Alternative History
Advertisement
King of the United Provinces of Brazil
Rei das Províncias Unidas do Brasil
Brazil coato.png
Coat of Arms of Brazil
Incumbent
Royal Standard of Brazil.png
Royal Standard
MarcoII.jpg
Marco II

since 14 April 2002
Details
Style His Majesty
Heir apparent Miguel Lorenzo, Prince of Montemor
First monarch Maria II of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves
Formation 27 October 1645
(376 years ago; as a principality)
16 May 1815
(206 years ago; as a kingdom)
Residence Alvorada Palace, Brasília
Guanabara Palace, Rio de Janeiro
Website www.casa-real.br

The monarchy of the Kingdom of the United Provinces of Brazil, commonly referred to as the Brazilian monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of Brazil. The monarch's title is "King" (male) or "Queen" (female). The current monarch and head of state, King Marco II, ascended the throne on the abdication of his father, King Raoni, in 19 August 2002.

The monarch and his or her immediate family (Brazilian Royal Family) undertake various official, ceremonial, diplomatic and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Chancellor. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces. Though the ultimate formal executive authority over the government of Brazil is still by and through the monarch's royal prerogative, these powers may only be used according to the Constitution and, in practice, within the constraints of convention and precedent.

The Brazilian monarchy traces its origins from the petty County of Portugal of early medieval Iberian Peninsula, which consolidated into the kingdom of Portugal in 1139. In 1383, the House of Burgundy was replaced by the House of Aviz and, after a Spanish dynastic period between 1580 and 1640, by the House of Bragança.

Brazil was a Portuguese colony between 1500 and 1815, when, after the transfer of the Portuguese court to Brazil in 1808, it became a kingdom of its own, united to Portugal under the House of Bragança.

Political conflicts between Portugal and Brazil under the same crown in the early 19th century turned into a full scale war and, after Brazilian independence, the House of Bragança was split into two distinct and, at some point, hostile monarchies: the Portuguese monarchy and the Brazilian monarchy.

After the War of the Portuguese Succession (1842-1844), known in Portugal as the Second Brazilian Intervention, the daughter of the then Brazilian monarch, Pedro I, became Queen Maria II of Portugal and Brazil imposed a new constitution over the Portuguese monarchy.

In 1910, the Portuguese monarchy ended with the deposition of Manuel II, while the Brazilian branch still reigns in Brazil to the present day. The two official branches of the House of Bragança finally reunited with the marriage of Eliza Maria, Princess of Montemor and future Queen Eliza Regina of the United Provinces of Brazil, and Fernando, Crown Prince of Portugal and son to the late King Manuel II. As of now, the Brazilian monarch is considered the most legitimate claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne.

There is some academic debate on when the Brazilian monarchy actually started, the two main arguments being for 1645 and 1815. The year 1645 is the year in which the Brazil's status in the Portuguese Empire was officially, yet only nominally, changed from the Viceroyalty of Brazil to the Principality of Brazil. Though the name change was a mere formality that changed nothing in the administration of the colony, it did create the first hereditary title connected to Brazil. Even though a viceroy would still be appointed to be the representative of the monarch in the colony, the new title of Prince of Brazil was largely hereditary. It was created as a substantive title for the heir apparent of the Portuguese throne, but it differed from other such titles for it was retained by the monarch until the new heir apparent is born, thus being a continuing, hereditary title, thus, lending credance to the argument that the Brazilian monarchy was created in 1645. As for the argument for 1815 as the year in which the Brazilian monarchy was born, this was the year in which Brazil was elevated to the status of kingdom by Prince Regent D. João VI, officially ceasing to be a colony. A more fringe opinion is that it started in 1500 with discovery and the 1808-1815 timeframe was but an officialization of fact. Another somewhat common opinion is that the Brazilian monarchy is simply a transplanted continuation of the much older Portuguese monarchy, having started in 1139.

During the 19th, the Brazilian monarchy expanded its domains through imperial expansion, at its highest point gathering titles at the Imperial Realms, which were de jure independent nations under the Brazilian Crown, such as the Grand Duchies of Cadiz and Zenith, the Kingdoms of Cyprus, Angola, and Madagascar, and the Principality of Singapore.

Today, in conformity with the "One Nation, Many Continents" policy, which is in practice since the 1940s, the Brazilian monarchy (and the Brazilian nation itself) presents itself only an American monarchy, as well as European, Asian and Oceanian.

The Brazilian monarchy is widely considered to be the largest and most powerful monarchy in the world. Though it does not compare to the British Crown in overall world recognition and in land area, especially due to the combined territory of all Commonwealth realms under Queen Elizabeth II's reign (such as the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada), the Brazilian monarch is by far the largest monarchy in the world by overall number of subjects and economic output. In the last decade, the Brazilian royal family has become ever more present and recognizable abroad.

List of Brazilian Monarchs

This lists all Brazilian regnant monarchs in Brazil's history. For the monarchs' consorts, see: List of Consorts of Brazil

Name and Dynasty Portrait Reign Nickname Notes
D. Maria (I of Portugal) of Bragança and Bourbon
Jcarvalho-dmariaI-mhn.jpg
1814-1816 The Mad Despite being officially the first monarch of Brazil, she did not rule. She had succumbed to the mental illness which had given her the cognomen.
D. John (VI of Portugal) of Bragança and Bourbon
DomJoãoVI-pintordesconhecido.jpg
1816-1821 The Merciful One of the central figures in the Independence of Brazil, he raised the colony to the status of kingdom united to Portugal in 1815, still as Prince Regent.
After the independence, the titles of treatment Dom and Dona (both abbreviated to D.) to the monarch, as well as the titles Infante and Infanta to the non-firstborn monarch's children, were abolished as an attempt to break any Portuguese bonds of the Bragança's dynasty.
Pedro I (IV of Portugal) of Bragança and Bourbon
15494.jpg
1821-1850

The Liberator

The Great

The Conqueror

The Invincible

Leader of the Independence, he separated the Portuguese and Brazilian monarchies in the act that created a new world power. A military genius since childhood, he was the head of the Brazilian expansion throughout South America.
Pedro II of Bragança and Habsburg
Delfim-pedroII-MHN.jpg
1850-1893

The Magnanimous 

The Wise

The Philosopher-King

The Artist-King

His government was known to have consolidated Brazil as a world power. The Second Pedrist Age was a period of growing prestige and cultural and scientific flowering, with the the Universal Exhibition of Rio in 1872 as its period major milestone.
Miguel of Bragança and Hohenzollern
Philip.jpg
1893-1921

The Handsome

The Patriot

The Miraculous

With the Declaration of Petrópolis of 1915, he renounced his relations with the House of Hohenzollern, the German Empire ruling dynasty, due to the World War I.

Born in 1870, because of the fact of being the first son of Pedro II who did not die in childhood, he was called The Miraculous.

Marco I of Bragança
Fdr-0.jpg
1921-1932 The Literate He unexpectedly died of fulminant attack on the Winter Palace in Pinhais, Paraná. He left no heirs and was succeeded by his younger sister, Eliza Regina.
Eliza Regina of Bragança
Princess Fawzia bint Fuad of Egypt.jpg
1932-1955

The Fair

The General-Queen

She was the first Brazilian monarch to play an active role in the command of the Brazil Armed Forces since Pedro I. She assumed a leadership role among Brazilian military leaders during World War II.
Helena of Bragança
Princess Isabelle of Orléans-Braganza, Countess of Paris.jpg
1955-2002

The Peacekeeper

The Moderate

Her moderate policy was characterized by diplomacy and acts of charity. She is considered one of the symbols of the struggle for peace in the 20th century. She abdicated in 2002 on behalf of her son Raoni Carlos, so she could treat about health issues.
Raoni of Bragança
Dom Luís Gastão.jpg
2002 The shortest reign in the history of Brazil, he was king for 17 days. Battling brain cancer for three years, he was hospitalized for stroke a few days after the coronation. At the hospital, he abdicated in the name of his eldest son, Marco César and died two months later.
Marco II of Bragança
Hg.jpg
2002-Present

The Young

The Charismatic

He ascended the Throne in 2002 when he was 22 after the abdication of his father, King Raoni.

Succession

Succession is governed by the Brazilian constitution of 1824. As defined in it since the 27th Amendment of 1900 the Brazilian monarchy's law of succession is ruled by absolute primogeniture. The monarch's elder children inherit before younger ones, regardless of them being men or women. If the monarch dies or abdicate without heirs, the eldest of his or her brothers and sisters becomes the new monarch. If the former monarch does not have any child, brothers or sisters, his or her eldest uncle or aunt (relative to the monarch's parent who was the previous monarch) becomes the new monarch. If there is no living uncle or aunt, the eldest child of the uncle or aunt who would be monarch becomes the new monarch, and so on.

Brazil is one of the only current European monarchy, alongside with Belgium, that does not apply the tradition of the new monarch automatically ascending the throne upon the death or abdication of the previous monarch. According to Article 102 of the Brazilian constitution, the monarch accedes to the throne only upon taking a constitutional oath before a joint session of the two Houses of Congress. The joint session has to be held within ten days of the death of the deceased or abdicated king. The new Brazilian monarch is required to take the Brazilian constitutional oath, "I swear to observe the Constitution and the laws of the Brazilian people, to maintain the national independence and the integrity of the territory," which is uttered in Portuguese.

The monarch is crowned twice, one in the Magisterium and, one more time, in the Senate to symbolize the certitude of the Congress and the people. A coronation is not necessary for a monarch to reign; indeed, the ceremony usually takes place many months after the constitutional oath to allow sufficient time for its preparation and for a period of mourning. After an individual ascends the throne, he or she reigns until death. The abdication is voluntary and a right guaranteed by the constitution, which states that "every men is free to choose, even the monarch."

As Brazil's monarchy and constitution is secular, the monarch's religion is not a concern, since it do not interfere in his or her constitutional role and religious neutrality.

The constitution also defines the regency rules. It allows for regencies in the event of a monarch who is underage or who is physically or mentally incapacitated. When a regency is necessary, the next qualified individual in the line of succession automatically becomes regent, unless they themselves are uderage or incapacitated. During a temporary physical infirmity or an absence from the kingdom, the monarch may temporarily delegate some of his or her functions to five Regent-Councilors: the monarch's spouse and the first four adults in the line of succession. If the monarch is still unmarried, one more Regent-Councilor is nominated from the line of succession to take the place that would belong to the consort.

Line of Succession

Role

The Brazilian monarchy symbolizes and maintains a feeling of national unity by representing the country in public functions and international meetings. Since they are bound by the Constitution (above all other ideological and religious considerations, political opinions and debates and economic interests) the monarch is intended to act as an arbiter and guardian of Brazilian national unity and independence. Brazil's monarchs are inaugurated in a purely civil swearing-in ceremony, as the monarchy does not claim any sort of religious role or authority.

The Brazilian monarchy has been an absolute monarchy between 1815 and 1821, becoming constitutional semi-presidential monarchy until the death of Pedro II, until finally evolving into a modern constitutional parliamentary monarchy, as it still remains up to the present.

The Brazilian Constitution entrusts the monarch with federal executive powers: the appointment and dismissal of ministers, the implementation of the laws passed by the Congress, the submission of bills to the Congress and the management of international relations. The monarch sanctions and promulgates all laws passed by the Congress. In accordance with Article 112 of the Brazilian Constitution, the monarch cannot act without the countersignature of the responsible minister, who in doing so assumes political responsibility. This means that federal executive power is exercised in practice by the Union (sometimes called the Crown, it is used to refer to the Brazilian federal government).

The monarch receives the Chancellor at the Alvorada Palace or the Guanabara Palace at least once a week, and also regularly calls other members of the government to the palace in order to discuss political matters. During these meetings, the monarch has the right to be informed of proposed governmental policies, the right to advise, and the right to warn on any matter as the monarch sees fit. The monarch also holds meetings with the leaders of all the major political parties and regular members of the Congress. All of these meetings are organised by the monarch's personal political cabinet which is part of the Royal Household (Agência da Casa Real).

The monarch is the Commander-in-Chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces and makes appointments to the higher positions, however it is the Chancellor, as Regent-Commander, who de facto commands the military. Brazilians may write to the monarch when they meet difficulties with administrative powers.

The monarch is also one of the three components of the federal legislative power, in accordance with the Brazilian Constitution, together with the two chambers of the National Congress: the Magisterium and the Senate. All laws passed by the Congress must be signed and promulgated by the monarch.

Though the monarch has still has some constitutionally granted political powers, since the death of Pedro II the monarch to not exercise his or her powers in favor to the Chancellor.

The monarch is also the Grand Master of the Brazilian national chivalric orders: the Imperial Order of the Armillary, the Order of the Southern Cross, the Order of the Harpy, and the Order of Tupan.

Finances

The royal palaces are property of the Brazilian state and given for the use of the reigning monarch. While the House of Bragança possesses a large number of personal belongings, items such as paintings, historical artifacts and jewelry that are usually associated with the performance of royal duties and/or the decoration of royal residences. As such, these items have a cultural significance beyond that of simple artworks and jewelry, and have therefore been placed in the hands of the Royal Household Agency. Part of the collection is on permanent loan to the Royal Museum in Rio de Janeiro and the Brazilian Royalty Museum in Zenith.

The crown jewels and the Royal Collection have been placed in the Crown Historic Institute. The institute also holds the items used on ceremonial occasions, such as the carriages, table silver, and dinner services. Placing these goods in the hands of a trust ensures that they will remain at the disposal of the monarch in perpetuity. The Royal Archives house the personal archives of the royal family. This includes books, photographs, maps, and artworks, as well as the books of the House of Bragança and the music library. The library was created in 1808, following the scape of the Portuguese Royal Family to Brazil. The library houses a collection of some 100,000 books, journals and brochures. The music library has 9000 scores, going back to the mid 18th century.

The monarch and the Brazilian Royal Family are financed mainly by the hereditary revenues of the Royal Household's Estate (Portuguese: Patrimônio da Casa Real). The Royal Household's Estate is a collection of lands and holdings in Brazil, remaining possessions in Madagascar, the United Arab Emirates, Cyprus, and Angola, and some property in other countries which belong to the Brazilian monarch as a corporation sole, making it the "monarch's public estate", which is neither government property nor part of the monarch's private estate. The Congress uses a percentage of the Royal Household's Estate to meet the costs of the monarch's official expenditures. This includes the costs of the upkeep of the various royal residences, staffing, travel and state visits, public engagements, and official entertainment. The Director of the Royal Household Agency is the public official responsible for the Royal Household's Estate and has overall responsibility for the management of the monarch's financial affairs.

Besides the Royal Household's Estate, which belongs to the monarch, but is not his or her property, the monarch can have a private income from his or her personal investment portfolio. 

Though his personal wealth and income are not known, an official statement from the Congress in 2019 estimated that King Marco's wealth was of about US$ 1,6 billion "grossly overstated". In 2012, he inherited part of his grandmother's estate, thought to have been worth US$ 200 million.

The monarch is subject to indirect taxes such as value added tax and pays income tax and capital gains tax on personal income. Parliamentary grants to the monarch are not treated as income as they are solely for official expenditure.

Residence

Brazilian royal nomenclature divides royal residences in three types: palacio (or paço), palacete (or solar), and quinta. Additionally, some palácios and quintas (only the residence building itself) are sometimes officially designated castelos (castles). However, since no true castle built in Brazil has ever been used as a royal residence, this is reserved for residences built purpusefuly to resemble traditional castles such as Ralswiek Castle.

A palácio or paço (the latter being a more archaic form of the term) is translated to palace. They are the most grandeouse and sumptuous royal residences, generally located within city limits yet surrounded by a large property, usually consisting of gardens.

A palacete or solar (Portuguese for small palace) is a small but luxurious urban residence, usually located in the denser parts of a city or town, being more readily accessible from the street. Analogous to the English townhouse and French hôtel particulier, this term is usually used to describe an urban residence of Brazilian nobility and, in official terms, royalty.

A quinta is rural estate analogous to an English country house. They are primarily rural properties in the countryside, surrounding a main residential building which is metonymically called quinta as well. In Brazil, royal quintas are usually more isolated and far more modest than other palaces, though not all. Most quintas were built in traditional Portuguese colonial style but a number of them have been built in a plethora of different styles from around the world such as Chateauesque and Scottish baronial, especially in the southern parts of the country.

The monarch's main official residence in Brasília is the Palácio da Alvorada (Alvorada Palace), although the Palácio da Guanabara (Guanabara Palace), in Rio de Janeiro, which has been traditionally the official residence between 1851 and 1956, is also an official residence alongside with Brasília. They are the sites of most state banquets, investitures and other ceremonies. Historically, the Brazilian and previously Portuguese monarchs have had other official residences. The Paço da Lapa (then known as Paço dos Vice-Reis or Palace of the Viceroys and official residence of the Viceroys of Brazil between 1763 and 1808) was the official residence of the monarchs of Portugal and Brazil between 1808 and 1818, when it was replaced by the just-completed Paço de São Cristóvão, which remained as the official royal residence from its completion up to 1851, when it was replaced by the more sumptuous Palácio da Guanabara.

Alongside the official residences, the royal family also has many other residences around the country. At least one per region and one per overseas rovince. Some properties in foreign territory are owned by the Crown or members of the royal family and, thus, fall under the same naming conventions as the other royal residences, though not the same priviledges with the government of the countries they are located in. Some of those properties, such as the Palácio do Buçaco in Portugal and the Quinta do Embodeiral in Madagascar, are remnants of royal familial ties and/or colonial history. Others, such as the Solar do Carioca in Switzerland, are simply properties acquired by members of the royal family.

Most residences used by the royal family are owned by the Crown (they are held in trust for future rulers, and cannot be sold by the monarch) while others are personally owned. These latter include the Quinta da Canastreira, the Solar do Enviral, and the Castelo Piranema. The occupied royal residences are cared for and maintained by the Royal Household Agency (Portuguese: Agência da Casa Real). The unoccupied royal palaces of Brazil, along with the royal residences owned in other countries, are the responsibility of Royal Palaces' Institute (Portuguese: Instituto dos Palácios Reais) and are usually open to the public when not in use.

Succesion

Succesion in th Brazilian monarchy is governed by the Brazilian constitution. It is ruled by absolute primogeniture, meaning that the eldest child, being man or woman, have precedence. Brazil was the first nation to adopt absolute primogeniture in 1972, with the eldest child of the monarch inheriting the throne no matter the sex. If the monarch does not have any children, his or her eldest sibiling is next in the line of succession followed by his or her eldest child and so on.

The Brazilian constitution have no preference for any religion concerning the line of succession.

While it is not possible for an individual to renouce his or her right to the succession, her or her can abdicate after ascending the throne.

Religion

Differently from most of the former and current monarchies, the Brazilian monarchy does not summon legitimacy from any religious belief. Sovereignty belongs to the people, and the monarch's legitimacy comes from the Constitution. As, in Brazil, the Constitution is the law above any religion, the monarch's religion is not a concern and he is free to prophess any or none, since it does not shock with his role as monarch and with the Constitution.

As a secular monarchy, Brazil's monarchy lacks of religious rituals, traditions and obligations. However, some see the monarchy's traditions, symbols and secularized rituals themselves as a civic religion of sorts.

Of all Brazilian monarchs, six were Catholic, two were Protestant, and two were Agnostic.

For folowers of Brazilian Shinto, the sincretic religion developed from Catholicism and Shinto, it is rather common to enshrine and venerate past monarchs as kami. Of those, Pedro II's cult is by far the most widespread, with the late king being venerated as Daiseimyōō-no-Kami (大西明王の神).

Relationship to the defunct Portuguese throne

Between 1815 and 1821, Brazil and Portugal shared a monarch. After independence, Brazil remained under the rule of the House of Braganza as its own independent kingdom. For a long time, some groups in both countries have maintained the political aspiration of re-unifying Brazil and Portugal, if not as a single country, at least as a united kingdom. This aspiration, called Luso-Brazilianism, is particularly common among Portuguese monarchists, an estimated two thirds of whom currently recognize the Brazilian monarch as the legitimate claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne.

After the War of the Portuguese Succession (1842-1844), the new liberal constitution exiled the usurper Miguel and his line from the succession to the Portuguese throne, reseting the line so that only people who can trace their lineage to Queen Maria II could take the throne. Though it only counted male-line descendants, in 1908, two years before the republican overthrow of the monarchy, succession laws were changed again, allowing for female-line descendants to claim the throne when no male was available.

After the deposition of King Manuel II in 1910, the king and his pregnant wife were exiled and received by their Brazilian cousins in Rio de Janeiro. Their son, Prince Fernando, would later marry Eliza Maria, Princess of Montemor, later Queen Eliza Regina of the United Provinces of Brazil, finally reuniting the two branches. From then on, as a descendant of the last King of Portugal and head of the last legitimate branch of the House of Braganza, the Brazilian monarch claimed all titles and honors of the Portuguese royal family.

Though Portuguese law defined that only Portuguese citizens could claim the throne, the Brazilian monarch legitimizes his claim with the stipulations of the Treaty of Faro of 1897. According to Portuguese and Brazilian law defined by the treaty, every Portuguese citizen who migrates to Brazil is entitled to acquire Brazilian citizenship. As for Brazilians, any who can prove direct Portuguese ancestry from 1897 onwards is an official "dormant" Portuguese citizen, with all rights tied to Portuguese citizenship being "activated" as soon as they set foot in Portuguese land. As such, with Marco II being a direct descendant of the late King Manuel II of Portugal, the Brazilian monarch also holds "dormant" Portuguese citizenship and, as such, is not barred from claiming the Portuguese throne despite not being born in Portugal.

It must be noted that, though Duarte Pio of Braganza also claims the defunct throne of Portugal, being a member of the Miguelist branch that was exiled in 1844, he is not widely recognized as legitimate, with monarchists that do not support the Brazilian king Marco II's claims being divided on whether to accept him or another claimant, the Duke of Loulé. Officially, though, through a formal statement in 2006, the Portuguese government made it clear that Marco II is seen as the legitimate claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne. Marco II even has the right to grant titles and to name new members of the royal dynastic orders of chivalry, although titles granted after 1905 are not recognized by the Republic. The Brazilian monarch and his consort are entitled to use their royal title and style in Portugal based on the law that permits those who had a noble status prior to 1905 to use their styles and titles in Portugal. In official documents and the media, Marco II is refered to as "The Brazilian king and Duke of Braganza".

Titles and Style

The present monarch's full style and title is "Marco the Second, by the Acclamation of the Peoples and the Royal Constitution, King of the United Provinces of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil,". Congress first granted the title "Perpetual Defender of the Brazilians" to King Pedro I in 1820, rewarding him for his support of Brazilian autonomy during the Luso-Brazilian Constitutional Crisis which led to independence.

The Brazilian monarch's title has been chosen to be King of the United Provinces of Brazil in 1824 instead of King of Brazil as a way to express Brazil's federalist composition as a country, even though the reign of Pedro I was highly centralized compared to the subsequent monarchs. This distinction only exists for the regnant monarch, however. In contrast to King Marco II's title of "King of the United Provinces of Brazil", Queen Alice is called "Queen of Brazil", as the consort is always refered to as "of Brazil". This also explains why Brazil never saw a need to create a downgraded consort title for when the consort is male like other monarchies of the time had done, as the title "King of Brazil" is by definition reserved to a king consort to a "Queen of the United Provinces of Brazil". Additionaly, Prince Miguel Lorenzo and is called and all those who are either the child or the grandchild of a reigning or previous monarch, such as Marco II's brothers and sister, are called "Prince(ss) of Brazil". Miguel Lorenzo is also "Prince of Montemor", the traditional title of the heir apparent to the Brazilian throne. This title precedes the title "Prince of Brazil".

The monarch is allowed to choose their own regnal name, usually from one of their birthnames (e.g., João Pedro of Bragança became King Pedro II and Maria Helena of Bragança became Queen Helena).

As for forms of address, the monarch holds the style of Royal Majesty (HRM). It has changed over the centuries. Between 1815 and 1821, the Brazilian monarch was addressed by the Portuguese style of Most Faithful Majesty (HMFM). After independence, the title was simplified to Royal Majesty (HRM) until it was changed again in 1875, with the Brazilian monarch holding the style of Imperial and Royal Majesty (HI&RM), in reference to their royal titles in Brazil and other realms such as Madagascar, and the imperial title of Brazilic Emperor. After 1977, the title of Brazilic Emperor was dropped and so the monarch's style was changed back to Royal Majesty (HRM). Members of the monarch's family would hold only the style of Royal Highness (HRH) throughout history. Like many other monarchies of European tradition, the Brazilian monarch also has a "treaty style" to distinguish themselve from other monarchs in international settings. In international documents and treaties, the Brazilian monarch is customarily refered to as "Majestade Brasílica", Portuguese for "Brazilic Majesty".

The title of Brazilic Emperor was an imperial title that existed between 1875 and 1977. It was an additional title to that of King of the United Provinces of Brazil. With the creation of the Malagasy Union as a new realm under the Brazilian monarch, it became apparent that the royal title was to apply only to the monarch's authority over Brazil proper and, as other territories within the Brazilic Empire had their own monarchs subservient to the Brazilian monarch and/or the other Brazilian territories overseas were created into new kingdoms de jure on equal standing to Brazil within the empire, a new, all-encompasing imperial title was thought to be needed. As such, at the same time as the new royal title for Madagascar became official, so did the title of Brazilic Emperor. From then on, and until the title's abolishment in 1977, the Brazilian monarch was to be refered as King of the United Provinces of Brazil only in Brazil proper being refered by its new imperial title and any other existing title for the region when refered to in relation to the Brazilic Empire as a whole or any jurisdiction of it.

The Brazilian monarch is the head of the House of Braganza and is widely recognized as the most legitimate claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne. As such, the Brazilian monarch claims the titles of the Portuguese monarchy, including that of King of Portugal and the titles of the heir apparent to the Portuguese throne, that is, the honor of Duke of Braganza and the associated titles of Duke of Guimarães, Marquis of Vila Viçosa, and Count of Arraiolos. The title of Duke of Braganza is the Portuguese title most associated to the Brazilian monarch, though, with Portuguese media and elements in the government referring to the him as "the Brazilian king and Duke of Braganza". Besides the king, the Prince of Montemor is the only other member of the royal family besides the monarch to claim titles from the defunct Portuguese throne claimed by the latter, that is, the honors of Prince of Beira and Duke of Barcelos.

The style of the Brazilian monarch has varied over the years, mostly to accomodate for Brazilian colonial expansion and subsequent decolonization during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Period

Full style

1815-1821 By the Grace of God, King [Queen] of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc.

(Pela Graça de Deus, Rei [Rainha] do Reino Unido de Portugal, Brasil e dos Algarves, d'Aquém e d'Além-Mar em África, Senhor(a) da Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia e Índia, etc.)

1821-1824 By the Acclamation of the People, King [Queen] of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil.

(Pela Aclamação do Povo, Rei [Rainha] do Brasil e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil.)

1824-1875 By the Acclamation of the People and the Royal Constitution, King [Queen] of the United Provinces of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil.

(Pela Aclamação do Povo e da Real Constituição, Rei [Rainha] das Províncias Unidas do Brasil e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil.)

1875-1889 By the Acclamation of the People and the Royal Constitution, King [Queen] of the United Provinces of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil; Brazilic Emperor; King of Madagascar.

(Pela Aclamação do Povo e da Real Constituição, Rei [Rainha] das Províncias Unidas do Brasil e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil; Imperador Brasílico; Rei de Madagáscar.)

1889-1891 By the Acclamation of the People and the Royal Constitution, King [Queen] of the United Provinces of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil; Brazilic Emperor; King of Madagascar and of the United Arab Emirates.

(Pela Aclamação do Povo e da Real Constituição, Rei [Rainha] das Províncias Unidas do Brasil e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil; Imperador Brasílico; Rei de Madagáscar e dos Emirados Árabes Unidos.)

1891-1902 By the Acclamation of the People and the Royal Constitution, King [Queen] of the United Provinces of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil; Brazilic Emperor; King of Madagascar, of Angola, and of the United Arab Emirates.

(Pela Aclamação do Povo e da Real Constituição, Rei [Rainha] das Províncias Unidas do Brasil e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil; Imperador Brasílico; Rei de Madagáscar, de Angola, e dos Emirados Árabes Unidos.)

1902-1910 By the Acclamation of the People and the Royal Constitution, King [Queen] of the United Provinces of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil; Brazilic Emperor; King of Madagascar, of Angola, of Cyprus, and of the United Arab Emirates.

(Pela Aclamação do Povo e da Real Constituição, Rei [Rainha] das Províncias Unidas do Brasil e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil; Imperador Brasílico; Rei de Madagáscar, de Angola, do Chipre, e dos Emirados Árabes Unidos.)

1910-1919 By the Acclamation of the People and the Royal Constitution, King [Queen] of the United Provinces of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil; Brazilic Emperor; King of Madagascar, of Angola, of Cyprus, and of the United Arab Emirates; Grand Duke of Cadiz and of Zenith.

(Pela Aclamação do Povo e da Real Constituição, Rei [Rainha] das Províncias Unidas do Brasil e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil; Imperador Brasílico; Rei de Madagáscar, de Angola, do Chipre, e dos Emirados Árabes Unidos; Grão-Duque de Cádiz e de Zenith.)

1919-1947 By the Acclamation of the People and the Royal Constitution, King [Queen] of the United Provinces of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil; Brazilic Emperor; King of Madagascar, of Angola, of Cyprus, and of the United Arab Emirates; Prince of Singapore; Grand Duke of Cadiz and of Zenith.

(Pela Aclamação do Povo e da Real Constituição, Rei [Rainha] das Províncias Unidas do Brasil e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil; Imperador Brasílico; Rei de Madagáscar, de Angola, do Chipre, e dos Emirados Árabes Unidos; Príncipe de Singapura; Grão-Duque de Cádiz e de Zenith.)

1947-1960 By the Acclamation of the People and the Royal Constitution, King [Queen] of the United Provinces of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil; Brazilic Emperor; King of Madagascar, of Angola, of Cyprus, and of the United Arab Emirates; Prince of Singapore.

(Pela Aclamação do Povo e da Real Constituição, Rei [Rainha] das Províncias Unidas do Brasil e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil; Imperador Brasílico; Rei de Madagáscar, de Angola, do Chipre, e dos Emirados Árabes Unidos; Príncipe de Singapura.)

1960-1963 By the Acclamation of the People and the Royal Constitution, King [Queen] of the United Provinces of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil; Brazilic Emperor; King of Madagascar, of Angola, and of the United Arab Emirates; Prince of Singapore.

(Pela Aclamação do Povo e da Real Constituição, Rei [Rainha] das Províncias Unidas do Brasil e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil; Imperador Brasílico; Rei de Madagáscar, de Angola, e dos Emirados Árabes Unidos; Príncipe de Singapura.)

1963-1971 By the Acclamation of the People and the Royal Constitution, King [Queen] of the United Provinces of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil; Brazilic Emperor; King of Madagascar, of Angola, and of the United Arab Emirates.

(Pela Aclamação do Povo e da Real Constituição, Rei [Rainha] das Províncias Unidas do Brasil e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil; Imperador Brasílico; Rei de Madagáscar, de Angola, e dos Emirados Árabes Unidos.)

1971-1975 By the Acclamation of the People and the Royal Constitution, King [Queen] of the United Provinces of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil; Brazilic Emperor; King of Madagascar and of Angola.

(Pela Aclamação do Povo e da Real Constituição, Rei [Rainha] das Províncias Unidas do Brasil e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil; Imperador Brasílico; Rei de Madagáscar e de Angola.)

1975-1977 By the Acclamation of the People and the Royal Constitution, King [Queen] of the United Provinces of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil; Brazilic Emperor; King of Madagascar.

(Pela Aclamação do Povo e da Real Constituição, Rei [ou Rainha] das Províncias Unidas do Brasil e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil; Imperador Brasílico; Rei de Madagáscar.)

1977-

Present day

By the Acclamation of the People and the Royal Constitution, King [Queen] of the United Provinces of Brazil and Perpetual Defender of Brazil.

(Pela Aclamação do Povo e da Real Constituição, Rei [Rainha] das Províncias Unidas do Brasil e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil.)

Advertisement