharingia. The army of germany still pressing on the Taborites who are splintering themselves, between moderates and radicals. The moderates believing in co-existance between husitism and Catholicism, as the primary desire of King Godfried peace and reason. While on the Burgundine front Godfried's brother, Henri begins to rally up the Lotharigian army. This force being 4.,000 strong 3,000 Lotharingians and 1,000 Flemish and guild members who wish for more rights, less taxing and more liberty. This army strongly working the "Königlich-Lotharingische Marine" to keep suplies and to even have some cannons ofshore. War not being needed as the forces was able to aply enough presure to get Artois and Flanders into the Lotharingian Realm. This giving even more ports to Lotharingian Traders Thus the traders such as in Bruges begin to allow traders to work with the "Rote hand Compagnie". The Traders enjoying Vlootleen and scheepbouw laws, thus increasing their ability to build ships. The Senatus Regus Lotharri officialy giving a contract to the "Rote hand Compagnie" for 15 years where they can hold a monopoly on all lands south of Mukadoor island. Thus "Egbert de Leeuw" goes back to Mali with his crew togheter with a small Lotharingian noble. Where more trade is had with Mali and exchange of more goods, which this time are more numerous and of bigger worth then the previous exchanges.
  • Swiss Confederacy: As King Louis XI of France and the Scottish coalition have signed the Treaty of Aurillac the 3,000 Swiss mercenaries in Auvergne are recalled back to their home nation. The Central Council is pleased at the peace in France with the Canton of Pontarlier remaining a Swiss possession, though they continue to pay close attention to the diplomatic situation to see if the fifteen-year truce agreed upon in the treaty will hold. With the return of the mercenaries from Auvergne all of the Confederacy's military forces are within its borders again, and the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy focuses on fortifying mountain passes on the nation's southern border in the Cantons of Geneva, Sion, Uri, Disentis and Chur. Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg tries to mediate the feud that seems to have formed between King Domnhall II of Iceland and the royal family of Portugal and is pleased at Pope Martin V's mediation of the situation of illegitimacy in Portugal, though Ulrich VII notes the issue remains that the Portuguese crown prince Adalberto is illegitimate. Bishop of Lausanne Guillaume of Challant continues to criticise the violence of the Taborite conflict in Lotharingia, while the other Swiss bishops take a neutral position following the example of Pope Martin V. Domestically, the government focuses on expanding and improving cattle farms to improve the food supply in the nation, and also continues to work on integrating the new Canton of Augsburg by improving roads and other infrastructure there. Bishop of Augsburg Anselm von Nenningen dies, and Ulrich of Anjou-Lenzburg, a Carmelite friar and brother of King William VI of Arles, is appointed his successor. Later in the year, Bishop of Basel Hartmann II von Munchenstein dies and is succeeded by Johann IV von Fleckenstein. Henry de la Marck and Blanche of Geneva-Lenzburg have their first child, a daughter named Louise (b. 1423) in honour of Blanche's mother Louisa Bruce of Scotland. Henriette Capet (1393-1423), daughter of Marie of Geneva-Lenzburg and King Louis XI of France, dies after a long illness without ever having married.
  • Hafsid dynasty: Inspired by the former Almohad Caliphate and the long-lost Achaemenid Empire, architectural design is borrowed in pursuit of a more heavenly scene in the Ifriqiyan Caliphate. Caliph Abu al-Aziz II envisions a "Great" Mosque, so great that he puts aside contruction for one in تونس‎ (Tunis) [OTL Çelebi Sultan Mehmed Mosque]. Defenses begin built along the Hafsid-Tripolitania border, with specific fortresses being built in قابس (Gabes) and الجديدة (Matmata). The contruction of the كلية الفنون الجميلة (Academy of Fine Arts) in تونس‎ (Tunis) is finished, increasing the number of produced arts and literature available. Iluminated manuscript, specifically surrounding Islamic mysticism, become more popular as a result. Other institutions, such as the أكاديمية الرياضيات (Academy of Arithmetic) and the أكاديمية العلوم وعلم الكونيات (Academy of Science and Cosmology) are finished this year, harboring forms of intellectual discussion and discovery. Spies in Tripolitania continue to stir discontent among the Muslim population. Following in the way of Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz of Béjaïa, Caliph Abu al-Aziz II puts a ban on Tripolitanian merchants in Tunis and the cities under Hafsid rule.
    • Kingdom of Bgayet: Urban expansion is done in Béjaïa, as it continues to flourish with merchants. Under provisions of Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz of the Allamid dynasty and with the recent influx of Christian merchants has allowed for large economic propects. Inspired by ancient Greco-Roman and Umayyad architecure, the mosques are built in these provided architectural designs, as well as high-end luxury palaces. Under the recent vassalized status of Bgayet, the idea of attacks from inferior forces has set in further after rumors of Afro-Islamic genocide going on in Tripolitania. Although still allowing Christian merchants as it is needed for the economy to remain, Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz believes it will be not coming with a prepared declaration. The ban on Tripolitanian merchants from entering port cities continues, as Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz continues to isolate Tripolitania from the markets of Ifriqiya while other Christian merchants continue to be traded with.
  • Empire of Japan: The effective stabilization of the Tondo issue by the Chinese is met with some happiness but also some annoyance due to the treasure sunk into the development of the port and settlement in the area. However, with the Army withdrawing, the Zaibatsu involved sucessfully lobby for the retention of the funds to heavily develop Fort Koba and Appari. The port facilities of Appari are to become a nexus of trade heading north to Japan from the Indonesian and indochinese regions and Fort Koba is to become the primary fort in which the trade nexus is defended. The funds are set toward importing more materials to expand the port settlements as well as turn the original trade fort in Koba into a proper castle. Establishing proper blocs of settlement many of the townspeople are used to build new housing for them as well as well as help clearing out the former close in houses. The castle grounds themselves hug the coast with a supply facility established in order to allow for seaward supply to aid the castle and a series of walls are planned to ring around the main fort which will eventually be ripped down and replaced with a new citadel acting as the military headquarters. With the failure of a potential war to profit from, the Imperial army is brought home and once again takes up its former residence in the barrack quarters outside of city. The Aimoi trade guild taking initiative and securing some ronin offers to pay for the establishment of multiple outposts on the mapped mainland off the sea of Kamcha (Sea of Okhosk). These men are promised the noble title of Daimyo should they properly administer and develop these areas. These regions are put far away from eachother to prevent competition as well as securing a serious presence in the area to allow for the heavy exploitation of furs in the region for further sale down south. Emperor Kemmu officially retires this year in favor of his son Kenzo. While being somewhat of a deviant and not relatively devout to the Shinto religion of Japan he is known as a shrewd economic figure, as well as being a massive force in the court life of Japan. The Ascension of Kenzo to the throne is met with fanfare as his coronation takes place in the spring season. He turns immediately toward his nobility and begins currying favor with many of them in attempts to push through more reforms. Emperor Kenzo, however, makes no obvious moves this year as he specifically begins working within the confines of the legal and governmental system previously established in one major case to establish its legitimacy and to begin through the social etiquette systems look to push the administrators and nobility push any laws or changes to code through the legislative system.
  • Kingdom of Maabar: Puda makes moves toward vassal-zing Jaffa. The Royal fleet is expanded some more, and the rate that Maabaran Trade ships are seen picks up. The work toward the cannon goes well with the first prototypes. The Royal academy is asked to look into the ancient roman construction techniques including most importantly sewers and aqueducts. A new port is started across from Jaffna to aid the movement of items. the royal army is expanded to 10,000 men, and weapon technology begins to progress. Puda begins to have enoys get friendly with lower lords of the Northern courts, to aid him eventually unite southern India.
  • Latin Empire: After the Venetian attack on the Byzantines we are now faced with war with the Byzantines. Emperor Marcus honors the Alliance with Venice by Declaring War on the Byzantine Empire. he then raises all the levies from his vassals and with them supplying 2,000 troops each we have a total army of 37,000 troops. This army goes into the command of Marshal John II Crispo. to fund this war we tax the lower nobility like barons and serfs and charge them with a reasonable war tax. Emperor Marcus asks Hispainia to help if they can by sending troops or supplies(Hispainia Responds Needed). the bulk of our navy does a naval blockade of the Aegean Sea to all Byzantine ships. We send 37,000 troops supported by 3,000-to-5,000 Cavalry and large cannons to begin the Battle of Andrinopile (Algo Needed). Secret we send two spies the Byzantine Empire. one to east Thrace to give us intelligence on the Byzantine army in that region and we send another spy to Constantinople to give is info of future Byzantine actions and offensives End of Secret. Emperor Marcus sends an letter to the Hispainian general in France to tell us the status of our 4,000 troops helping Hispainia. Emperor Marcus has another child with his wife Mathilda and is a boy that they name Matteo Alfonso II. also Marcus eldest son and heir to the Latin throne Julio Alfonso is ten years old now and he gives him a mentor which is Prince of Achaea Stefan San Superano. He will teach Julio all he has to know about governing and trade. in the Duchy of Achaea the Bishop of Patras dies. The Latin Patriarch Antonio Correr appoints Pandolfo Malatesta as the Archbishop of Patras.
  • Can you please get the numbers in a more believeable range. Just from population alone your max natural cap would be around 15,000. Given the possibility of some crusader retinues remaining add may be another two-to-three thousand in there but that should be it. The actual roman empire punched above its weight due to its organizational strength and institutions.. Two things that the Latin Empire did not inherit. -Feud
  • Georgia: To help better administer the empire’s vast territory, Bagrat decided to move the capital again: this time from Tabriz, to Esfahan. He commissioned the construction of a new palace, and of a new cathedral (which incorporated both Georgian and Islamic architectural styles) – both were located in Esfahan’s Caucasian quarter, “New Tbilisi”. New Tbilisi, as was many other Caucasian quarters (such as those in Tabriz, Tehran, Mosul, and Baghdad), were inhabited by veterans of the Perso-Georgian Wars and serfs promised their freedom; many of these relocatees were ethnic Armenians, who were recognized for their dexterity in commerce. Bagrat’s power base continued to be the army, which continued to hold him in high esteem due to his legendary conquests (said to parallel those of Alexander the Great) and his physique. A new Royal Army was created, consisting of 12,000 mounted archers, 8,000 lancers, 6,000 arquebusiers (a ratio of three to every ten cavalrymen), and 1,000 artillerymen; these are mainly transferred troops from the Royal Guard as opposed to newly-trained ones. The Royal Guard, which now number only ~5,000, saw its roles massively reduced; it was again relegated to protecting the royal household and maintaining peace and order in the capital. Despite still immersing himself in military affairs, Bagrat largely consigned the task of running the county to Anastasios. The latter deemed his father “a depressed drunkard, a shell of his former self” – a state no doubt due to his beloved Rostom’s death. Anastasios created several new government posts. A recognized doctor of law was appointed Minister of Justice; his responsibilities included presiding over the highest appellate court and providing legal counsel to the King. The Chancellor was now assisted by a Deputy Minister, who kept records of his decision-makings and notified the King. The Court Minister supervised the court – effectively becoming the King’s “eyes and ears”. Lastly, the Grand Steward introduced guests and received (and if required, read) petitions addressed to the King. Anastasios had an aloof relationship with his wife, Theodora. Asides from Mariam (who helped acquiesce her to her new life as the Crown Princess), she also found herself distant from her in-laws. Due to this, Theodora felt isolated and privately lamented her marriage to Anastasios (a sentiment expressed in her later works, which were written under the pen name “Tamar” to hide her identity). As Anastasios and Theodora were seldom seen together, some suspected Alexander was Anastasios’ biological nephew or cousin, or that Alexander was the issue another noblewoman. Theodora spent most of her time on artistic and scholarly pursuits. She also promoted the education of noblewomen; together with Mariam, she patronized the St. Nino’s Academy for Girls founded by the late Queen Tamar II. The Georgian economy benefited greatly from the conquest of Persia and Mesopotamia. It widened access to new markets, new trading routes, and new sources of materials; it also enlarged the tax base and thus, the treasury. Unable to impose serfdom onto the Persians and Mesopotamians (because of hefty opposition and administrative restraints), all serfs – except for household serfs – were given back their freedom. The core Georgian economy at this time revolved around the manufacture and sale/export of cotton and woolen textiles. The importance of cotton (grown in the Arran basin and southeastern Anatolia) in particular was recognized, so much so that it was referred to as “white gold”. The production of silks, carpets and rugs, and ceramics were also important. Imports included: spices, sugar, indigo, and cashmere, from India; salt, gold, and coffee from Ethiopia; and finally, high-quality silks and brocades from the Byzantine Empire and Italy.

1424

Black Plague breaks out in Lotharingia near the border of Luxembourg and Namur, claiming the life of Jan Franz. He is remembered as a hero of the Hussites and pioneer of military tactics, and is succeeded as leader of the Taborites by "Prokop the Great". At this point, the Hussites have almost entirely mellowed and no longer cause any active violence, following the comprimises of the Papacy and the words of Jan Hus. As such, the unnofficial Crusade of King Sigismund ends and the troops leave Lotharingia. However, the Taborites and other radical groups still exist in the region in isolated communities.

The Treaty of Aurillic ends conflict in France between the belligerants of Burgundy, Scotland, and Lotharingia. At this point, England and Spain are the two nations still in conflict with the House of Capet.

Frustrated by years of Iceland being belligerant against their vassalage to Norway, King Valdemar V of Denmark sends an expedition of 30 galleys and 60 longships to Reykjavik, demanding that Domnall II of Iceland submits to be a colony of Norway once again. He prepares a full invasion force of 8,000 troops if Iceland does not comply.

Rustam Mirza of Persia dies in Kirman. With the devastating losses to the Georgian conquests, the rest of Iran splits apart into four different states. For the majority of Iran's Shia population, this leaves an interregnum in the order of Persian Shahs, refusing to accept the claim of the Georgian Orthodox Dynasty. A group of Ismaili Shia in Herat proclaim Sheikh Ali Safavi, a general of Timur's army, as the new Shah. However, at the moment he has no authority outside of his personal military order.

The former queen of Portugal, Cyrilla and her lover are lost at sea attempting to visit the island of Madeira. Being presumed dead, many consider this an act of God casting judgment on her adultery. However, a local legend in Gascony tells of a woman who washes on shore in royal clothes. This woman claims to be Queen Cyrilla, who had been miraculously rescued from drowning by a great fish as in the days of Jonah the Prophet.

With the decisive defeats suffered in their attempts to invade Byzantium, Venice concentrates their forces on following up the siege of Rhodes, while loaning an additional 7,000 mercenaries to help Latin Romania’s front in Thrace. However, they make a proposal of peace to Byzantium, if they would agree to respect privately-owned forts and trading posts in the Roman Empire as Romania already has agreed

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We do more baby making. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improved over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation, peace for now is declared in a state of security for the expansive territories of each tribe. We start to train in canoe warfare and keep making giant war canoes. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: European workers continue to pave Barari’s roads, making improvements to the road systems and helping to construct gutters to provide a way for sewage to leave the city. Following Kaleb Bedria’s building of his own luxurious estate, construction of lavish palaces and manors by the merchants continues as they strive to distinguish themselves in terms of wealth and status. Dozens of estates begin to dot the Ethiopian landscape, each a marvel of architecture and a sight of luxury. Arab architects add to Ethiopia’s building tradition, with several Arab architects helping design palaces. The first Arabic palace constructed in Ethiopia occurs on the River Awash, where an Ethiopian textile merchant constructs a large palace of multiple floors based off the Ghumdan Palace from Yemen. With large domes, open gardens, and multiple floors, the palace magnificently stands above the river. Ethiopian merchants from Egypt make contact with the Kingdom of Tripolitania, a Christian state lying to the west of Egypt. The Empire, as standard procedure in meeting another Christian kingdom in Africa, sends a delegation of trade agents to the Kingdom, bearing gifts of silk, gold, perfumes and spices. The Empire expresses its intention to open friendly relations with the Christian Kingdom. [TRIPOLITANIA RESPONSE]. The delegation is surprised, however, to see the Kingdom’s nobles and king are white Europeans, not native African or Arabs. With the expansion of the Imperial bureaucracy, the mekwanint, the Emperor decides the Imperial Palace can no longer provide enough space for storage of all records and as offices for all the bureaucrats. As such, the Emperor makes plans to construct new buildings near the palace to house each ministry’s workers and records as well as provide a meeting place. To accommodate the new buildings, several older buildings are torn down. Plans for the new buildings call for large, multi-story buildings built for efficiency rather than luxury. The Emperor plans to build three large buildings, one for the Ministry of the Treasury, one for the Ministry of War, and one for the Ministry of Trade. The Imperial Trade Guild also seeks to expand its headquarters at Barari, asking the Emperor for permission to construct a large building of their own. The Emperor agrees, and allows the guild to destroy their old building and make plans for construction of a new one. The Bishop of Ethiopia also hears the disturbing report that the Order of St. Laurentius has grown significantly in power following the Prince’s War, with all Ajuran nobles accepting monks of the Order of St. Laurentius and ejecting monks of the Order of St. Anthony. The Bishop sends an official decree with his seal denouncing St. Laurentius as a false saint, stating that the Order of St. Laurentius is illegitimate, that the Order of St. Anthony retains theological authority in the Empire and that all nobles who refuse to accept Antonine monks and accept Laurentian monks are heretics and will be punished. The decree is intended to reinstate the Order of St. Anthony as the dominant monastic order and strip the Order of St. Laurentius of its power. The decree completely backfires in its effect and iis widely rejected and vilified in Somalia, with many towns and cities publicly burning the decree and attacking the messengers. Many nobles, incensed at being declared heretics despite following Christian beliefs, begin sending soldiers to eject the Antonine monks. The situation in Somali begins to devolve as the locals begin rioting upon knowledge that the Bishop of Ethiopia has declared St. Laurentius to be a false saint. 
    • Tripolitanian Diplomacy: We gladly accept the envoys of Ethiopia, welcoming them with graciousness and reciprocating gifts and pleasantries. We look forward to productive years to come, and hopefully future trade opportunities.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: News of the death of King Intha Racha make their way across the Kingdom with his two eldest sons making their way to the capital, Ayutthaya, to press their claims to the throne. Upon arrival, the two brothers chose to duel each other for the position of King and end up killing each other leaving Samphraya as the heir to the throne of Ayutthaya. Following his coronation as King, Samphraya continues the policies of his father and supports the monks and brahmins of Theravada Buddhism in their attempt to disperse the religion across Ayutthaya while also securing the loyalties of the Palace Guards and Capital Defense Corps. In an attempt to consoldiate his power within the capital, the Kalahom (Minster of the Military Department) was requested to bend the knee to Samphraya as a show of support and solidarity among the upper echelons of the government. Samphraya continues to support the maintenance and development of infrastructure across Ayutthaya, drafting labor from villages to help perform this task for him. The King also sets arrangements for a marriage to Maha Tammaraja IV who is the daughter of the Sukhothai ruling house in order to cement royal control over the region. The city of Lavo continues to fade from power with its royal family becoming a noble family of Ayutthaya. Efforts are made to adopt desirable portions of Sukhothai culture, primarily the military tradition, into Ayutthaya's culture.  
  • Iceland: After 100 years of Icelandic independence a massive parade is held in Reykjavík, with all of Domnhall’s children. To keep the Celtic Confederacy alive the king proposes that all Celtic Merchants will get preferential treatment in the ports. The king though old has children with a woman he isn’t married to, Davíð (Boy) and Sirrý (Girl) which he makes legitimate. As the Nordic delegation arrives Domnhall utters a few words said by his forefather Snorri Sturlungur in the same position “Út Vil Ek”. As the king assumes this means war he calls upon the help of the Celtic Confederacy, Portugal and the Swiss(Response needed). Our 4,000 men fight in the narrow Alleys they have lived in all their lives, the King takes control of the army, the men hide in homes and when a Scandinavian troop walks by the attacks. An extra 1,000 is raised to join the fight. (algo needed).  People are sent to the fortified Town square.
  • Wattasid Kingdom: we have been search a new region in the south of Sahara, full of nomadic amazight and colonize it is called Edaxla (Dalkha OTL) and were establish connection trade source with the West African kingdom of our goal of what we have been search and in our among colony principalities limit the city of Casablanca become a huge key of economy yet we also made effort to export portion and ships from the merchants is because the paysan are ranking the most active role in our hierachy and we support the sufi activist to convert the Africans to adopt Islam in Afro-Islamic territory and pay tribes in our law from consolidate the power with Abu's position and Abu face the nasrid ruler of emirate that he would control the south port of spain to continue the trade and built the city in under of development we also send expansion in West Africa and establish high office also had trade with Mali as well and have diccusion' Mozarab people who are in crime and activist of non-religion asked are classified as Heresey in the role of our law which why the Mozarabs practice themselves in private way continue with Abu and marriage with Mansa's cousin he enjoy after the celebration and among some good power and new laws and Abu fully capture Melila with his army of 13,000 and the nasrif ruler used this respite to entrench themselves firmly and rivarly with the alomhad's position in al Andalus we also more welcoming more immigrations and the community is a multi-ethnicia the Moroccan trade is still dominate by the main import and we do more builting by being payed and exchange production speaking of a state named Sijilmasa entrepôt at the northern edge of the Sahara desert and pay slaves from the role who encourage the supplies and built fortification of water source and agriculture Abu support the ideal of Mali and their expansion which why Abu would glady love his good alliance as always. The stage of development is also supported by Europeans hard worker in Tangiers (seaport colony) and have supplies the sub-African are expeditionary force to protect the colony limit in Sahara and Abu he was unable to take the well-fortified city we also think our development goals are informal and the income gaps are very high in our calcucator we also pay again Mozarab commerce and pay to the amazight tribes as the same power hierachy as the local high office in sub-African as finally trade with the West Africans at upon of the central on it and have other supplies in trade case' thus would make a perfectly time in Morocco and gain rich's law and employing industrial work force from the merchants we buy ships in Tangiers to come in the sea and basin to have interest discusion and Abu enjoy himself with all development and continue to rise the population of Morocco. We also would like to send high office in West Africa with Mali to gain contact and diccusion to send more exchange and pay tribes from Mansa's position to gain exchange and such need money to support those activist and establish West African-arab trade (Mali reponse needed)  
  • Mali: Yes.
  • Mali Empire: At the beginning of the 15th century, the Mali Empire had reached the peak of their modernization and development. On the outside, the cities at the periphery of the empire near Timbuktu, Dakar, Njimi and Gao saw the most in terms of paved roads, granite buildings and epic religious works of stained glass and towers. On the inside, individual institutions saw the rise of arts and sciences at Mali's universal education system, and comforts of domestic living with a basic sewege system. Since the largely peaceful reign of Musa II, however, Mali's development greatly plateaued over the next few decades, and was quickly being overtaken by the rapid urbanization and development of Europe. Furthermore, many parts of Mali's interior were still far more rural and backward, resembling moreso an iron age society lost in the tens of millions of Africa's population. For Amir Abdul Aziz of the Sahwari provinces, however, he determined to break through this period of isolation. Seeing the returning voyage of Egbert de Leeuw, Abdul Aziz suggests that the traders of Lotharingia should direct their attention to the much larger city of Dakar farther south, which is the main hub of Mali's foreign Atlantic trade. The slave trade of Mali continues to rise in supply from the pagan African population forcefully integrated in the empire, even while introducing the Mediterranean states of Byzantium and Tripolitania to the trade. Epic poetry in the Tamashq prose language continud to also thrive during this generation. Aisha bint Othman Sefawa Al-Najm, the well-known princess of Kanem, was married to her betrothed spouse of the Wattasid Dynasty of Morocco. The poet Idris Dakkari made her particualrly famous with his work dedicated to their union, Al-jameel Al-aswed Al-ifriqiya. (The Opal Beauty of Africa).
  • Roman Empire: Having inflicted a crushing defeat on the Venetian Gallipoli force, killing or capturing perhaps 10,000 men in the invasion the Venetian proposal is rejected. The Constantinople Arsenal is put to work repairing as much of the fleet as possible. While also working quickly to produce several dozen more ships. Run-aground and abandoned Venetian ships from Gallipoli are re-floated and towed for analysis and repair, and their methods for affixing cannons to ships studied. Five new war galleys are launched with modern Venetian cannon-mounts fabricated for dozens of others. Strategos Tagaris marches north to reinforce the defenders in Thrace, but stops to dispatch 10,000 men to Anatolia to begin an invasion of the County of Caria. He finds the forces at Kavala also victorious, although much more tenuously so. Taking overall command of both armies, numbering some 29,000 men including 8,000 heavy lancers, 5,000 light lancers, 8,000 pikemen, and 8,000 Ankistróploi. The army of 23,000 quickly pursues the Latins in a feint, it spends several days burning the houses of nobles, pillaging Catholic Churches, and murdering catholic missionaries. At the head of the column marches a standard bearer wielding a flag-pole topped with a solid gold Orthodox cross and bellow it a Roman Standard. Orthodox buildings are left standing and most of the peasantry is left alone, after the feint he loiters in the area, keeping scouts between his army and the Latin army to the east when news of Venetian and Papal reinforcements arrives he retreats a full speed to Roman territory preferring to fortify Kavala. At the same time, the 10,000 men sent to Anatolia rendezvous with Iakovos Tagaris’ 1,000 strong delaying force. Facing only limited regional resistance, the army of 11,000 men advances rapidly into the county, looking to lay siege to Smyrna and then Philadelphia. Siege guns and long range Ankistróplos are deployed to ensure that such a siege goes smoothly. (Algo Needed). Dobrujan, Trebizondi, and Theodoran levies are raised for the first time in this conflict. These men, numbering 5,000, are transported by the Theodoran and Trebizondi navies to assault the Venetian forces east of Crimea at Gorgippia. (Algo Needed) The situation is Rhodes grows tenuous as food and ammunition grows scarce. Smugglers attempt to reach the island, occasionally bringing much needed food and supplies to the besieged soldiers there. Envoys are once again sent to Georgia and Florence, requesting soldiers or naval support, citing royal marriages and defensive alliances respectively. Florence is asked only for aid against Venice and specifically not against the Latin Empire. (Candies and Mod Response)
  • Kingdom of Portugal: Queen Cirí II gives birth to a son who they name Peter who is the next in life after queen Cirí II. Meanwhile, Portugal sends 2,000 mercenaries to Iceand to help them in their war against Norway. The coronation of Cirí II takes place and after this she travels to Gordes where she is welcomed warmly by the locals. Meanwhile, she continues her late sister's programs of expanding the navy and funding the colonies.
  • Kingdom of Scotland: Kingdom of Scotland: Just as we had finally concluded peace with France, tragedy strikes, as the vicious Danish Viking barbarians declare war on our ally, friend, and fellow member of the Celtic Confederacy, Iceland, in an unprovoked and horrid attempt to seize control of its lands and enslave its people. Naturally, as both an ally of the Icelanders and a devout Christain who can not tolerate such acts of naked aggression and evil, King David III, with unanimous support from the kingdoms people, declares war on the Danish aggressor. In order to rally his people, and to ensure they know what they are facing, pamphlets are distributed throughout the kingdom recounting in detail the many past atrocities committed by the Scandinavian devils against the people of Scotland and the rest of the Celtic confederacy, making it clear that if they are not victorious the vile “men” we are facing would surely attempt to commit such against us again, well doing so to our icelandic friends and allies. In order to fight them, the majority of the Scottish navy is called up and organized under admiral to fight against the vile Scandinavians, with many praying to the noble Owain Lawgoch for victory in battle, a sign of the increasing generation of the blessed within the Scottish realm. We also raise the army in both France and Scotland, summoning all 8,000 men in Scotland itself to war and using our vast navy of 13 Hulks, 30 Cogs, 38 Picards, 17 Oighears and 15 Koch’s to quickly transport them to Iceland to fight in defense of our friends. (ALGO NEEDED once arriving to assist Iceland). We also seek to buy as much of the Burgundians now useless to them navy, allowing them to name the price well also asking for the hand of the Dukes daughter in marrige to the kingdoms heir, Edward Bruce. (BURGUNDY RESPONSE NEEDED).
  • Swiss Confederacy: Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg hears King Domnhall II of Iceland's call and agrees to help him due to the various ties between the Houses of Lenzburg and Sturlungur. 4,000 Swiss mercenaries are prepared at Neuchâtel Castle in the Canton of Neuchâtel and Rapperswil Castle in the Canton of Toggenburg to be sent to Iceland. However, as the Swiss Confederacy does not have a navy, they cannot immediately reach Iceland. Ulrich VII writes to King David III of Scotland, urging him to also help his fellow Celtic Confederacy member Iceland and provide ships for the Swiss mercenaries to get to Iceland. (Scotland response). Ulrich VII also visits Gustav, Count of Savoy in Chambéry, urging him to send Savoy troops alongside the Swiss mercenaries to aid Domnhall II because Gustav is Domnhall's son. (Mod response). While mercenaries are prepared to be sent north, the joint military of the Confederacy focuses on fortifying mountain passes and other border crossings on the northeastern border of the nation, in the Cantons of Sargans, Montfort, Augsburg, Salem and Constance. The Central Council continues to pay close attention to the diplomatic situation in France because the Treaty of Aurillac has not yet resolved the conflict between France, England and Spain. However, now that the Swiss allies Scotland, as well as Burgundy who the Swiss had struck a deal with, are out of the war and King Louis XI of France has also reconciled with Pope Martin V in the Treaty of Saint Vith, the Central Council's views toward the French King have become friendlier again and they would be more willing to resume the aid they had given France prior to the Schism. However, the defence of Iceland currently takes a priority for them in terms of deploying mercenaries. Domestically, the government focuses on recruiting peasants to be soldiers in the joint military as well as mercenaries in order to replenish and increase the size of these forces. Friedrich von Lenzburg and Freyja Sturlungur have their second child, a son named Eberhard (b. 1424). Later in the year, Bonne de la Marck and Eiríkur Sturlungur have their first child, a son named Adolph (b. 1424) who according to the terms of the matrilineal marriage becomes Adolph de la Marck. Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg proposes to arrange a marriage between Gustav, Count of Savoy (b. 1403) and Margaret of Gorizia (b. 1402), the daughter of Ulrich VII's sister Sophia von Lenzburg and Henry VI, Count of Gorizia and Gustav's third cousin once removed. (Mod response).
    • Scottish Diplomacy: We agree to transport the Swiss mercenaries to Iceland to help defend our ally.
    • Marriage would be accepted if the Pope allowed dispensation for incest (its only legal if its fourth cousin or later)
  • Kingdom of Eiru: Assuming Iceland and Norway cannot resolve their differences due to Norway saying they're going to invade Iceland years after Iceland has declared independence and Ireland is no longer bound by any treaty with Norway being Iceland's overlord and threat to a member of the celtic confederacy. Ireland dispatches a 1,000 man force to Þorlákshöfn on southern coast of the southern peninsula to then march north and defend Reykjavik from behind its walls if the Norwegians attempt to take Reykjavik. 
  • Papal States: To help the Kingdom of Tripolitana fight against the piracy of the Muslims, Pope Martin V sends four Papal galleys [Tripolitana response needed, please]. With the war between Byzantium and Venice turning into an attack to the Latin Empire, Pope Martin V decides to send 9,000 men of the Papal Army to help and calls all the Catholic nations to help secure the survival of the Latin Empire. Six papal galleys are also send and this military action is leadered by Cardinal Comissary General Julian Cesarini [MOD response needed, please]. The construction of the Alexandrine Gardens in the Vatican continues. The plants that were collected are planted in a temporary place, until the garden is finished. A letter is sent to the Kingdom of Ethiopia, asking for exotic plants from the nation [Ethiopian response needed, please]. The ideas of Pierre d'Ailly continue to grow in approval in the Roman curia and Pope Martin V search ways of how apply it to the Church.The Holy Father creates as cardinal Gabriele Condulmer (Venice). Leonardo Da Nacho, Headmaster of Saint Augustine's University, continues to act as a father to Ari VI and the boy start to be tutored by professors of the University. Miracles continue to be reported of happening around Sister Anna Forti, but she deny these miracles and stay more of the time praying alone. Ari Sturlungur continues to write about the Virgin Mary and her place in the Economy of Salvation. His writings focus mainly in her perpetual virginity, about she being the Mother of God and her Immaculate Conception. He started to teach at Saint Augustine's University. During his classes, he talks about his ideas and conclusions about the Virgin Mary and encourages the study of the works of John Duns Scotus. Due to this, he clashes with the Dominican friar Aloisio Cattaneo that is also a professor in the University. Friar Cattaneo criticizes Ari's works about the Immaculate Conception and defends the position of Saint Thomas Aquinas that rejectes the Immaculate Conception, saying if the Virgin Mary had been sanctified before her conception, she would not have needed the redemption of Christ concluding that "Blessed Virgin was sanctified after animation".
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles, Tripolitana and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The Elders are satisfied with the defeat of Venice in the war against Byzantium. However, with the pope now trying to defend the Latin Empire, they withdraw their support from Byzantium. Five galleys are sent together with those sent by the pope to help the Kingdom of Tripolitana fight the piracy.
    • Some Italian cities are willing to send up to 3,000 volunteers to help the Latins
  • Hafsid dynasty: Inspired by the former Almohad Caliphate and the long-lost Achaemenid Empire, architectural design is borrowed in pursuit of a more heavenly scene in the Ifriqiyan Caliphate. Caliph Abu al-Aziz II envisions a "Great" Mosque, so great that he puts aside contruction for one in تونس‎ (Tunis) [OTL Çelebi Sultan Mehmed Mosque]. Defenses begin built along the Hafsid-Tripolitania border, with specific fortresses being built in قابس (Gabes) and الجديدة (Matmata). The contruction of the كلية الفنون الجميلة (Academy of Fine Arts) in تونس‎ (Tunis) is finished, increasing the number of produced arts and literature available. Iluminated manuscript, specifically surrounding Islamic mysticism, become more popular as a result. Other institutions, such as the أكاديمية الرياضيات (Academy of Arithmetic) and the أكاديمية العلوم وعلم الكونيات (Academy of Science and Cosmology) are finished this year, harboring forms of intellectual discussion and discovery. Spies in Tripolitania continue to stir discontent among the Muslim population. Following in the way of Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz of Béjaïa, Caliph Abu al-Aziz II continues his ban on Tripolitanian merchants in Tunis and the cities under Hafsid rule. Other Christian merchants continue to be allowed, although with a slightly higher tax on goods. At the discretion of Grand Vizier Abdul ibn al-Sayed, piracy against Spain and Tripolitnia ceases as a large number of galleys are sent to surprise raid Corfu. [Algo Needed].
    • Kingdom of Bgayet: Urban expansion is done in Béjaïa, as it continues to flourish with merchants. Under provisions of Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz of the Allamid dynasty and with the recent influx of Christian merchants has allowed for large economic propects. Inspired by ancient Greco-Roman and Umayyad architecure, the mosques are built in these provided architectural designs, as well as high-end luxury palaces. Under the recent vassalized status of Bgayet, the idea of attacks from inferior forces has set in further after rumors of Afro-Islamic genocide going on in Tripolitania. Although still allowing Christian merchants as it is needed for the economy to remain, Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz believes it will be not coming with a prepared declaration. The ban on Tripolitanian merchants from entering port cities continues, as Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz continues to isolate Tripolitania from the markets of Ifriqiya while other Christian merchants continue to be traded with. Other Christian merchants continue to be allowed, although with a slightly higher tax on goods.
  • Dai Viet: The economy is steadily increasing. Thanks to the land policies and hard-working farmers, the production of rice has increased. More craft villages are established. We continue to trade with neighboring countries. This has allowed the economy to steadily increased and recovered from the war. To expand the trade more we offer to trade with the Kingdom of Tondo and Majapahit. [Tondo, Majapahit response]. One particular ingredient we trade with Cambodia to get is the black pepper which are found in the Eastern part of Cambodia which was the former Champa kingdom and Southern part of Dai Viet before we lose it to Cambodia. The Emperor recalls 50 percent of the troops sent back to cultivate for military training. We are repairing the infrastructure and roads damaged during the war. Ships are still being constructed annually. We have sent our navy to deal with pirates raging in the Eastern sea.
  • Baltic Duchies: The reign of Duke Jakob continues, his daughter has a child with Bernard of Saxe-Lauenberg who is named Bernard after his father. With this the line of the Dukes is secured, and Duke Jakob claims his son-in-law as his rightful heir to his lands. The expansion of trade continues with investments from local members of Hansa allowing the city of Königsberg to grow exponentially due to an influx of traders within its walls. The continued immigration of Germans from the mainland adds to the growing population of the Baltic Duchies. Meanwhile, within the borders, a folktale is spread about a Chicken who befriended a wolf travelling on its head and they moved to the minstrel house where they inspired a new song for him to play and in his gratitude he granted them protection under his roof. The expansion of the mercenary corp of the Baltic duchies continues, however, some funds are diverted as the Duke begins to slowly expand his navy into order to better protect the trade passing through his lanes.
  • Empire of Japan: The new Emperor Kenzo this year continues to solidify his legitimacy within the realms of the the upper nobility and aristocracy. Emboldened by their much restored power, the upper daimyo have been much harder to work with with Emperor Kenzo having to meneuver deftly though the court life of Japan. After nearly two years of granting favors, speaking with nobles, and securing the loyalty of his upper tier administrators the Emperor is able to push through a reform in the tax code regarding the nobility and Zaibatsu securing a much needed and powerful new source of tax. Various customs duties, and direct taxation are strreamlined and made much less complicated removing quite a bit of administrative red tape and even managing to discover some elements of corruption along the way. The offending elements are imprisoned for their greed and breaking of law and the new laws are implemented without further issue. More investment is put into modernizing and adjusting the cannoneers of the Imperial army after having spent a significant amount of time bringing the new more modern Naginata and Katana into the army. The construction of the Koba Castle continues as trade from the Azuma islands under Japanese sphere stop in the port before continuing on further to the other trade regions or the home islands themselves. The settlement of Hanka continues in earnest as more people from more overcrowded regions of the homeland or those escaping prior lives move to the region in order to start over. A delegation is sent to Ayyutuhaya to establish more direct trade relations and develop a more proper relationship with the kingdom. (Dren respond plz)
    • Ayutthaya Diplo: Ayutthaya concurs with the desire to establish a trade relationship and a portion Ayutthaya (the city) is allotted for a trade post from Japan. The area allotted is to be known as Ban Yipun and the chief in charge nominated by Ayutthayan officials.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": Kales is Lotharingian for the first time in history, Lotharingia being very close to her natural borders in the southwest. All north of the Somme being seen as Rex Lotharrii, even if King Godfried is happy with the victory. The victory being the greatest expansion of Lotharingian mercantile influence, as both Bruges and Kales are major ports on the north sea. These cities working togheter with the "Rote hand Compagnie", as these cities work on agreements to form a united Company. Brugge and Kales Creating their own companies with the "Rote hand Compagnie", all under a united banner. The subcompanies being known as for Brugge "Witte swoan Compagnie" (white swan company) and "gouden Brug Compagnie" (Golden Bridge Company) for Kales, These together with the "Rote Hand Compangnie" becoming the "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie". These regional Branches being kept apart but being united, as their trade is only united on trade with Africa and toward foreign relations. Brugge and Kales still needing to adapt to the new Vlootleen and scheepbouw laws, as these laws are only introduced for one year. This allows Brugans and Calaisiens to build ships with low interests and the ability to loan ships for a decent pay. This money being used mostly to pay the Burgundine crown for Artesien and Flanders, as 100,000 Carolus pounds have to be paid within a 15-year period. This money that Lotharingia is raising is also to maintain small forces in the Ardennes mountain range, as some small Taborite cells hide in the forrests. The ardennes being more hilly and forested, which makes it easy for the  Taborite rebels to hide avoid the Lotharingian Authorities. The Taborites trying to be self sufficient as to avoid going into places with Lotharingian authorities. In Africa "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" sends another voyage under "Isaac Alef Vlechter" and "Egbert de Leeuw" to the town that has become known as Dakar which is a city that originated from a small fishertown. The New voyage is one trying to establish better relations with the city and the Local emir of the city, as the city has desired goods and is close to the great emperor of Africa. Asian spices and African Gold being the most desired of goods from the Empire of Africa, While the most desired Lotharingian goods are: Fabrics, Furniture and Hand cannons. Thus Isaac Alef Vlechter making a deal with  Amir Abu Ishaq Al-Dakkari to allow easier docking for KWAC, and merchants under it.
  • Tripolitania: Werner von Salzner, fresh from his mission to the Fezzan, returns to Tripolis and a meeting of the Curia. While his escapade was coslty, he resolved claims that he was a cowardly supporter of Muslims. von Salzner, having lost some of his fellow Swiss crusaders, begins to see himself as a true crusader and his fame spreads throughout Europe. Meanwhile, King Sigismund receives word of the continued embargo on Tripolitanian traders in the Hafsid and Bgayet realms. Recognzing the truce between the Hafsid Sultanate and Tripolitania, Sigismund declines to pursue that realm militarily. But the Curia is not content with Sigismund's demurral, presses him to at least engage with the Bgayet pirates. To this end, Sigismund agrees and sends Baron Werner von Salzner to the Papal States, where he secures about ten galleys from the Pope and the Anconine Republic. He then travels to Milan (MOD RESPONSE), where he urges the Milanese Republic to send a military deployment - both naval and troops - to accompany the Papal and Tripolitanian troops. von Selzner then headed to Arles and Spain, where he makes a similar pitch to send troops and ships to combat the Barbary Coast pirates. (RESPONSES). Then, with the forces committed, we gather them at Tripolis and launch a surprise naval attack along the coast of Bgayet. This involves a naval battle of 40 Tripolitanian ships, ten Papal ships, and others committed by our allies. The Tripolitanian crusaders against Bgayet number 5,000, in a battle near the capital of Béjaïa (ALGO ONCE ALLIES REPOND).
    • King Francis III 'Savior of The Church' issues the Mediteranean Armada of 135 Ships including 15,000 Men being commissioned and led by his cousin, Admiral Rodrigo de Napoli and Francis III himself
    • Milan sends a large loan of money that supports the Tripolitanian hegemonial war financially
    • Cannot in good faith allow the entire Spanish navy in a battle against pirates, only 30-40 ships will be taken until at least Spain makes a full post
  • Georgia: To gain the support of the Shia population, Bagrat affirmed the doctrine of religious pluralism and implemented laws protecting “heterodox” Muslims. He also styled himself the “Steward of Karbala” (a title modeled from the “Steward of Mecca”) and gave an annual stipend to clerics working in the city. To revive the moribund agricultural sector of Mesopotamia, he restored many of its water channels, which had been damaged during Mongol conquest. A total of 11 million people lived under Bagratid rule: 3.1 million in Georgia and Eastern Armenia, 1.4 million in Shirvan, 4 million in Persia (one-fifth of which lived in Azerbaijan), 1.5 million in Eastern Anatolia, and one million in Mesopotamia. Census records showed the progressive Georgianization of the lower Caucasus’s. “Georgians” comprised one-third of the Shirvani population; in Eastern Armenia, while they comprised only five percent, they were the majority in towns and cities. Christians collectively comprised 40 percent of the total population; they were the majority in the Lower Caucasus, eastern Anatolia, and Assyria. In Mesopotamia, Arab Christians accounted for 20–25 percent of the population. Most Anatolian Turks were Christians of the Armenian rite. While a significant minority of Azerbaijani Turks were Orthodox Christians, they were generally Georgianized and were thus recognized as ethnic Georgians.

1425

Edmund Mortimer, Prince of Wales, Earl of March and Lord of the Horn, dies at this point. The closest relative that directly inherits his titles goes to Richard Plantagenet, the Duke of York. Richard at this point is already one of the most powerful nobles in England, and close in line of succession due to the fragile state of the House of Lancaster. Seeing no opposition to the succession of Wales, the Welsh lords ask the other members of the Celtic Confederacy their blessing on Richard being made Prince.

The (Third) Palaiologos-Venetian War drives further hostility between the Orthodox and Catholic Churches, particularly in the Balkans. Many Catholic states across Italy and Southern Europe are appalled by the news of Emperor Herodotus burning and destroying Catholic Churches. Furthermore, news is revealed that the Emperor also secretly invited the Hafsid Sultan to sack the Venetian holdings in Corfu, thus revealing his connection with heathendom. On the other hand, the Orthodox states across the Balkans and the Middle East feel justified by the hostility of Latin Romania and Venice, and hope to spur on the Orthodox people of Greece to stand up against the Catholic devils.

Further divine judgment continues to plague the Roman Emperor. Basileus Herodotus is seen to get attacked by squirrels, while walking in the outer city of Constantinople. The squirrel throwing nuts and small stone against the emperor's culion, the emperor being seen dropping down to the ground out of pain.

Having failed to solidly invade Iceland, the Scandinavian navies instead places a full blockade on Iceland's ports, to sink any ships attempting to break the island free. 2,000 troops are used to quickly occupy the North Sea islands claimed by Iceland and annex them to Norway.

In a small village of the Duchy of Bar, a young woman named Joan receives several visions from heaven, identifying themselves as Michael the Archangel, Catherine of Alexandria, and Margaret of Antioch. She is seen weeping and overwhelmed by emotion, at the sheer beauty of the vision. These Saints tell her that she is called by God to take up arms and drive the English out of the continent for good.

The peasants of Malta rise up in revolt against Spanish domination, refusing to submit to their Catalonian culture.

In Den Haage, the painting workshop of Jan van Eyck becomes exceedingly popular across the Kingdom of Lotharingia, and he is universally acclaimed as a masterful artist. He becomes the centerpiece of the Lowlands Painting movement of the Renaissance.

In the Gurkani Empire, Sharafuddin Ali Yazidi completes a full history of the kings of Persia, dedicated to Maharajah Ibrahim Mirza. Additionally, Madhava publishes an extensive work on geometry, including a theory of using an infinite series of trigonometric expressions to approximate an area.

In China, counterfeiting of copper and silver coins becomes a rampant problem and causes the value of paper money to drop severely.

In the Ava Kingdom of Burma, Kale Nyo seizes power over the government for the sake of his private lover, the widowed Queen Dowager Shin Bo-Me. Under his pressure, the queen has the current King of Burma Min Hla quietly assassinated, although he is only eight years old.

With the decline of the old capital of the forgotten Yuan Dynasty, the City of Timbuktu in the Mali Empire becomes the largest Metropolitan Area in the world by population.

  • Iceland: After the grand victory at Reykjavík the people chant “Domnhall, hið sanni Ljón Norðursins” which means “Domnhall, the True Lion of the North”. We would like to offer the Nordic forces peace, 1). Denmark and Norway renounce all their claims on Icelandic holding. 2). A non-aggression pact will be established between Denmark, Norway and Iceland. (Mod Response Needed). The Icelandic King proposes that if this treaty is acceptable that they use the opportunity to handle the Wales business.
    • Mod Diplomacy: Norway will agree to the treaty if Iceland cedes them the North Sea islands they occupy.
    • Icelandic Dip: We offer them the Isles of Suðuroy and Skúvoy.
    • The Shetland and Orkney islands, Faroe and Hebrides. That's the offer
  • Kingdom of France: King Louis XI dies this year and is succeeded by his son, who is crowned King William I at Reims. Prior to taking the throne, William had already influenced France's foreign policy. He played an instrumental part in bringing about the Treaty of Aurillac, and in solidifying his father's conquests. Now, taking the helm of the kingdom, William is initially determined to expand royal authority even further. However, after a few months of reigning, such prospects become uncertain, as William spirals into a depression. He rarely leaves his palace in Paris, and becomes largely out of touch with his realm. In important political matters, his command becomes indecisive. His temper grows irritable, his manners coarse and uncivil, and he drifts into a life of self-indulgence. King William is only lifted out of this dark valley by a sign from God, revealed to him at an audience with the young Joan of Arc. The king is wholly persuaded of the need to fulfill his and France's destinies (which, he realizes, are intertwined), and rule according to the will of God. Supported by strong military figures, the king now intends to drive all invaders from the land, in the name of the Lord. He begins assembling an army of volunteers, with ostensible plans to attack either the English or Spanish. Instead, the army of 9,000 is deployed as a crusading force against the Bgayet kingdom in the Mediterranean, to uphold the victorious state of Tripolitania. King William originally intends to lead the crusade himself, but he falls ill and so places Viscount William II of Narbonne in charge of the campaign. It is a recipe for disaster, as William of Narbonne is a vindictive and ambitious leader. Expelled from the Viscounty of Narbonne after the Spanish conquest, he has over the years developed an intense and unremitting hatred for the Catalans and their countrymen. At first, the campaign proceeds as planned, with amicable relations among the ranks of the crusaders. The French troops participate in several battles alongside the Tripolitanians and their allies, supported by the French navy under Louis de Culant. Eventually, however, tensions between Spanish and French forces reach a boiling point. After a skirmish in which several Frenchmen are wounded, the French end up abandoning the crusade and quitting Africa. They land in Sardinia, reinforced by 2,000 hired men, mainly Genoese crossbowmen as well as various Ligurians, French, and Italians. The landing is tenuously based on an ancient familial claim held by William of Narbonne over the Judicate of Arborea, although the old titles of Sardinia fell out of use more than fifty years ago. Still, William pursues it to the fullest extent, even attempting to incite rebellion among the people of Sardinia and Corsica against their Catalan overlords, promising fair rule and generous autonomy should he be elected Judge in Arborea. This would coincide with the ongoing revolt in Malta as part of a general anti-Catalan sentiment in the Mediterranean. (Mod Response) The arrival of William of Narbonne fails to garner significant support in Sardinia, so he relocates to Corsica, where the reception is warmer. William decides to commit fully to the Corsican rebellion, seeing it as an opportunity to unseat the Aragonese governors and liberate the island from Spanish aristocracy. He moves his forces to Ajaccio, and places his support behind the anti-aristocratic popolari movement. On the continent, the king increases the power of the seneschals as governors of the royal territories, which has the effect of consolidating the royal domain and blurring traditional provincial boundaries. The House of Bourbon continues expanding thanks to the efforts of John I, who is simultaneously Duke of Bourbon, Dauphin of Auvergne, Count of Clermont and Count of Forez. The Duchy and County of Auvergne continues to be ruled by the House of Bruce. Rather than wait for royal aid in Brittany, Olivier of Penthièvre decides to take matters into his own hands. He invites John the Wise, Duke of Brittany, to a party at Champtoceaux. Presumably an olive branch extended in the wake of the Treaty of Aurillac, the invitation is actually a secret plot hatched by the Penthièvre family (Olivier, his mother Margaret de Clisson, and brothers Charles, William and John) to kidnap the Montfortist duke and force him to surrender his title. (Mod Response).
    • Mod Diplomacy: True to his epithet, John the Wise suspects foul play and does not fall for the trap.
    • French Diplomacy to Wales: The Kingdom of France vehemently opposes the claim of Richard Plantagenet to the throne of Wales. Instead, they support Maredudd ab Owain Glyndŵr, grandson of Blessed Owain Lawgoch, as the legitimate candidate and true Prince of Wales.
    • Mod Diplomacy: A minority of lords in Wales is willing to support Maredudd.
    • Mod response: The French influence lends support to some rebels, mostly in Corsica.
  • Wattasid Kingdom: Having the rumor of Tripolitania we currently sue them and banned the merchants who are coming from the law show up that killing Afro-Islamic people isn't good under in Islamic state and crusade Abu force that he claim whose he face to those state and demand to have immigration in his kingdom were good Afro-Islamic people. Anyway, a large adventure in the desert showup the sub-African people pay to tribes and exchange in commonly development and Abu himself continue to work and have good relation with Mali we currently still colonize some unknown place in our Sahara and control them in our limit thus so far were spend so much money and exchange at in our community into shrinking from our law he go against a rival trade with the kingdom of Tlecemen who face who's strong or whatever of this we currrently pay some hardworking Europeans in the Sahara and pay ships among to cross in the altantic's coast island and have much power colonies on other word is continue well with the law and most of Christians are in class of whose pay to the tribes and survive their community as along they don't suffer much nowaday new merchants came out were currently selling ships to them and send supplies to come at their home and decides to take matter from argeement were sent some forces of 12,000 to conquer more pagan berber kingdom and turn out as a kingdom-independent in our client from more vassal to surrender's Abu reign and we finally search the West Africans desert to pay to them and an exchange of foods the development as reach out some new population and Abu has an anti-pagan in his goal due the law's Islamic at in Nekor is become a huge top class trade again including with the seaport colony as the vivzer they can only control the limit of Abu's demand and size of the desert we also built more fortifications the Moroccan's journey has been well great in his avenue around the West African coast some of factories are establish and being built by West-Afro-Berber while the Saharan crossing remained long and treacherous most of towns are being converted to Islam and in Exadala is become a sub-Aahara West African one from merchants come from Mali and Ghana, etc. Abu himself' enjoy with Mansa's cousin and a good joy by the way Abu face himself to alomhad's ruler and search his own goal lost idriss empire in longest Africa the suq (Market) found in almost in almost every tribal territory of sufficient size and named both for the day of the week and every persons has been occupied from agriculture and exchange supplies Abu by the way has attempt to capture Asilah and their military success contrast with the Wattasid policy of conciliation toward the Catholic kings to the north and the Wattasid did some improve general condition in Morocco' it was necessary to wait to establish more colony in the seaport's limit and the vizier could manage the power we also do more development's in stage and built fortifications to modernising the states and colony we also establish a crew called as The Sahara Desert crew's goal is to search more merchants and West Africans supporter to go in our crew and have more supplies from production and agricole also exchange in interest's commerce the founder would be by the name of 'Abdullah' as the leader and his own sub-Africans people to go in West Africa and gain more production to have exchange and establish the greatest's life in our nation and have more money in interest and making improvement in our country and have West African merchants in the nation to had interest relation, etc. (Mod reponse).
    • I don't know what you are asking, I'm sorry.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: Duke Phillip III the Good agrees to the Scottish proposals, selling his entire navy to them at a very low price, now that its completely useless, since he gave up his territorries with access to the sea, becoming a landlocked nation, as well as gives his 11-year-old only child, his daughter, Anne of Burgundy-Valois to the Scottish heir, Edward Bruce for betrothal.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: Samphraya continues to support the spread of Theravada Buddhism across Ayutthaya by patronizing the efforts of monks to spread the religion. It is this year that Samphraya marries the daughter of the King of Sukhothai, Maha Tammaraja IV, in a lavish ceremony held in the capital with the attendance of nobles and administrators from across Ayutthaya. The King continues to support the development road networks and irrigation across the Kingdom. Builders and engineers are also ordered to erect fortifications along the Chao Phraya, Lopburi, and Pasak river in order to fortify the city's strategic position better. With his rise to the Kingship, Samphraya appoints a trustworthy official to manage his former city and its surrounding lands as his attention is now focused on governing the Kingdom. Portions of the Capital Defense Corps are dispatched to the borders of the Khmer Kingdom in order continue the raids against it to secure resources and manpower from the Khmer. With the establishment of the Japanese Trade Post, Ayutthayan officials have selected a someone by the name of Ikeda Hisoka to serve as the representative and chief for the Japanese residents of the quarter.
  • Kingdom of Hungary and Dalmatia: the King is dead, long live the King! Stephen VII dies peacefully in his sleep at age 74, giving succession to his son Vilmos I, aged 33. As his father has not addressed the Orthodox-Catholic tensions yet (as there was no need), Vilmos makes clear that Hungary will stay a catholic nation. However, the Romanians and Ruthenians in Hungary and its vassals are free to worship as Orthodox, and the good relations with Byzantium will not be affected by the warmongers in Venice. A letter is sent to the Doge of Venice, to immediately halt the war against Byzantium, or Hungary has to intervene “via the land route” (VENICE/MOD RESPONSE NEEDED). Furthermore, the Pope is addressed to call for peace and to stop the bloodshed, fueled by the Venetian greed, wrath and lust for murder (POPE RESPONSE, PLEASE). In the vassal republic of Ragusa, meanwhile, the Tiepolo have begun to concrete their grip over the city once and for all, with Giuseppe Dandolo shifting his family to the governing of Dalmatia. In the city, the trade flourishes, and the streamlining of ship production slowly begins to take hold.
  • Roman Empire: The Latins are offered a peace deal in return for the 50,000 Silver Marks illegally stolen from Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade. In addition, a 15-year truce if offered and a mutual defense pact against the Turks in Anatolia. (Latin Response). Outnumbered at sea, Alexander Tagaris offers a potential solution to the impasse with Venice. He will march an army through Bulgaria, Serbia, and Hungary to Italy, where he will secure Venice’s territories in northern Italy, turning Florence against the Venetians, and eventually installing John Jacob of Montferrat as ruler over the majority of the Venetian lands. Envoys are thus sent by land to the Patriarch of Aquileia, John Jacob of Montferrat, and the Florentine Republic asking for support when the Roman army arrives.  Aquileia is asked only for permission to pass under the gaurantee that all church property in Italia will be respected and that a portion of the spoils of Venice shall be donated to the Patriarch. (Three Mod Responses Please) Thus, Alexander Tagaris begins a major trek to Venice and Basileus Herodotus determines to join his general in the great march. He takes advantage of Byzantine merchant rights on the Danube, using them to quickly transit to the Hungarian city of Pécs from which they begin a month long march to Treviso which will be put to siege. However, before beginning the siege, the Roman Army of 25,000 men, including 5,000 heavy lancers, 5,000 light lancers, and 15,000 infantry split evenly between Ankistróploi and Pikemen, parades before the city. A messenger is sent to the city councils of Treviso, Verona, Brescia, Mantua, Bologna, and Modena offering them autonomy and freedom form Venice's domination if they surrender, agree to accept John Jacob Palaiologos as their overlord, and contribute 2,000 men each to the Roman Army. (Mod Response). Those cities that refuse will be put to siege in order of proximity.(Algo if needed) The first to refuse will be put to siege and the rest spared temporarily at least. As the Roman Army enters Italy, Basileus Herodotus leads the grand Roman Army, wielding a Roman standard topped with a solid gold two-headed eagle. Meanwhile, the Roman Army in Anatolia, numbering some 10,000 is garrisoned in Constantinople as the city continues to churn out more ships. Venetian technology is adapted and simplified when possible. With Venetian holdings in Crimea holding on by a thread the small army there is reinforced with new levies, returning its strength to 4,000 men. Siege equipment is brought in and it goes on the attack once more, this time relying on its range advantage in cannons and Ankistróploi. The Venetian defensives are pounded for months on end in a grueling siege which culminates in an mass assault against any breaches in the wall. (Algo Needed) During the siege the Trebizond, Theodoro, and Dobruja’s navies are all brought to join a combined naval force of more than 350 ships. Under the command of Demetrios Laskaris Leontares and his son John Laskaris Leontares, the fleet of 350 ships sets sail from Constantinople to end the siege of Rhodes. The fleet hopes to catch the Venetian fleet sieging the city in harbor without time to re-mebark all of their fighting men and sailors. Hopefully, the Roman fleet can then crush or capture a large number of Venetian ships before they can fully respond. (Algo Needed)
    • Latin Empire: We accept the terms and are delighted that our nation can get out of this pointless war. We also accept the truce and the defense pact.
  • Papal States: Pope Martin V is enraged and terrified with the actions of the Greeks from Byzantium. However, rather than taking revenge the pontiff says that we can't pay evil with evil. The news of Greek troops marching to Italy leave the pope and the curia concerned and they blame Venice and their unlimited greed for bringing digrace and war to Italy. The pope orders that Rome be prepared for a siege in case of the Greek army coming there. The construction of the Alexandrine Gardens in the Vatican continues. The plants that were collected are planted in a temporary place, until the garden is finished. A letter is sent to the Kingdom of Ethiopia, asking for exotic plants from the nation [Ethiopian response needed, please]. The ideas of Pierre d'Ailly continue to grow in approval in the Roman curia and Pope Martin V search ways of how apply it to the Church. Leonardo Da Nacho, Headmaster of Saint Augustine's University, continues to act as a father to Ari VI and the boy start to be tutored by professors of the University. Miracles continue to be reported of happening around Sister Anna Forti, but she deny these miracles and stay more of the time praying alone. Ari Sturlungur continues to write about the Virgin Mary and her place in the Economy of Salvation. His writings focus mainly in her perpetual virginity, about she being the Mother of God and her Immaculate Conception. He started to teach at Saint Augustine's University. During his classes, he talks about his ideas and conclusions about the Virgin Mary and encourages the study of the works of John Duns Scotus. Due to this, he clashes with the Dominican friar Aloisio Cattaneo that is also a professor in the University. Friar Cattaneo criticizes Ari's works about the Immaculate Conception and defends the position of Saint Thomas Aquinas that rejectes the Immaculate Conception, saying if the Virgin Mary had been sanctified before her conception, she would not have needed the redemption of Christ concluding that "Blessed Virgin was sanctified after animation". Is common to see Friar Cattaneo and Ari Sturlungur arguing with each other in the halls of Saint Augustine's University.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles, Tripolitana and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number.
  • Kingdom of Scotland: The former king, Robert II of Scotland, dies this year at the age of 75. His son, now growing weary of his own kingship, decides to pull a similar move as that his father did, and abdicate in favor of his son, Edward Bruce, who is married to Anne of Burgundy-Valois this year to much acclaim. With the purchase of the majority of the Burgundian navy this year, we bring it to Scotland’s shores and, together with our own huge fleet, Attack the Scandinavian fleet in a massive naval engagement of the coast of Iceland, in which we massively outnumber them. (ALGORITHM NEEDED). Meanwhile, when we hear what is happening in Wales, we state that we are baffled by the idea, pointing out that Maredudd ab Owain Glyndŵr, grandson of the famous Welsh hero, has both a better claim and isn’t a member of the former royal family of England, who had been oppressing them just a few years earlier and whom they had only just fought of. We also ask our claimant to the throne, the Duke of Gwynned William Bruce (not the same as the new king) to support him, which he does. MOD RESPONSE NEEDED)
  • Swiss Confederacy: The 4,000 Swiss mercenaries pledged to aid Iceland remain with the forces of King David III of Scotland as the Scandinavians have created a naval blockade around Iceland. Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg continues to urge Gustav, Count of Savoy to contribute troops to this effort as Gustav is King Domnhall II of Iceland's son. (Mod response) He also writes to Pope Martin V, asking him to give dispensation for the marriage of Gustav of Savoy and Margaret of Gorizia, third cousins once removed. (Papal response) As new instability arises in Wales, Ulrich VII's son and heir Friedrich (b. 1403) takes an increasing interest in the affairs of the homeland of his mother, the late Constance of York. After discussions with Friedrich, Ulrich VII writes to Constance's nephew, the young Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and proposes to arrange a marriage between Richard (b. 1411, OTL married ~1429) and Antonia of Württemberg (b. 1407), the daughter of Ulrich's sister Margaret von Lenzburg (this would not be an incestuous marriage as Antonia is not descended from Constance). (Mod response) Friedrich, who briefly visits Britain while the Swiss mercenaries wait there because of the naval blockade of Iceland, also takes an interest in another major English noble family, the House of Beaufort. He writes to John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, and proposes to arrange a marriage between John's younger brother Edmund Beaufort (b. 1406, OTL married ~1431) and Friedrich's sister Elizabeth von Lenzburg (b. 1407). (Mod response) While the Swiss mercenaries in Scotland essentially remain idle while the naval fleet of King David III of Scotland engages the Scandinavian blockade of Iceland, the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy focuses on improving the fortifications of the city of Schwyz, where the Central Council is convened. The bishops of the Swiss Confederacy jointly publicly criticise the fact that the Orthodox Byzantine Emperor collaborated with Muslims from the Hafsid Sultanate against Catholics, and urge other Catholic nations to contribute to the effort against them. The Central Council, however, cannot contribute any troops to this conflict at the moment due to the ongoing defence of Iceland and thus takes a neutral position. Domestically, the government works on improving food storage in the major cities of the nation to make the food supply more resistant to famines, and as part of this imports salt. Catherine von Lenzburg and Louis I, Landgrave of Hesse have their second child, a daughter named Anna (b. 1425). Later in the year, Henry de la Marck and Blanche of Geneva-Lenzburg have their second child, a son named Wenceslaus (b. 1425) in honour of Henry's brother and grandfather with the same name. In debates about chess between local nobles in Switzerland, they increasingly begin to refer to "Zürich chess" and "Bern chess" after the libraries who created the two competing rulebooks of the game. This also causes a relative resurgence in popularity of the "short assize" setup of Bern chess, which had originally been popular in the 12th and 13th centuries.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Martin V allows the marriage.
    • Richard Plantagenet and Edmund Beaufort accepts the marriage.
  • Kingdom of lotharingia: "Were Di": The Lotharingian era of rebuilding and exploration has started, as now money is able to be spend on improving the nation. The Government building new dams and giving low interest loans to improve shipyards, city defences, roads. A sign of this new Lotharingian age is Jan van Eyck and Robert van Campin, two renowned artists from Lotharingia. Many nobles in Lotharingia and outside desiring Lotharingian desiring Paintings from the brothers van Eyck, as their paintings are equal as the painting of those made in italy. While in Africa the "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" continues her trade with the "Manden Kurufaba" this nation being refered to as "Ryk des Musa", this name referring to the Ruler of the Empire. Names of cities being often writen in a lot of different ways, this being dependent on the translation and the specific spelling a person wishes to use. As both Arab, Manding and Franconian are not standardised languages, the "KWAC" having people who speak Flemish, Brabantian, Limbourgish and even Frissian and Holandic. In the south and the outermost west there even being people who speak Frankish languages and dialects such as: Walloon, Chtimi, Champenois and Loraine, Walloon being the dialect most widely used of the Frankish languages by the Realm Lotharingia being know as "Rweyåme di Loran": Language's being Plenty in Lotharingia as there are even couple of islands that speak English, although Local variants of Norman are spoken more often on the Channel islands. 
  • Hafsid dynasty: Inspired by the former Almohad Caliphate and the long-lost Achaemenid Empire, architectural design is borrowed in pursuit of a more heavenly scene in the Ifriqiya Caliphate. Caliph Abu al-Aziz II envisions a "Great" Mosque, so great that he puts aside construction for one in تونس‎ (Tunis) [OTL Çelebi Sultan Mehmed Mosque]. Defenses begin built along the Hafsid-Tripolitania border, with specific fortresses being built in قابس (Gabes) and الجديدة (Matmata). The construction of the كلية الفنون الجميلة (Academy of Fine Arts) in تونس‎ (Tunis) is finished, increasing the number of produced arts and literature available. Illuminated manuscripts, specifically surrounding Islamic mysticism, have become more popular as a result. Other institutions, such as the أكاديمية الرياضيات (Academy of Arithmetic) and the أكاديمية العلوم وعلم الكونيات (Academy of Science and Cosmology) are finished this year, harboring forms of intellectual discussion and discovery. Spies in Tripolitania continue to stir discontent among the Muslim population. Following in the way of Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz of Béjaïa, Caliph Abu al-Aziz II continues his ban on Tripolitanian merchants in Tunis and the cities under Hafsid rule. Other Christian merchants continue to be allowed, although with a slightly higher tax on goods. The Caliph declares the Allamid victory against the crusader heretics of Tripolitania as "proof that Muslims will once again rise and defeat their enemies". Piracy continues to cease until late in the year where it resumes with more strategic timing and with overwhelming forces attacking civilian ships for slaves and military ships for munitions. The Venetian ship captured at Corfu is studied, with the slaves captured at the shipbuilding yard serving as technical help in its reproduction. 20 Venetian-like galleys are expected to enter the waves by 1430 and 50 total by 1445.
    • Kingdom of Bgayet: Urban expansion is done in Béjaïa, as it continues to flourish with merchants. Under provisions of Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz of the Allamid dynasty and with the recent influx of Christian merchants has allowed for large economic propects. Inspired by ancient Greco-Roman and Umayyad architecure, the mosques are built in these provided architectural designs, as well as high-end luxury palaces. Under the recent vassalized status of Bgayet, the idea of attacks from inferior forces has set in further after rumors of Afro-Islamic genocide going on in Tripolitania. Although still allowing Christian merchants as it is needed for the economy to remain, Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz believes it will be not coming with a prepared declaration. The ban on Tripolitanian merchants from entering port cities continues, as Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz continues to isolate Tripolitania from the markets of Ifriqiya while other Christian merchants continue to be traded with. Other Christian merchants continue to be allowed, although with a slightly higher tax on goods. Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz dies this year, being succeeded by his eldest son, Ahmed Abdullah, who is crowned as Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz II. After the pirates succeed in defending against Tripolitanian invaders, they are moved to تونس‎ (Tunis) before any further forces arrive to destroy the ships. After a number of long months of no berber pirate activity, once the immediate tensions have dissipated anyways, Sultan al-Aziz II of Béjaïa decides that his father's worries were essentially resolved with the defeat of Tripolitania's ships prior in the year, seeing the victory as putting themselves on higher ground than the Crusaders of Libya. With this, most of the pirates of the Allamid are transferred to the Hafsid while focuses are placed moreso on the land armies in the capital and surrounding cities, although some ships and pirates do still exist in small capacities nearly invisible to the neighboring crusader nations.
  • Empire of Japan: The establishment of the Trade post in the Capital city of Ayyutuhaya, brings another serious trade opportunity into the fold. The Imperial Zaibatsu based around Kyoto and Osaka capitalize on this sending 30 representatives to begin developing the direct trade relationships in the region. The status of Japan as a growing trade power has become apparent over the last 30 or so years. The streamlining and solidification of its trade blocs by the Zaibatsu and lesser trade guilds has given a more focused process to the idea of trade. Cross zone middlemanning becomes rampant as the various zaibatsu are able to use their range in trade and their vast assets to effectively communicate and secure highly lucrative deals of rich or exotic goods. Japanese traders having forged a bevy of profitable relationships, the interactions between the Zaibatsu connecting these relationships across vast distances seems to have been a missing key in the Japanese trade network. Not seeking to contrain them, and thinking that a lesser tax rate might simply increase overall tax by the increase in total funds comming into the country by trade, Emperor Kenzo lightens the tax burdens on the Zaibatsu and trade guilds hoping to stimulate the growth further. The province of hanka proper is renamed to the Province of South Manzhuguo reflecting the proper name of the region and by one account of the Governor "I simply liked the other name better." Manzhu has continued to grow steadily in the last few decades with Aimoi having grown in a city worthy of Japan. Boasting a population of 50,000 with nearly 15,000 of these being permanent Chinese and Korean residents taking advantage of the highly favorable trade conditions comming out of this port heading towards the rest of the empire. A multitude of villages and towns have continued to expand or crop up around the province as well as a few more expanding into the Amuraji frontier region. Amuraji has become on its own a hardy and growing city albeit small. With 10,000 inhabitants many of them Manchu or Japanese, the city remains a major hub for the fur trade heading from the northern ranging lands back down to Aimoi via the Ussuri river branch of the Amur river. The settlement of the Manchus has become more noticeable as well. From the Manchu Khanate in the north to the Manchu reserve lands in the south, their own settled villages and towns having been springing up as well with hundreds if not thousands flocking to these settlements expanding on their previous towns. It almost seems as some of the tribes are on the verge of establishing cities within their reserve territories and internal trade between these towns increases to the various Japanese cities and towns. The border forts with Korea are upkept to prevent another Manzhu border conflict with the army establishing checkpoints on the most used border crossings in order to keep a closer look on any possible future invasion. This sees the gaps in the border forts plugged up with differing fortifications as well as new watchtowers which would alert the main army at the military towns, as well as a swift rider system established to warn the Aimoi Imperial Garrison which due to the short distance would be able to mutually support the Border garrisons. Further development of the daimyo outposts along the Kamcha sea coast continues with these points turning into wintering locations for many of the fur ranging parties pushing into the north. An island off the coast of the Manchu Khanate is claimed and a small outpost is established for further surveyors and explorers to chart the island. The settlement of Kowa also begins to expand and claim land to the south of the settlement needing more available lumber as well as a new stopping and supply post for fishermen, fur rangers, and whalers. The Intnernal politics of the Daimyo grow ever more complex with the standard and usual ideas had to combat eachother such as outright open conflict being cast to the wayside or left as a last resort as more espionage and subversive activity is employed to get what they want. Emperor Kenzo is forced to respond this year to a series of Daimyo having managed to hire a force of 5000 Ronin to stake claim to lands within the Imperial territories specifically in the Capital region. Kenzo approached the Ninja clans of the Kenpeitai. He requests that they obliterate these upstarts and cause the risen ronin to disperse. In a quick and silent operation the 4 rebellious daimyo are killed the same night before their planned march to Kyoto and the rebellious army is dispelled without a shot being fired. It is surprising however, Emperor Kenzo's reputation as a result of quickly and quietly handling the situation before it even got out to the public is admired, and also feared. A Competent emperor with the loyalty of the ninja clans is a potent and clear threat.. and with a potentially large imperial army, it effectively negates much of the potential power the nobility might be able to wield against the emperor to maintain their rights and privaledges. The Emperor authorizes the expansion of the navy and invest a serious sum from the Imperial treasury. The new ships known simply as the Osaka Greatships similar in size and power to Zheng He's war junks are produced heavily replacing the Great Atakabune (my prior heavies) as the primary heavy seagoing ship holding more cannons and manpower with their other variants allowing for higher trade and transport volume. Nearly 100 of these ships have been built and the Great Atakabune are somewhat stripped and used more for heavy shock tactics and not maintained to fight a long drawn out conflict without support ships. 
  • Empire of Ethiopia: The Emperor Tewodros, along with the Patriarch of Alexandria, hosts the first Ethiopian ecumenical council, inspired by the ecumenical councils of Europe. The Council consists of 40 high ranking priests and monks of the Order of St. Anthony, mostly Ethiopians, and 40 high ranking monks of the Order of St. Laurentius, mostly Somalis. The Council is called to resolve both issues of secular and theological importance, as they must decide whether Laurentius is actually a Saint and whether the Order of St. Laurentius will retain dominion over Ajuran. The Council debates for several months, with both sides arguing their cases. The Antonines argues that Laurentius is not a Saint, as his miracles were not real, and thus the Order of St. Laurentius is a false monastic order. The Laurentiuns argue that Laurentius is a Saint, as he died for Christ and is responsible for a number of miracles. The Patriarch of Alexandria, after hearing both sides debate, finally makes a ruling. He declares that Laurentius is a Saint, and as such the Order of St. Laurentius is legitimate. However, he states that Laurentius is still not as divine as St. Anthony, and thus the Order of St. Anthony will hold dominion over Ethiopia. However the Pope also explicitly states the Order of St. Laurentius shall maintain itself in Ajuran. This compromise is meant to placate both sides, and leaves the Order of St. Anthony as the preeminent monastic order in Ethiopia while leaving the Order of St. Laurentius as the de facto monastic order in Ajuran. Satisfied by the compromise, the monks of both Orders return to their respective monasteries, and the Emperor sends riders throughout Ajuran to read the Pope’s decree, helping to quell the religious unrest there and restoring order in Ajuran. Construction of large estates across Ethiopia continues as merchants continue to develop their own lands.  
  • Dai Viet: The Emperor orders the development of irrigation across the country. The production of agriculture and handicraft products are still steadily increasing, as with the increase in trading as allowed our economy to continue boosting and recovering from the war. We are repairing the infrastructure and roads damaged during the war. Ships are still being constructed annually. We have sent our navy to deal with pirates raging in the Eastern sea. As the economy has improved the Emperor decides to raise up taxes a bit in order to get more money for the government budget. The Emperor sends an envoy to Lan Xang kingdom, bringing gifts and offer to set up an alliance. [MOD RESPONSE].
    • Lang Xang agrees to ally with Dai Viet.
  • Tripolitania: The war against Bgayet continues after our naval victory and a small beach-head having been established outside of Béjaïa. This year, we focus on landing all of our forces onto the beach and countering any raiding activity by the pirate nation. The troops of Spain and France, while hostile, are kept in order for just enough time to launch a major attack on Béjaïa troops, where we engage in a large battle (ALGO). Toward the end of the year, with about 22,000 men remaining in the country - after most Frenchmen have left - we begin to establish a siege position around Béjaïa - a siege which is anticipated to last many years, but will certainly end with a Tripolitanian victory. Domestically, the men who were left behind are on high alert and prepare fortifications along the Hafsid border just in case.
  • Spanish Empire: with the absolute idiocracy of the French issuing thir ships to enter the Mediteranean, their ships are locked off from Gibraltar and furthermore any that do pass are quickly harassed by the Spanish Armada as the Mediteranean is left under high alert. In any case, our ally Milan is also made aware of the situation and 6,000 men are deployed to Sardinia with another 5,000 to Malta to put down the rebellions there promising land to Hispanic Sicilians, Castilians, and Catalan Soldiers and their families at the end of the conflict. Meanwhile, important areas such as Beziers and elsewhere in the Spanish Lanquedoc are put under defensive infrastructural funding in order to fortify the region. King Francis III decides to leave Commander Dante de Catania in Charge of the Tripolitanian Forces as he focuses alongside Rodrigo in assurance and Security of the Mediteranean. Hispanic Writers such as Alejandro de Syracuse come to prominance as the King, a man of the arts and writing issues his works of writing to be made in Hispanic.

1426

King John III of England attempts a renewed campaign in France to secure his holdings in Brittany. 18,000 troops land in Saint-Malo with 18 warships and 32 transports, then march from there against Rennes. 7,000 other troops are left in Cornwall as reserves to keep the logistics stable. Parliament says to King William that they are willing to relinquish claims on all of England's continental posessions if Brittany alone is retained.

The Patriarch of Aquiela flatly denies the Byantine request of passage, and the pressence of 25,000 Orthodox troops at the border of Italy sends alarms across the Catholic world, confirming their worst fears of the ambitions of Emperor Herodotus. Byzantium's local supporters in Italy of Montferrat is compelled to remain neuteral out of fear of their neighbors. The political reputation of Emperor Marcus falls as he is painted as an Orthodox puppet to allow Italy to come under such threat. Still, with the Latin Empire pulling out of the war Venice opts for the offer of white peace antebellum presented by the Byzantines.

The Majapahit Empire falls into a civil conflict that affects most of their empire. Bhre Mangkunegara Wirabhumi (b. 1402, ATL character) launches a revolt in southern Java in support of his claim to the title of Blambagan, assumed from his father's inheritence since a generation earlier. Many nobles of the Eastern Court of Java supports his claim and threatens the nation with a civil war.

In capitalizing on this conflict in Java, local Muslim communities launch sporadic revolts that attempt to establish Sultanates in Jambi and Malacca. The Sultanate of Brunei, at this point, supports these efforts and reveals that they had been secretly Muslim for quite some time now. This puts a hault on Majapahit's involvement in the Tondo conflict.

Following up the revolt of the Maltese people, the island of Corsica also revolts, which is also supported heavily by the Republic of Milan working at restoring Italian administration to the island. Milan also dispatches their navy to begin giving direct support to the island of Malta.

Stephen the Tall completes his conquest reaching the Adriatic Sea, annexing the Kingdom of Bosnia.

Although not directly involved, the political interference of Scotland and France has caused some local disruption in Wales. The majority of lords have accepted Richard Plantagenet as the Prince, but local nobles in Pembrokeshire have staged a revolt in support of Maredudd ab Owain. Richard raises military of his own demesne to put down the dissonance.

Sultan Abu Muslim of Egypt launches an attack against Cyprus, raiding the coast of the island and fighting back against King Janus.

While waiting on the success of the campaign against Iceland, King Valdemar V of Denmark expresses that he wishes to seek a bride among the noble houses of Europe.

After the death of Jan Franz, the Taborite community in Lothairingia is generally smaller and disorganized, but still manages to thrive.

In China, eunuchs manage to have the largest and most influential offices in the imperial court, establishing their own secret police of the palace staff.

  • Roman Empire: Disappointed by the Italian State's surprising unity in opposing a force of Orthodox and Catholic soldiers trying to sack Venice, the army turns south to Hungarian Croatia. A major attack is prepared against Zadar, Sebenico, and Splento. The cities are offered a chance to surrender their Venetian garrisons as prisoners and submit as Vassals to the Roman Empire or be conquered (Mod responses/Algos Needed) Having barely beaten Venice at sea, the Roman Fleet returns to Constantinople having left a large amount of supplies for the defenders of Rhodes. Ships are rebuilt, repaired, and upgraded at the highest possible pace. With Venetian holdings in Crimea holding on by a bare string the small army there is reinforced with new levies, returning its strength to 4,000 men. The Venetian defensives are pounded relentlessly again for months on end in a grueling siege which culminates in an mass assault against any breaches in the wall. (Algo Needed Again).
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: King Samphraya has declared war on the Khmer Kingdom raising his levy of 30,000 men along with elephants and marching them towards the decaying city of Angkor. The army is split between two groups one of which is directly under Samphraya's direction with the other under a trusted General. The army approaches Angkor by the many roads taking care to use light detachments of troops to confuse the enemy on the road he is taking to approach the city. Upon arrival at the city, the troops dig in and set up fortifications in preparation for the coming siege as well as establishing proper latrines long with sanitation efforts. Attacks are organized in waves with the first wave consisting the most heavily armored troops who are to approach the walled portions of the city under the cover of shields and armor and place barrels of gunpowder at the base of the walls. Archers and ballistas mounted on war elephants are ordered to fire from behind the 1st waves in order to provide them with cover from the city's garrison. Siege engines are also constructed to besiege the city from across the moat and contribute to the task of proving cover for the 1st wave. As soon as the first wav withdraws, archers are to begin firing fire arrows at the barrels. If the walls are breached, a second wave is dispatched headed by armoured elephants armed with metal tipped tusk and armor flanked by levy troops into the city to secure it with the troops of the first wave being withdrawn to recuperate before being redeployed into the city as a rear guard for the bulk of the troops (Mod Response/Algo, note: strategy is written above). With the war effort well underway, the wife of Samphraya, Maha serves as regent within the capital of Ayutthaya and continues her husbands policies of support Therevada Buddhism as well as infrastructure development from irrigation to road maintenance. The construction of fortifications along the rivers around Ayutthaya are halted as the engineers assigned to them have travelled to the frontlines to participate in the siege of Angkor. She contacts her father in Sukhothai about acquiring officers who are products of Sukhothai's superior military tradition. Farmers are ordered to contribute more to the government in order to support the war effort affecting profits but with more than enough for them to feed their families.
  • Kingdom of France: Brittany is literally up in arms over the English invasion. As soon as he hears about the landing, Olivier of Penthièvre brings his army of 6,000 into the Pays de Saint-Malo and pursues the English army to Rennes. He is joined at Rennes by his brother Charles, who commands a force of 4,000. Bernard VII of Armagnac, Constable of France, raises an army of 14,000 and marches to Rennes in support of the Penthièvre brothers. Unfortunately, nothing could be done to stop the invasion by sea. France's navy was in the Mediterranean for the crusade, and the merchant fleets could not be scrambled in time to contest the landing. Once the news reaches Admiral Louis de Culant, he decides to move half his ships out of the Mediterranean, leaving a sizable fleet to William II of Narbonne. De Culant is ambushed by a Spanish patrol in the Strait of Gibraltar. The admiral decides to engage them, relying on his concentrated ship numbers and favorable winds. (algo) Should he win, De Culant's fleet will be quickly deployed to the English Channel, preventing any reinforcements from ferrying across. William II of Narbonne meets with representatives of Milan in Corsica, where he tries to forge an alliance and an agreement over the future of the island, taking the interests of both the Milanese and the Corsicans into account as a sort of compromise. Most importantly, the deal would reject the authority of the Spanish and dismantle their aristocracy on the island. Under the new system, civil governance would be led by the Corsican popolari, while Milan would have jurisdiction over money and trade, and France would guarantee military protection. (Mod Response) After negotiations conclude, William of Narbonne prepares to sail back to France via the long route, having been recalled by the king himself. On approach to the Strait of Gibraltar, however, he finds the way blocked by hostile ships bearing the flag of Spain. William hastily turns around, and, with the Spanish armada in hot pursuit, returns to Corsica. From there, he decides to reach France by alternative means. He lands at Narbonne, his own fiefdom, with an army of 11,000 and a plea to not only the city and viscounty of Narbonne, but to all the cities and counties of the Languedoc, to switch their allegiance and rise up against the Spanish occupiers. (Mod Response) Envoys arrive in the Swiss Confederacy with a request from the king to reopen relations on better footing. Another delegation visits the Kingdom of Arles with a similar request. In Paris, Queen Marie gives birth to a baby boy named John, but he dies a few hours later. Joan of Arc speaks about the English invasion, considering it a predictable symptom of being too soft on England by allowing them to keep land in France. The king shares that sentiment, and decides to reject the offer of the English parliament. The reasoning behind this decision has been the successful campaigns of Olivier de Penthièvre, which cannot be ignored, as well as the failure of the Montfortist duke in Brittany to assert independence from English suzerainty. Still, there are some who would rather enjoy reconciliation, and they are not afraid to voice their discontent. Joan of Arc, while popular in her home province, is not universally adored in France. A cadre of men in the royal circle worry about the growing influence of the 14-year-old visionary, believing her to wield an uncanny and undue influence over the king. Noblemen and clergymen alike question her motives, some even calling her a sorceress. Joan remains steadfast in her beliefs throughout this ordeal.
    • The Republic of Milan and the Corsican rebels agrees with Narbonne.
  • Wattasid Kingdom: We're still making more development and raise more population in the kingdom on it were now banning hispanic people due reason just like with tripolitania the ruler of Wattasid has sumbitted to the Almohad dynasty, which was at the time the ruling house and face to the narsids ruler to face the Catholics king of Iberia were making a fortifications in Tangiers to net them and Abu has now searching the long lost empire idriss the berber kingdom (since is was made in the umayyad region OTL) Abu would have intereset to buy tribes slaves and gain exchange of richesse resource and algericas should fall this year according to accounts anyways with the kingdom of tcelemen is got a dispute rival states with Abu's eyes view in Ifriqya and they would send military to intervent with that ongoing dispute and among with the berbers tribes with that the Wattasids has gain an attempt a direct foothold on the European side to gain more progress while the reconquista is still ongoing on the south were welcome al Andalus refuges to tanger and have peace discusion of agreement in Maghreb Muhammad IX of Granada face to Abu in his regardless authorities and tries to forge an multi-states in organization another major route from oran south throught Tlemcen to the oases of the Sahara, and onward to the Western Sudan region to the south, and the city was directly linked to Sijilmasa where the sub-Africans do trade with west African kingdom and merchants from middle east  which served as the main northern hub for the trade routes that crossed the desert to the Western Sudanese markets the city become a huge important one center, with many schools, mosques and palaces, etc., and our colonies as also European trading center (funduk) which connected African and European merchants of what they're did and the new city was fortified by us in both case the Wattasids they were able to hold the region against local resistance (request by Abu, BTW) Tlemcen recovered its trade and its population grew and developing more colony to engage the power of Morocco and is still occupied by us and the point is that from the merchants which had African gold (arriving from south of the Sahara via Sijilmasa or Taghaza) entered the European hands in stage development and which the authorities has pay to the tribes to gain more power and focusing' and the Andalusians had founded in the tenth century to handle the trade with Tahert, came to serve Tlemcen in its trade with Europe. Fez was nearer to Sijilmasa than Tlemcen, but the route via Fez led over the atlas mountains while the route to Tlemcen was easier for the caravans, and continue to trade with merchants from The territory stretched by the Wattasids to gain relation with the zayyanids and such exchange are well ongoing we export miner and gold from merchants we pay tribes and establish high office in the principalities and led an army to control it Tlemecen fear that Abu has a strong facilicate by the bureaucracy and regional gurvenor continue selling and re-selling their allegiance to the highest bidder, Sufi-inspired religious radicals drummed up mobs to seize control of urban centers and take to the field while Abu enjoy with her wife and gain joy as always anyways, were still making development and trades route exchange and anarchy continue to growup in our main society and easily throught investment and privatized the laws regardless the new upgrade and were still making more development and itself the people continue to trade routing from merchants and come cross the south to West Africa (with Mali, etc.) to gain more pay slaves tribes via Sijilmasa to gain more ecomonic development also investing in human capital through quality education, expanding access to drinking water, and linking rural areas to markets through investment in roads and has put in place an ambitious process of legal, policy in Abu's regime and still welcome refuge.
    • Grenada was conquered long ago. Perhaps you mean to support Muslim rebels?
  • Papal States: Due to events involving the Greek armies almost entering Italy, Pope Martin V concludes that the Italian nations aren't prepared to resist such invasion. Then he writes to all independent nations of the Italian Peninsula, saying that Italy nearly suffered a great invasion by the Greeks and that after conquering Venice, they could start attacking the near nations, this way subduing the entire Peninsula. The pontiff says that the desunity is the greatest weak of the Italians. Then he proposes the formation of an alliance between the independent Italian nations. This alliance is to defend Italy from the invasion of non Italian nations that want to expand its influence over the Peninsula. He says that when an external threat arrives, the Italians need to put their diffrences aside and unite to fight against these greater threats [MOD response needed, please]. The construction of the Alexandrine Gardens in the Vatican continues. The plants that were collected are planted in a temporary place, until the garden is finished. A letter is sent to the Kingdom of Ethiopia, asking for exotic plants from the nation [Ethiopian response needed, please]. A letter is also send to Mali, also asking for exotic plants of its lands [Mali response needed, please]. The Holy Father create as cardinals Gaspare Colonna (Papal States) and John Cameron (Scotland). Pope Martin V criticizes France for seeking war against Spain and says that the two should work together to help Tripolitana, which is being threatened by the Muslims. The ideas of Pierre D'Ailly continue to grow in approval in the Roman curia and Pope Martin V search ways of how apply it to the Church. Leonardo Da Nacho, Headmaster of Saint Augustine's University, continues to act as a father to Ari VI and the boy start to be tutored by professors of the University. Ari VI start to show interest for the Order of Divine Mercy. Miracles continue to be reported of happening around Sister Anna Forti, but she deny these miracles and stay more of the time praying alone. The construct of the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Hope continues in Migliarelli and more pilgrims visit this place to pray for graces and miracles. Ari Sturlungur continues to write about the Virgin Mary and her place in the Economy of Salvation. His writings focus mainly in her perpetual virginity, about she being the Mother of God and her Immaculate Conception. He started to teach at Saint Augustine's University. During his classes, he talks about his ideas and conclusions about the Virgin Mary and encourages the study of the works of John Duns Scotus. Due to this, he clashes with the Dominican friar Aloisio Cattaneo that is also a professor in the University. Friar Cattaneo criticizes Ari's works about the Immaculate Conception and defends the position of Saint Thomas Aquinas that rejectes the Immaculate Conception, saying if the Virgin Mary had been sanctified before her conception, she would not have needed the redemption of Christ concluding that "Blessed Virgin was sanctified after animation". Is common to see Friar Cattaneo and Ari Sturlungur arguing with each other in the halls of Saint Augustine's University. In one of these discussions, a fight is started between the supporters of Ari Sturlungur and Friar Cattaneo and three people are sent to the Hospital of Rome due to injuries. To end these discussion, Headmaster Da Nacho writes to Pope Nicholas V asking the pontiff to come the University and watch a debate between Ari Sturlungur and Friar Cattaneo.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles, Tripolitana and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number.
    • Almost all Italian states joins in the Italian League by the Pope against the Orthodox threat, except three: Montferrat, who respects their alliance with the Byzantines and wishes to be neuteral. Florence, who doesn't want to be part of a larger hegemony. And Milan, who refuses to be on the same alliance as Venice.
    • Mali Dip: Merchants from the court of Musa II sends baobab vegetables to the Papal States, which are very common here.
  • Hafsid dynasty: Inspired by the former Almohad Caliphate and the long-lost Achaemenid Empire, architectural design is borrowed in pursuit of a more heavenly scene in the Ifriqiya Caliphate. Caliph Abu al-Aziz II envisions a "Great" Mosque, so great that he puts aside construction for one in تونس‎ (Tunis) [OTL Çelebi Sultan Mehmed Mosque]. Defenses begin built along the Hafsid-Tripolitania border, with specific fortresses being built in قابس (Gabes) and الجديدة (Matmata). The construction of the كلية الفنون الجميلة (Academy of Fine Arts) in تونس‎ (Tunis) is finished, increasing the number of produced arts and literature available. Illuminated manuscripts, specifically surrounding Islamic mysticism, have become more popular as a result. Other institutions, such as the أكاديمية الرياضيات (Academy of Arithmetic) and the أكاديمية العلوم وعلم الكونيات (Academy of Science and Cosmology) are finished this year, harboring forms of intellectual discussion and discovery. Spies in Tripolitania continue to stir discontent among the Muslim population. Following in the way of Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz of Béjaïa, Caliph Abu al-Aziz II continues his ban on Tripolitanian merchants in Tunis and the cities under Hafsid rule. Other Christian merchants continue to be allowed, although with a slightly higher tax on goods. The attack on Bgayet is met with an official decree by Caliph Abu al-Aziz II, stating "Although our state has existed peacefully with the heretic Tripolitania, it seems that the livelihood of a peaceful period has ended with their attack on our ally Béjaïa. In this time, I ask the peoples of this Caliphate to respond with anger as the agreement originally made was tarnished by the Catholics across the Sands. No longer shall we remain idle as we watch them terrorize Muslims in Ifriqiya, this I can assure you." After this speech, Caliph Abu al-Aziz II declares Jihad on Tripolitania, approaching the defensive alliance made with the now Wattasid Kingdom, the Nasr Sultanate, and the Kingdom of Tlemcen for support in finally pushing out the Catholic penetration into the homes of Muslim Africans and Arabians 'alike, 'citing that Tripolitania’s existence is unjustified and therefore, all treaties made with them are null and void, in addition to the fear that once Bgayet is ‘conquered’ they will approach the other nations nearby [Wattasid, Nasr, and Tlemcen Response Needed]. The Muslims that have become discontent in Tripolitania are asked to raise arms against the heretic forces and finally attack Tripoli [Mod Response Needed]. After the preparation of forces surrounding Tripolitania, the combined forces of the Hafsid march towards the city of Gergis, and upon successful siege, are ordered to remain in occupation while the allied forces are waited upon onwards. Hafsid forces number 7,000 [Algo Needed Once They Respond]. It is suggested to the Nasr forces that they march towards Sirte [Algo Needed Once They Respond]. The Hafsid navy begins routinely attacking supply ships in an attempt to cut Tripolitania's naval supply lines.
  • Wattasid Diplomacy: Sultan Abu accept to go with the Hafsid.   
    • Kingdom of Bgayet: Urban expansion is done in Béjaïa, as it continues to flourish with merchants. Under provisions of Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz of the Allamid dynasty and with the recent influx of Christian merchants has allowed for large economic prospects. Inspired by ancient Greco-Roman and Umayyad architecture, the mosques are built in these provided architectural designs, as well as high-end luxury palaces. Under the recent vassalized status of Bgayet, the idea of attacks from inferior forces has set in further after rumors of Afro-Islamic genocide going on in Tripolitania. Although still allowing Christian merchants as it is needed for the economy to remain, Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz believes it will be not coming with a prepared declaration. The ban on Tripolitanian merchants from entering port cities continues, as Sultan Adnaan al-Aziz continues to isolate Tripolitania from the markets of Ifriqiya while other Christian merchants continue to be traded with. Other Christian merchants continue to be allowed, although with a slightly higher tax on goods. Having prepared for this invasion, a force of 7,000 moves to defend against the invading Tripolitanian forces that wish to siege Bgayet, with any aiding Tlemcen and Wattasid supporters being sent to push the crusaders out of Bgayet [Algo Needed Once They Respond].
    • Tlemcen and Egypt both respond positively. However, Egypt is preoccupied with their war on Cyprus and can only send supporting troops on other fronts.
  • Hanseatic League: The Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, along with the mayors of Lauenburg, are outraged at the Duke of the Baltic Duchies attempt to place control over the region. The Pope is petitioned for an annulment in the marriage between the former's son and the latter's daughter. (More to come).
    • Papal diplomacy: After much deliberation and having talked about the matter with the Roman curia, Pope Martin V decides to give the annulment of the marriage.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: After several decades of constant warfare, finally our state begins to flourish once again. Duke Phillip III the Good personally oversees several initiatives that would enable our Duchy to leave these catastrophic conflicts behind it and focus on its bright future ahead. He proceeds to contact several powerful trading guilds and merchants that have either reduced their visits to the embattled region or avoided it altogether in the midst of the conflict. [Mod Response].
  • Iceland: We offer the Scandinavian King the Faroe Islands on top of his former offer. (Response Needed).
    • Add the Orkney Island and the deal is accepted.
    • We accept.
  • Chimu: Chimu and Cuzco form an Economic Alliance. Trades between the two Civilizations begin, as tributes and material exchanges proceed as normal. A long time has passed since the civil war. The Chimunese start to tell tales about the origins of the chimunese, and how the gods created the lands. Legend says the moon goddess created the night, and the sun god created the day. They both combined their space into one land, and according to the legend, that's how the earth was created. There are tales of heroes too, about how a hero defeated a demon, in a remote time, before the civil war, when the civilization was still in its earlier age.
  • Georgia: Areas under Georgian rule began to be referred to, albeit informally, as the “Bagratid Empire”. This term was preferred by many, as it was perceived as politically neutral (ethnic Georgians constituted only one-fifth of the total population; this proportion would be even lower if only those living in historic Georgia were counted). As the continued existence of the Timurid successor states could have jeopardized his status as Shah of Persia, he resumed his conquest of Persia starting with the state of Kerman – culminating in the Battle of Shiraz. Bagrat increased the number of troops serving in the Royal Army – this time, however, these are recruits. The Royal Army now consisted of 15,000 mounted archers, 10,000 lancers, 9,000 arquebusiers – in addition to 1,000 artillerymen and 5,000 royal guards. Asides from his attempt to exert control over the entirety of Greater Iran, Bagrat also tried to legitimize his status by patronizing the arts – miniature, poetry, and calligraphy. Ceramic art also flourished. Potters began to produce blue and white wares, a tin glaze was often applied to approximate the look of porcelain; both of these developments are due to greater interest in Chinese wares. Mesopotamian irrigation systems were restored to revive a moribund agrarian economy and realize the region’s agricultural potential; on the other hand, pastoralism (especially nomadic pastoralism) was discouraged and people who engaged it in were sometimes viewed disparagingly. The relationship between Theodora and Anastasios continued to sour. Both now slept in separate chambers, and Anastasios spent more of his time out of the palace – so much so that many, including Mariam, suspected Anastasios was having an affair. While the accusation proved false, Anastasios did announce his intention to divorce Theodora – this would have been realized (probably to the delight of both) had Mariam not chastise him. Meanwhile, Anastasios’ difficult relationship with Theodora would also spill over to his relationship with Alexander, whom he would come to despise for his attachment to the former. His lacking relationship with his father (and the general lack of a reliable father figure during his youth) would shape Alexander and contribute to the development of his “father hunger” complex. The desire to please his late father would serve as a motivation to success – at least during the initial years of his reign.
    • Battle of Shiraz: 12,000 mounted archers, 10,000 lancers, 4,000 arquebusiers, and 5,000 elite troops are sent, as well as 20 guns (manned by 240 artillerymen). The ranged troops are placed in the center, with every fourth zuut (formation consisting of a hundred men) being arquebusiers, and the rest being archers. The lancers are placed in the flanks and the reserve. Lastly, the command and the royal guard are placed in the rear. If the Timurids attempt to out-flank the Georgians, the attacked wing engages with them – as well as the reserve. The center and the other wing retreat slightly, as to not expose the flank of the attacked side. Once the Timurid attack is repelled, the Georgians would regroup and stabilize their line and then do their counter-attack. The battle starts with an artillery bombardment. This is then followed by massed volley’s, which further decimate enemy troops. The left and right wings then engage with the enemy's left and right wings; they fight in teams of ten men. Once they are annihilated or forced to a rout, the Georgian army advances closer to the enemy – with the center lagging. The left and right wings then charge the exposed enemy flanks; they charge in a wedge formation eight ranks deep, riding knee to knee. Meanwhile, the reserve out-flanks the enemy and attack their rear (they use the hills to mask their movement). Finally, the ranged troops resume volley fire – since they are closer to the enemy, their firepower is greater. The Timurid army is thus encircled from all sides, with their vanguard subject to heavy projectile fire and artillery bombardment, and their flanks and rear under pressure from lancers.
  • Wales: Maredudd ab Owain gains influence, with Irish and native lords backing him. English marcher lords on the other hand, support Richard within the power struggle. However Maredudd uses financial incentives to increase support from the English lords. Additionally request is sent for foreign support to Owain's forces, from Scotland, and other members of the celtic confederacy. Request is also sent to the French ally for support militarily in dealing with the treacherous Richard. (PLAYER RESPONSE.)

Footnotes

Mapa de Borgia XV


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