Mexico (Spanish: México, Nahuatl languages: Mēxihco), officially the United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a country in the southern portion of North America.
It is bordered to the north by United America; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers, Mexico is the fourth largest country in the Americas by total.
The Mexican Revolution brought important political, social and cultural changes. The Revolution itself was marked for several years of political conflict and at best, it can be characterized as an ongoing process that ended approximately in the late 1940s. However, it was not a socialist revolution nor did it mean full democratization and both positions would remain ongoing tensions that continue in present day Mexico.
Mexico was beginning to recover from the destruction and chaos of the Revolution of 1910 when the Great Depression of the 1929-1940 and American Revolution of 1932-1936 hit it. Maneuvering in both crises one of main consequence was the strengthening of the industrialization process promoted by the State and the revolutionary cliques. However, much of it came thru it with the financial, technological help and advice of Socialist America that also moderately integrated both economies.
The American Revolution of 1932-1936 also affected Mexico in its process of normalizing the revolutionary unrest, ending conflicts of the revolutionary generals and cliques and the Maximato (1928 to 1934). At first the presidency of Rodriguez (1932-1934) was cautiously neutral and with limited political maneuvering due to the influence of the Maximato. However, as the conflict begin to spread near the border in California and Texas, military commanders were given orders to take down any militia or unit of the US Army to cross the border. However, public opinion was largely in favor of the leftist revolutionaries and pressure grew in order to help the Red militias. So unofficially refuges and red militias fleeing Blue counter revolutionaries and the US Army, were giving quarter.
Lazaro Cardenas (1934 - 1940, PNR later PRM), under his mandate the oil industry was nationalized and created Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex), as the state oil company. He also revived agrarian reform in Mexico, expropriating large landed estates and distributing land to small holders in collective holdings (ejidos). Helped the American Revolution by sending the FRV. Cardenas nationalized most of the American holdings in mining, manufacturing and chemical industry. Reform and invigorated the Pan-American Unión, began the first Six-Year Plan. Established the State Secretary of Land Reform. Under his mandate, public education was expanded and the conflict with the Church was scaled down.
By 1933 and after the election of Cardenas (1934) did the government started the shift to openly supporting the revolutionaries. Supply lines were established under protection of the Mexican Army. As part of Cardenas’ shaking off the Maximo he opened communications and diplomatic ties with the incipient America Revolutionary Government. It was later officially and legally allowed for any Mexican to go over the border and join the Red Militias.
Many former revolutionaries and Army personal in mass drafted in the Mexican manned militias (Fuerzas Revolucionarias Voluntarias FRV), with most of them participating in the border US States of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California. Most of these FRV were in fact covert units of the Mexican Army. Thought they also functioned as auxiliary support becoming vital in providing intelligence, communications, logistic and medical support for the FRV and the American Red Militias.
The main war theater would be Texas were the fight was over the control of the oil fields and the Gulf Coast. Tough the Mexican Navy was unprepared and under armed to openly engage with the US Navy it provided a vital distraction for the Revolutionaries in the Eastern seaboard.
In 1935, the Cardenas’ government openly showed its support in the farewell parade of a regiment of the FRV in Mexico City. The American Revolution also helped foster the more socialist policies of the Presidency of Cardenas and change the PNR into the more corporatism and pro socialist PRM as the official party in 1938.
However, many Americans were worried and fearful of a possible Mexican annexation of lands acquired by the United States in 1848. This lead to fierce and violent backlash by the Blues against Mexicans living in America helped by Government propaganda. Cardenas’ worked around to defuse tension between members of the FRV that were for or against the secession. Cardena's official policy was the protection of Mexican citizens and longtime residents and giving assurances to the American revolutionary councils that resisted Mexican assistance of their defensive and humanitarian help.
Assurances were given by Cardenas, who instructed for proclamations of no annexation to be read out by the FRV commanders when occupying towns and to hand over power to local revolutionary councils named by the Americans. Not acting as occupying forces but as co-revolutionaries and liberators that commanders of the FRV like Miguel Henríquez Guzmán, Rubén Jaramillo, Marcelino García Barragán, Pablo González Garza and many others became household names in the American Southwestern States that later would be commemorated in schools and public monuments. A recollection that in 1958 at the death of Miguel Henríquez Guzmán it was unanimously decreed a week-long state and civic mourning in Texas, New Mexico and Oklahoma by all local and republican authorities.
In 1935, the oil industry was nationalized creating the state-owned Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). Followed by all foreign railroads that were incorporated in the Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México (FN de M). Several American interests in the chemical, mining and electrical sectors were also nationalized following the socialization of the main industries north of the border.
In January 1937, a delegation of Mexican and American authorities meet at El Paso agreeing, besides the formal mutual diplomatic recognition, in several themes like migration, transports, debt and loans, economic, scientific and cultural cooperation and exchange and settlement of pending boundary issues. The Agreements of El Paso provided the first steps for the reshaping of Mexican-American relations as those of equal partners.
However, lack of capital and foreign investments would hinder the further development and daily operation of nationalized American investments. At least a third of the Mexican debt was written off either by official agreement or because private banks defaulted or were nationalized. Revolutionary America would take at least a decade in order to rebuild its economy so Mexico was open to European investments. However, under a strict legislation that would guarantee social and workers rights, limits in property (at least 40 percent should be state or private Mexican), customs duties exemptions that did not collide with local industry and planning and limits in foreign management and personnel. Not all of these measures gave the expected results and Mexico would have to come in terms with the limits of joint capital investment of America but with an abundance of technological exchange.
Mexico also took a diplomatic offensive in the Western hemisphere and worldwide. In a series of agreements, it took the representation of the diplomatic interests of Revolutionary America until it could normalize its international relationships. Mexico was also keen on building its interests and influence in Central America were it promoted reformed governments (Guatemala and Nicaragua). It also called in 1939 for a Pan-American Congress in order to revive the Pan-American Unión, in recession since the American Revolution.
Due to its proximity, Mexico was the refugee for fleeing Blues and American Anarchists. The later with the help of Mexican anarchists that in the 1940s and 1950s came in large number as family groups. Despite pressure from American State Security apparatus and agents to expel them, Mexican authorities allowed them to stay as political refugees provided they did not became involved in local politics. A considerable number used the New Policies of 1960s that allowed many to return to America while the majority stayed behind due to family and work related issues.
Francisco José Múgica (1940 - 1946, PRM), Cardenas’ candidate and successor continued his left and socialists policies. Under Múgica serious economic planning was started and state public education at all levels was greatly expanded. The Treaty of Economic Cooperation and Mutual Assistance signed between Mexico and Revolutionary America in 1942 enabled the exchange of technical workers, built local management abilities and technological transfer to key areas like petroleum, chemicals, heavy industry and construction. The welfare and health system were established creating the present Mexican Social Security Institute (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS) to manage old age pensions and social welfare services. Múgica also promoted the constitutional reform that separated State and Church as the final settlement of the uneasy relations between both parties. The reform passed the Congress of the Union in 1945.
The Guatemalan Revolution (October-December 1944) and its violent clashes between Guatemalan Army and civilians led Múgica to ask Congress to sent an expedition of Mexican Armed Forces in order to restore order and install a democratic government. Mexican soldiers were received as liberators but the rest of the Central American countries under military dictatorships feared military intervention to thrown then down. The interests of the United Fruit Company (UTC) were seriously affected by the land reformed promoted by the reformist government. The UTC employed mercenaries and former Blue American veterans to hit the rural communities that were more troublesome and extensive and blatant vote rigging in favor of more conservative candidates.
Under Vicente Lombardo Toledano (1946 - 1952, PRM) the suffrage and full political rights for women was approved. The health services of the federal and state governments were unified and managed by the recently created Secretary of Public Health. It was promulgated the law that established the welfare system for federal employees (Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, ISSSTE). The Law on Profit Sharing of the workers was also approved.
Miguel Henríquez Guzmán (Nov 1952 - Jan 1958, PRM later PPR), the last revolutionary general to be elected president and veteran of the Revolution and commander of the FRV. He was elected under a platform of wide economic and social reforms. Under his influence the PRM became the PPR and reformed its program more in line of the new party program ‘’Social Justice and Democracy’’ of 1953. There was also the initiative to form an electoral alliance of left and center left organizations.
Under his mandate, economic planning became mandatory for state industries. In the agriculture sector the ejidal credit, technological transfer and market access were greatly proved. Limited local agrarian production councils were try-out in key selected states and later made obligatory in all of Mexico. Workers' participation was established in state farms, mining, railroads and heavy industry. In January 1958, a nationalist supporter murdered Henríquez Guzmán during an official rally of the PPR.
His interim successor Sergio Bermúdez (Jan 1958 - Nov 1958, PPR) was elected by the Congress of the Union. The premature death of Henríquez threw the PPR presidential nomination in chaos. Several factions, with the PPR could not decide or rally behind a single candidate. This along the suspicion that some factions had helped in the plot against Henríquez lead to tumultuous months of party infighting for the presidential nomination. Once it became clear who was the official candidate not all of PPR apparatus agreed or guaranteed the votes.
Adolfo López Mateos (1958 - 1964, PPS) candidate of the PPS and first president not a member of the PPR. His platform empathized political and civil rights. He won the election due to the disarray of the governing PPR to unite behind its candidate and the protest from key states by PPR stalwarts that did not rally their followers. López Mateo achievements were the anti-corruption laws and the reform of the electoral system. He also promulgated the law of worker participation in the state industries.
Rosario Obando Rozas (1964 - 1970, PPR) was first woman to be elected president and one of the key reformers of the governing party after the death of Henriquez. Her triumph came as part of the Revolutionary Front of the Mexican People (Frente Revolucionario del Pueblo Mexicano FRPM), a political alliance of the PPR, PCM trade unions and peasant organizations.
Mexico is a mixed system of state companies, private ownership and cooperatives. Tough the state sector as important participation in the national economy in other areas capitalist production leads. There is much involvement of Revolutionary America by means of economic exchange, and cooperation and technological exchange and management training.
State economic planning, not as mandatory, comprehensive and centralized in America, provides a national blueprint in the public and private investment. Since the first Sexennial Plan of 1934-1940, later renamed National Development Plan, each plan have put emphasis in distinct key sectors. The First Sexennial Plan (1934-1940) called for land reform, development of heavy industry, electrification and public works and the installation of statistical information. The Second Sexennial Plan (1940-1946) defined areas of investment public and private, housing and further development of industry but as an Import-substitution Industrialization (SIS) strategy. The Third Sexennial Plan (1946-1952) emphasized light industry and agricultural development and welfare improvement of the countryside. The Fourth (1952-1958), that also established regional and sector plans and improvement of education as a general goal.
The main concern of all Mexican governments has been the agriculture and land question since 1910. The Revolution carried out land reform and the established ejidos. Cardenas’ government passed a new Agrarian Code and accelerated the pace of land reform with the expropriation of American owned agricultural property. From this phase that the basic network of institutions supporting the ejido, The main policies lead to loan to small and medium ejidos, marketing outlets, crop insurance, agricultural and rural cooperatives, agrarian codes of ejido ownership, distribution of farming equipment, supplies and tools. These policies created and pushed from high food prices, falling wages, high inflation, and low agricultural yields to a major economic sector with greatly improved productivity and surplus that could be sold to North America. The main component ejidal units (communal land holdings) was supplemented with state farms and agricultural/ranching combines (sociedades agricolas) for plantation cash crops and areas where the ejidal system was not implemented, mainly the Northern states.
The National Economic Planning Council (Consejo Nacional de Planificación Económica CNPLE, later renamed Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo Económico CONDECOM) was established to function in a similar role as its American counterpart, but with less executive powers and command overreach. CONDECOM is a tripartite body integrated by the Government, employee and employer organizations.
However, CONDECOM would explore other means to carry out its planning, evaluation and control of the Plans. Planning followed more closely the European thesis of indicative planning, save for key industries, laid out the incentives, subsidies, grants, and taxes its priorities. Basic control and initiatives are done thru the state financial institutions (national and development banks), foreign trace (tariffs), technology (expansion of primary and secondary education) and improvement of higher education, research, and development.
Specialized bodies regulate foreign trade. The CONDECOM and its American counterpart plan trade between North America and Mexico, originally once a year later quarterly. The main purpose is avoid duplication and waste of resource and optimize Industrial co-production and movement of natural resources such as energy, food, oil and gas, work force and expertise.
The United Mexican States are a federation whose government is representative, democratic and republican based on a presidential system according to the Constitution of 1917. The Constitution established a free, mandatory, and secular education at all levels. Besides the political rights and guarantees, the Constitution also proclaims several social rights and the empowerment of the labor sector. The text also provides the basis for land reform, state ownership of national resources and the social function of property. It established supremacy of the State over the Church until the Separation State and Church but keep the anticlerical articles.
The constitution establishes three levels of government: the federal Union, the state governments and the municipal governments. According to the constitution, all constituent states of the federation must have a republican form of government composed of three branches: the executive, represented by a governor and an appointed cabinet, the legislative branch constituted by a unicameral congress and the judiciary, which will include a state Supreme Court of Justice. They also have their own civil and judicial codes. The election of the President and Governors is limited to a single six-year term with no reelection.
The federal executive is the president of the United Mexican States, who is the head of state and government, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Mexican military forces. The President is directly elected for a single six-year term. The President also appoints the Cabinet and other officers. The President is responsible for executing and enforcing the law, and has the power to veto bills. Following tradition established by Cardenas, former presidents do not interfere with their successor’s policies nor take part in public life.
The federal legislature is the bicameral Congress of the Union, composed of the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. The Congress makes federal law, declares war, imposes taxes, approves the national budget and international treaties, and ratifies diplomatic appointments.
The highest organ of the judicial branch of government is the Supreme Court of Justice, the national Supreme Court, which has 26 judges appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. The Supreme Court of Justice interprets laws and judges cases of federal competency.
President of Mexico
Mexican politics is dominated by the PPR, the major political party since the Revolution of 1910. The PPR at times as being the sole governing party. The PPR and its predecessors was originally established in 1929, when all the factions and generals of the Mexican Revolution were united into a single party, the National Revolutionary Party (PNR), with the aim of stabilizing the country and ending internal conflicts. From that date it has put in place the revolutionary ideals and tenets of the Party in practice. These include free distribution of land to peasants and farmers, nationalization of the oil companies, the birth and rapid growth of the social security and public health and education as well as the rights of workers and peasants, protection of national industries and State intervention in the economy.
Besides the PRM/PPR and the Revolutionary Family, there are several important and influential parties in the political left as the PSUM, POCM, PCR, PCM and FAM. The PCM is fully committed to Marxist-Leninism, but the other parties ave factions that are Marxists, Reformed Social-democrats and Labor activists. Paradoxically, the influence of Leon Trotsky, as he was exiled and died in Mexico, was not so widespread as to establish a Marxist-Trotskyist party. His theoretical and political influence was more important in United America among the governing American Workers Party and Sarah Leslie. Only in 1957 did a Mexican Marxist-Trotskyist party, the POCM, become founded from groups that previously were in the main socialist parties or outside them.
Other major important parties are:
- Mexican Communist Party (Partido Comunista Mexicano, PCM) 1919 to date. Outlawed from 1925 to 1935. At different times the junior partner of PRM/PPR governments. The main Marxist-Leninist party of Mexico. Influential in the labor movement and the unions affiliated to the Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM).
- Mexican Laborist Party (Partido Laborista Mexicano, PLM) From 1919 to 1945. Formed as the political branch of the Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers (CROM) and dissident members of the PCM. Merged into PPS.
- National Action Party (Partido Acción Nacional, PAN 1939 to date), a right and center-right party and also the main opposition to the ruling parties and allies. Its ideology covers Conservatism, Liberal conservatism and Christian democracy.
- Union for National Reconstruction (Unión para la Reconstrucción Nacional, URN) 1939 to 1955 a right wing split from PRM. Later joined with some members of the PAN and PPS into the Partido Democrático Mexicano (PADEM) 1955 to date. It is a liberal, social liberal and secular party.
- Mexican Nationalist Action (Acción Nacionalista Mexicana, ANM) 1940 to 1958 the major nationalist and extreme right party. Outlawed after the assassination of President Henriquez in 1958.
- Mexican Anarchist Federation (Federación Anarquista Mexicana, FAM) 1941 to date. Influential in rural communities and ejidos. Curiously it is highly influential in United America and helped the exiled American Anarchists.
- Popular Socialist Party (Partido Popular Socialista, PPS) 1945-1978, the main socialist party of Mexico. In has factions that range from social democrats, labor activists to Trotskyism. Merged with other smaller socialist and left parties in 1978 to form the PSUM. The PPS organized and supported the CGTCM - a reorganization of the historical CROM, the third largest labor federation in Mexico and rival to the official CTM.
- Mexican Workers' and Peasants' Party (Partido de los Obreros y Campesinos Mexicanos, POCM) 1957 to date. Formed from various left wing parties and movements outside of the PCM and PSP. On its creation the POCM became the main Marxist-Trotskyist party. Its labor federation is Mexico's second largest, the CROC.
- Revolutionary Communist Party ((Partido Comunista Revolucionario, PCR) 1974 to date, a split of the Left Nationalist faction of the PCM after it left the FRPM. It collaborates with the PPR.
- Unified Socialist Party of Mexico (Partido Socialista Unificado de México, PSUM) 1978 to date. Merger of various left wing parties such as the PPS. Its labor federation is the CROM.
- Revolutionary Popular Alliance (Alianza Popular Revolucionaria, APR) a center leaning party associated with the PPR. Created as rival to the PADEM and PAN.
The political hegemony of the PPR was disrupted with the election of the socialist Adolfo López Mateos in 1958 and losing the majority of the Chamber of Deputies in the same election. The reforms of 1962 introduced proportional representation in all elections of the legislatures of Mexico prompting new electoral and political strategies. The first to acknowledge the change was the PRR under Rosario Obando Rozas that worked to form the first electoral coalition, the Revolutionary Front of the Mexican People (Frente Revolucionario del Pueblo Mexicano FRPM), an electoral political alliance of the PPR, PCM, trade unions and peasant organizations. The candidate for the presidency being elected by an electoral primary system.
Other parties followed this form of making politics. Thus the main coalitions are
- the Mexican Democratic Union (Unidad Democrática Mexicana, UDM) of the PSUM, POCM, PCM and PADEM
- the Mexican Revolutionary Coalition (Coalición Revolucionaria Mexicana, CRM) of the PPR, PCR and APR; and
- the Mexican Socialist Alliance (Alianza Socialista Mexicana, ASM) of the PSUM, POCM and PCM.
|Partido Popular Revolucionario (PPR)|
Popular Revolutionary Party
|Slogan||Instituciones y Reforma Social (1929-38), Por una Democracia de los Trabajadores (1938-53), Democracia y Justicia Social (1953 to date)|
|Preceded by||Partido Nacional Revolucionario (PNR, March 1929 - March 1938), later Partido de la Revolución Mexicana (PRM, 1938-1953)|
|Headquarters||Ciudad de México|
|Newspaper||El Nacional (from 1929 to date) and El Nacional Dominical (from 1931 to date), Revista Méxicana de Cultura (1947 to date)|
|Youth wing||Confederación de Jóvenes Revolucionarios de México|
|Ideology||Revolutionary nationalism, economic nationalism, progressivism, democratic socialism and left populism and secularism.|
|Political position||Center-left and left|
|Official colours||Green, white, red|
The Popular Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Popular Revolucionario, PPR) is a Mexican political party founded in 1929. The PPR has held power almost uninterruptedly in the country since 1929 to date, first as the National Revolutionary Party (Partido Nacional Revolucionario, PNR), then as the Party of the Mexican Revolution (Partido de la Revolución Mexicana, PRM), and finally renaming itself as the Popular Revolutionary Party (Partido Popular Revolucionario, PPR) in 1953.
Throughout its existence, the PPR has adopted a very wide array of ideologies often determined by the President of the Republic in turn. These have being revolutionary nationalism, democratic socialism, economic nationalism, secularism, progressivism, and left populism. Officially, the PPR is the party of the Revolution and governs in behalf of the workers and peasants. This is done by representing different interest groups and acting as the political consciousness of the country in a more realistic level.
The PPR is the hegemonic party within a weak competitive electoral system until the 1960s. The party can describe as representing corporate interests while being also the State party in government.
The PNR the first inception of the PPR was an effort to stop the violent struggle for power between the victorious factions of the Mexican Revolution, and guarantee the peaceful transmission of power for members of the party. It became a political machine of the revolutionary family.
Cárdenas eliminated the structure based on regional and state parties of the old PNR created by Calles and replaced it with a corporate or corporatist one in which the interests of citizens were expected to be represented and transmitted by the so-called "sectors". The sectors of the PRM are the following: worker, peasant, popular and military (until 1944), which, in turn, agglutinated different organizations.
President Miguel Henríquez Guzmán promoted the transformation of the PRM into the Popular Revolutionary Party (PPR) becoming a mass party but keeping its corporate sectors within a reformist party platform. Under the leadership of Rosario Obando Rozas and Carlos Madrazo the party structure began to lose its corporativist nature and open primaries became the norm to elect candidates at federal and state level, and a "Commission of Honor" was established to investigate and punish internal political corruption.
Trade Unions and Labour
The Law on Labor Councils and Workers Participation called for the election every four years of the Labor Councils among all the members of the industrial and agricultural workplaces, centers or combines. The four main labour confederations that put candidates for the elections of labor councils are the following:
- the Confederation of Mexican Workers (Confederación de Trabajadores de México, CTM), linked with the PRM/PPR and the PCM;
- the Confederación Revolucionaria de Obreros y Campesinos (CROC), linked with the POCM;
- the General Confederation of Mexican Workers and Peasants (Confederación General de Trabajadores y Campesinos Mexicanos, CGTCM), linked with the PSP/PSUM and several smaller socialist groups. Its a reorganization of the historical Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers (Confederación Regional Obrera Mexicana, CROM);
- The National Peasant Confederation (Confederación Nacional Campesina, CNC 1938 to date) is the main Mexican association of peasants and ejido organizations. The CNC has links with the PRM/PPR, the PCM and the POCM.
Mexico is a federation of 31 free and sovereign states, which form a union that exercises a degree of jurisdiction over Mexico City.
Each state has its own constitution, congress, and a judiciary, and its citizens elect by direct voting a governor for a six-year term and representatives to their respective unicameral state congresses for three-year terms.
The Federal District of Mexico is a special political division that belongs to the federation as a whole and not to a particular state.
The states are further divided into municipalities, the smallest administrative political entity in the country, governed by a mayor or municipal president (presidente municipal), elected by its residents by plurality.
The states and federal territories are the following:
- States of Mexico
- Aguas Calientes
- Baja California
- Baja California Sur
- Nuevo León
- Quintana Roo
- San Luis Potosí
- Federal District
- Mexico Federal District
Mexican Armed Forces
|Mexican Armed Forces|
Fuerzas Armadas de Mexico
Mexican Army (Ejército Mexicano)
|Commander-in-chief||President Laura Vázquez|
|Secretary of National Defense||Américo Duarte|
|Secretary of the Navy||Nicolás Gutierrez|
|Conscription||compulsory military service, conscript service obligation is 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; conscripts serve only in the Army; Navy and Air Force service is all voluntary. Women are eligible for voluntary military service.|
|Percent of GDP||1.2 percent|
|Domestic suppliers||DGIM, DGFAVE, Granjas Militares, Fabrica de Armas Zaragoza, Productos Mendoza, TNCA and ASTIMAR.|
|Foreign suppliers||United America, PR of Japan, Soviet Union, Association of European States and Brazil.|
The Mexican Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de México) are composed of three independent entities: the Mexican Army, the Mexican Navy and the Mexican Air Force. The Presidential Guard, Military Police, and Special Forces are part of the Army, but have their own chain of command. The Mexican Navy includes the Naval Infantry Force (Marine Corps), the Naval Aviation (FAN) and the Maritime Search and Rescue.
The Voluntary Revolutionary Forces (Fuerzas Revolucionarias Voluntarias, FRV) were the former revolutionaries and Army personnel that in mass drafted to help the American Red Militias in the Second American Revolution (1933-1936). In fact many were unofficial army and air force units acting under command of the Mexican government. The Mexican Navy carried out campaigns that distracted the US Navy from the Atlantic seashore.
After the Mexican Revolution in 1917, idealization of the indigenous and the traditional symbolized attempts to reach into the past and retrieve what had been lost in the race toward modernization.
Mexico's film industry during its Golden Age of Mexican cinema all but dominated the Latin American film industry. Likewise Mexican films were also widely seen by American and Mexican-American audiences and in the states of California, New Mexico, Texas, the communes of Chicago and New York in most with no dubbing to English. Several slangs became part of local speech.
Mexican radio and television has mass media have over 90 percent of national penetration and a wide diversity of owners and programming. Unlike United America there are numerous private commercial radio and television networks, with the public network being an another player in mass media.
Public broadcasting resides in two independent federal agencies, the Mexican Radio Institute (Instituto Mexicano de la Radio, IMER) and the Mexican Television Institute (Instituto Mexicano de la Televisión, Imevisión). The IMER and Imevision, as public broadcasters, are the main providers of educational radio television programming and also news related issues. IMER is also the main producer of programs for rural radios. Tought, their government ownership as always rise suspicious in their impartial treatment of items related or close to the government.
A popular genre of Mexican origin is the telenovela, a type of a limited-run television serial drama or soap opera: It is produced primarily in Mexico and the Latin America. it is also broadcast in United America by stations affiliated to the Mutual Broadcasting System (MBS).
- Marx-Engels Institute of Chicago.