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Michael Dukakis

41st President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1997
Vice PresidentLloyd Bentsen
Preceded byRonald Reagan
Succeeded byTom Harkin
65th and 67th Governor of Massachusetts
In office
January 6, 1983 – December 28, 1988
LieutenantThomas P. O'Neill III
Preceded byEdward J. King
Succeeded byEvelyn Murphy
In office
January 2, 1975 – January 4, 1979
Preceded byFrancis W. Sargent
Succeeded byEdward J. King
Member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives
from the 13th Norfolk district
In office
January 3, 1965 – January 3, 1971
Preceded byConstituency established
Succeeded byJon Rotenberg
Member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives
from the 10th Norfolk district
In office
January 3, 1963 – January 3, 1965
Preceded bySumner Kaplan
Succeeded byJames Wheeler
Chair of the Democratic National Committee
In office
January 20, 2009 – January 23, 2017
Preceded byHoward Dean
Succeeded byDonna Brazile
Personal details
Born Michael Stanley Dukakis
November 3, 1933 (1933-11-03) (age 88)
Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Kitty Dickson
Children 4, including John Dukakis)
Signature Michael Dukakis (President Dukakis)'s signature
Military service
Allegiance United States
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service 1955–1957
Rank Specialist Third Class
Unit 8020th Administrative Unit

Michael Dukakis (November 3, 1933 -)He was an American politician and the Forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1997. He was a Democratic candidate in the 1988 elections, where he won for Republican candidate George H.W Bush, and won as president in the 1992 elections against Republican Bob Dole.

Dukakis was the first Democratic president after the Republican era since 1968. He won the election due to the American Senate and the judges where he had support.

He scored well in his tenure, declared war on Iraq in 1991 in the Gulf War, where he won. Participated in the Jerusalem Peace Agreement with Israel and Palestine.

In 1992, he saw the Soviet Union end, marking the end of the Cold War, with Dukakis being the last American president in the Cold War. He congratulated Gorbachev's departure from the presidency.

Political Life

After leaving the Military Army, Cheney decided to go to politics. In 1963 he became a Member Massachusetts House.

In 1965, it became one more time Member Massachusetts House. He stayed until 1971, when he planned to become governor of Massachusetts in 1974. He spent three years outside politics.

First governorship (1975–1979)

Dukakis was elected governor in 1974, defeating the incumbent Republican Francis Sargent during a period of fiscal crisis. Dukakis won in part by promising to be a "reformer" and pledging a "lead pipe guarantee" of no new taxes to balance the state budget

Governor Dukakis hosted President Gerald Ford and Britain's Queen Elizabeth II, during their visits to Boston in 1976 to commemorate the bicentennial of the United States. He gained some notice as the only politician in the state government who went to work during the Blizzard of 1978, during which he went to local TV studios in a sweater to announce emergency bulletins. Dukakis is also remembered for his 1977 exoneration of Sacco and Vanzetti, two Italian anarchists whose trial sparked protests around the world. During his first term in office, Dukakis commuted the sentences of 21 first-degree murderers and 23 second-degree murderers.

Second governorship (1983-1988)

Four years later, having made peace with the state Democratic Party, MDC, the state police and public employee unions, Dukakis defeated King in a re-match in the 1982 Democratic primary. He went on to defeat his Republican opponent, John Winthrop Sears, in the November election. Future United States Senator, 2004 Democratic presidential nominee, and US Secretary of State John Kerry was elected lieutenant governor on the same ballot with Dukakis, and served in the Dukakis administration from 1983 to 1985.

Dukakis served as governor during which time he presided over a high-tech boom and a period of prosperity in Massachusetts while simultaneously earning a reputation as a 'technocrat'.The National Governors Association voted Dukakis the most effective governor in 1986. Residents of the city of Boston and its surrounding areas remember him for the improvements he made to Boston's mass transit system, especially major renovations to the city's trains and buses. He was known for riding the subway to work every day as governor.

In 1988, Dukakis and Rosabeth Moss Kanter, his economic adviser in the 1988 presidential elections, wrote a book entitled Creating the Future: the Massachusetts Comeback and Its Promise for America, an examination of the Massachusetts Miracle.

1988 presidential campaign

Michael Dukakis at a campaign vitory rally in UCLA's Pauley Pavilion, the night before the US presidential election of 1988 (Mon, November 7, 1988).

On August 14, 1987, Dukakis began his 1988 presidential campaign, prevailing over a primary field that included Jesse Jackson, Dick Gephardt, Paul Simon, Gary Hart, Joe Biden and Al Gore, among others. Touching on his immigrant roots, Dukakis used Neil Diamond's ode to immigrants, "America", as the theme song for his campaign. Composer John Williams wrote "Fanfare for Michael Dukakis" in 1988 at the request of Dukakis's father-in-law, Harry Ellis Dickson. The piece was premiered under the baton of Dickson (then the Associate Conductor of the Boston Pops) at that year's Democratic National Convention. Dukakis won the Democratic nomination, with 2,877 out of 4,105 delegates. He chose Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas to be his vice presidential running mate. Dukakis was pro-choice on the issue of abortion

Dukakis's general election campaign was subject to several criticisms and gaffes on issues such as capital punishment, the pledge of allegiance in schools, and a photograph of Dukakis in a tank which was intended to portray him as a sound choice for commander-in-chief but which was widely perceived to have backfired. Like the allegations of psychiatric problems, these were vulnerabilities which Atwater identified and exploited. In 1991, shortly before his death from a brain tumor, Atwater apologized to Dukakis for the "naked cruelty" of the 1988 campaign

Despite having criticized in the election, Dukakis did well to criticize Bush for his 8-year term as vice president, where he and reagen did not end the cold war and among other "war crimes", that won its popularity.


Result of Election 1988

On November 8, 1988, the result of the American elections takes place. The Bush / Quayle ticket lost the election at the electoral college, taking 19 states, including states like California, Michigan, Wisconsin, Ilinois and other novice Democratic states.

Dukakis's ticket ended up winning the election, making his Democratic performance at the polling station the best after Lyndon B. Johnson's 1964 victory with 486.

After the victory, Vice President Bush, congratulates Dukakis' victory. Dukakis became the fourteenth first president of the United States.

President (1989–1997)

First Turn (1989 - 1993)

President Dukakis in the First Turn

Michael Dukakis took office on January 20, 1989, succeeding Ronald Reagan as president. Dukakis' inauguration was marked by the appointment of Madeleine Albright as United States Secretary of State.

The Dukakis government initially began to be threatened by Iraq's dictator, Saddah Hussein due to Iraq's defeat in the War against Iran.

In August 1989, Dukakis ended up banning the operation of nuclear power plants. Do not make the same mistake as the nuclear accident in 1979 and especially in future incidents. 2 Mouths, Dukakis approves a drug and marijuana use law, however, with records for use. This sparked criticism of Republicans as it would increase drug trafficking in America.In December, Dukakis ends up visiting the Soviet Union, the first time that a US president has visited the country. Dukakis say it was a business meeting, and that there was no way he was going to make an alliance with the Soviet Union.

In the early 1990s, Dukakis enacted a very neoliberal reform law, which gave some criticism to Republican Party members with more conservative and anti-communist thinking. This roof made a catch and trade between the United States and the Soviet Union.

End of the Cold War

Map of Berlin Wall

After the independence of the 3 Baltic countries (ex-Soviet republics of the Soviet Union), Dukakis quickly planned the plan to make the Soviet government fall to end the possibilities of tensions between the two countries.

Dukakis and Gorbachev met at the Malta Summit in December 1989. Although many on the right remained suspicious of Gorbachev, Dukakis believed that Gorbachev would negotiate in good faith worldwide.

In the middle of 1990, with large and violent demonstrations in Berlin in Germany to unify Germany, Dukakis ended up visiting the place with phrases that for some analyzers: It was similar to the 1987 Ronald Reagan. Dukakis met with the Chancellor of Germany, Helmut Kohl, where they talked about proposing to reunify and bring down the Berlin wall in a '' 'peaceful' 'way.

In the Afghanistan war, the United States and its allies were more often supportive of the rebel group against the Soviets. In August 1989, President Gorbachev ordered Soviet Union troops to withdraw in Afghanistan. Dukakis took advantage and sent troops invaded the capital. 11 months later, the war ends with victory for the allies.

End of the Soviet Union

Map of the divisions of the Soviet Union

In September 1991, the hardline communists launched a coup against Gorbachev; while the coup collapsed quickly, it shattered the remaining power of Gorbachev and the central Soviet government, creating a major political crisis in the country. 2 months ago, Gorbachev resigned as Secretary General of the Communist Party, and Russian President Boris Yeltsin ordered the seizure of Soviet properties.

In January 1992, after 13 subdivisions split up in the Soviet Union, President Dukakis ended up recognizing all 13, in addition to preparing to recognize the next countries. Until February 1992, the Soviet Union changed its name to the Soviet Republic, which lasted until 2003.

Gulf War

Gulf War

Faced with massive debts and low oil prices in the aftermath of the Iran–Iraq War, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein decided to conquer the country of Kuwait, a small, oil-rich country situated on Iraq's southern border. After Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990, Dukakis imposed economic sanctions on Iraq and assembled a multi-national coalition opposed to the invasion The administration feared that a failure to respond to the invasion would embolden Hussein to attack Saudi Arabia or Israel, and wanted to discourage other countries from similar aggression. The Dukakis administration luckily expelled Iraq after a successful operation, which caused Iraq to lose the invasion and oil in the region. After 1991, the UN maintained economic sanctions against Iraq, and the United Nations Special Commission was assigned to ensure that Iraq did not revive its weapons of mass destruction program.

Invasion of Panama

In early 1992, with several threats and the death of an American soldier in Panama, President Michael Dukakis ended up threatening and warning that if Carlos Noriega does not resign within 40 hours, the United States will invade the country. After 40 hours of no response, American forces invaded the country with more than 50,000 soldiers. The invasion lasted 15 days, with great success, the government of noriega was overthrown and 2 days, Carlos Noriega was imprisoned by the United States for 40 years.

Election 1992

Result Election, 1992

In the 1992 election, with the popularity high, Dukakis was still a favorite in the election. In debates against Bob Dole, in polls Dukakis had a high winning edge. He visited 19 states, including Florida, Louisiana, Michigan, California and others.

In the election result, Dukakis was re-elected, receiving 56.8% of the popular vote over Republican Bob Dole (42.88% of the popular vote). Dukakis received 325 Electoral College votes, with Dole receiving 213 electoral votes. With his victory, he became the first Democrat to win two consecutive presidential elections since Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1936.

Second Turn (1993-1997)

economic boom, 1993

Dukkais presided over a "Goldilocks economy", a period of low inflation and low unemployment. During the 1990s, the Dow Jones Industrial Average quadrupled, and the share of households with equity investments increased from 32 percent in 1989 to 56% in 2001. Income inequality also grew, as wealthier households earned more proportion of total revenue. However, the median household income, adjusted for inflation to $2,000, grew from $40,262 in 1990 to $51,151 in 1994. In 1995, the unemployment rate dropped to 4%, while the poverty rate decreased to 11.3 per hundred.

Social issues

Dukakis supported the right of homosexual individuals to serve in the military, and, along with Secretary of Defense Les Aspin, he developed a plan that would allow openly gay individuals to serve in the military. Dukakis proposal received strong pushback from military leaders, especially Marine Commandant Carl Epting Mundy Jr. In response, General Colin Powell suggested a compromise solution in which the military would not ask recruits about their sexual orientation, but would retain the right to discharge those who were gay. Clinton resisted the compromise policy, which became known as "don't ask, don't tell," but congressional leaders of both parties made it clear that they would reverse any executive order allowing gay individuals to openly serve in the military. Clinton ultimately accepted the don't ask, don't tell policy, and over the ensuing ten years approximately 15,000 people were discharged from the military after they revealed their homosexuality.

Oslo Accords

Oslo accords map

With several series of agreements in the city of Oslo, Norway, between the government of Israel and the President of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), Yasser Arafat, mediated by the President of the United States, Michael Dukakis. They signed agreements that pledged to unite efforts to bring about peace between the two peoples. These agreements provided for the end of conflicts, the opening of negotiations on the occupied territories, the withdrawal of Israel from southern Lebanon and the question of the status of Jerusalem.