Ikh Mongol Uls (Mongolian)
Timeline: Principia Moderni IV (Map Game)
OTL equivalent: Northern Yuan dynasty
Flag of the Northern Yuan.jpg September 1368 -
Mongolia in Light Green
(and city)
Other cities Shangdu (Destroyed)
Official languages Mongolian and Chinese
Regional Languages Turkic languages
Demonym Mongolian
Religion Tengriism, Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism
Government Vassal State
 -  Khagan Gong Mug Yuan Ming
Legislature Yassa
 -  Establishment 1453 
 -   estimate 500.000 
Currency Chao

The Northern Yuan dynasty was the remnants of the Yuan dynasty that ruled over China for more than a century, being a successor of the Great Mongolian Empire that Genghis Khan created and his successors greatly expanded to control 25% of the world.


Retreating to Mongolia (1368–1388)

The Mongols under Kublai Khan (r. 1260–94) of the Mongol Empire (1206–1368), a grandson of Genghis Khan (r. 1206–27), had conquered all of China by eliminating the Southern Song dynasty in 1276 and destroyed the last Chinese resistance in 1279. The Mongol Yuan dynasty (1271–1368) ruled all of China for about a century. However, the Mongols dominated North China for more than 140 years, starting from the time when the Jurchen Jin dynasty was annihilated. Nevertheless, when the Han Chinese people in the countryside suffered from frequent natural disasters such as droughts, floods and the ensuing famines since the late 1340s, and the government's lack of effective policy led to a loss of the support from people. In 1351, the Red Turban Rebellion started and grew into a nationwide turmoil. Eventually, Zhu Yuanzhang, a Chinese peasant established the Ming dynasty in South China, and sent an army toward the Yuan capital Khanbaliq or Dadu (present-day Beijing) in 1368. Toghon Temür (r. 1333–70), the last ruler of the Yuan, fled north to Shangdu (located in present-day Inner Mongolia) from Dadu in 1368 after the approach of the forces of the Míng dynasty (1368–1644). He had tried to regain Dadu, but eventually failed; he died in Yingchang (located in present-day Inner Mongolia) two years later (1370). Yingchang was seized by the Ming shortly after his death.The Yuan remnants retreated to Mongolia after the fall of Yingchang to the Ming dynasty in 1370, where the name Great Yuan was formally carried on, known as the Northern Yuan dynasty or simply Northern Yuan. The Genghisid rulers of the Northern Yuan also buttressed their claim on China, and held tenaciously to the title of Emperor (or Great Khan) of the Great Yuan (Dai Yuwan Khaan, or 大元可汗) to resist the Ming who had by this time become the real ruler of China. According to the traditional Chinese political orthodoxy, there could be only one legitimate dynasty whose rulers were blessed by Heaven to rule as Emperor of China (see Mandate of Heaven), so the Ming also denied the Yuan remnants' legitimacy as emperors of China, although the Ming did consider the previous Yuan which it had succeeded to be a legitimate dynasty.

The Ming army pursued the Mongol forces of the Northern Yuan into Mongolia in 1372, but were defeated by the latter under Ayushridar (r. 1370–78) and his general Köke Temür (d. 1375). In 1375, Naghachu, a Mongol official of Biligtu Khan (Ayushridara) in Liaoyang province invaded Liaodong with aims of restoring the Mongols to power. Although he continued to hold southern Manchuria, Naghachu finally surrendered to the Ming dynasty in 1387–88 after a successful diplomacy of the latter. The Yuan loyalists under Kublaid prince Basalawarmi (the Prince of Liang) in Yunnan and Guizhou were also destroyed by the Ming in 1381-82.

The Ming tried again towards the Northern Yuan in 1380, ultimately winning a decisive victory over Mongol forces around the Buir Lake region in 1388. About 70,000 Mongols were taken prisoner and the Mongol capital Karakorum was sacked and destroyed. It effectively destroyed the power of the Khaan's Mongols for a long time, and allowed the Western Mongols to become supreme.

Field guns and hand cannons were used by the Northern Yuan army.

Rise of the Oirats (1388–1478)

In 1388, the Northern Yuan throne was taken over by Yesüder, a descendant of Arik Böke (Tolui's son), instead of the descendants of Kublai Khan. After the death of his master Togus Temur (r. 1378–88), Gunashiri, a descendant of Chagatai Khan, founded his own small state called Kara Del in Hami. The following century saw a succession of Chinggisid rulers, many of whom were mere figureheads put on the throne by those warlords who happened to be the most powerful. From the end of the 14th century there appear designations such as "period of small kings" (Бага хаадын үе) for this period in modern historiography. On one side stood the Oirats (or Western Mongols) in the west against the Eastern Mongols. While the Oirats drew their side to the descendants of Arik Boke and other princes, Arugtai of the Asud supported the old Yuan khans. Another force was the House of Ogedei who briefly attempted to reunite the Mongols under their rule.The Mongols split into three main groups: western Mongols, the Mongol groups under the Uriankhai in northeast, and the Eastern Mongols between the two. The Uriankhai and some Borjigin princes surrendered to the Ming dynasty in the 1390s. The Ming divided them into Three Guards: Doyin, Tai'nin and Fuyu.

Periods of conflict with the Ming dynasty intermingled with periods of peaceful relations with border trade.

A New Dawn (1400-1405)

Under the leadership of Gün Temür Khan, Mongolia rebuilded its two decimated former capitals of Karakorum and Shangdu, as well as building blast-furnaces in special industry quarters of the cities, with Ming help. Mongolia also focused on expanding towards the East and the North, settling/subjugating vast areas. Mongolia under the context of reclaiming lost lands kept by the Mongolian Empire and to pacify various tribes surrounding the realm, continue expanding towards the East and the North, as well as into the West side of lake Baygal nuur, settling/subjugating vast areas. Tengriism remained the official religion although he enforce religious tolerance, like his great ancestor Genghis Khan did. His leadership however remains a controversial one as he made Mongolia a Chinese (Ming Dynasty) tributary state and renounced Genghis Khan legacy, his traditionary claims on China. Although some agrue that this was needed due to the bad state that the Mongolian state got itself to, the majority of the people doesn't look kindly on being a tributary of a nation who was previously one of the worst enemies of the Mongolia. We continue rebuilding our two decimated former capitals of Karakorum and Shangdu, as well as building ten blast-furnaces in special industry quarters of the cities, with Ming help. New residents begin to move in the reconstructed parts of the two cities. Relationships worsen with the Oirot Khaganate. Field guns, hand cannons were constructed by the small Mongolian industry to be used by the army, but due to their small capabilities production was limited.

Great Khagan Gün Temür wins a coalition of rebels in the battle of Chuluut river. After Great Khagan Gün Temür eliminated the last pockets of resistance, he ordered the execution of the captured treacherous chiefs and traitorous officers that fought against him, along with seizing their estates and gifting them to his most loyal supporters. The Khagan's most loyal supporters took over the remnants of the rebellious tribes with his help. Crown authority was increased to very high. Thus Great Khagan Gün Temür solidified his rule over Mongolia and can turn his attention elsewhere. The captured former rebels that sweared allegiance to the Khagan and were pardoned, settled in the Karakorum and Shangdu which have finished reconstruction, many consider them even better than they were before they were destroyed by the Ming, as the walls of the city are way taller, thicker and sturdier and the cities inside are magnificent, with trade quarters and special industrial quarters that have 5 blast furnaces of Chinese design and origin each, with both the industrial and trade quarters being inside the cities walls. On the other hand the rest of the rebels, the unloyal ones were kept in imprisoned with the hope that they will accept in time the authority of the Khagan as he began a process to brainwash these about 10.000 individuals into being loyal and accept the authority of the Khagan as described by the Mongol royal archives. We dismiss the raised troops and they return to their families.

Finally when the Mongols reached the sea, they saw a big island (OTL Bolshoy Shantar Island) that they named after their Great Khagan Gün Temür. They also establish a port in the area to trade with other nations. The army was consisted of 10.000 proffesional Mongolian horsemen at that time (1402). Great Khagan Gün Temür also named the Mongol port in Manchuria after Genghis Khan and he expanded it as well, hoping to increase trade with other nations.

Defeat (1405)

As Timurlane began to suffer illness, he feared he would be unable to fulfill his dream of conquering China and restoring the Yuan Dynasty. After recovering from his sickness, Timur raised 540.000 troops marched upon the Ming Dynasty. Along the way, Timurlane requested the Chagatai Khanate to allow his army to pass through their territories.

Finally, hearing of news of Timurlane crossing Chagatai so eager to restore him to the Dragon Throne, Great Khagan Gün Temür of the Northern Yuan dynasty reasserted his claim on the Mandate of Heaven, believing he is the rightfull Emperor, he launched an invasion with his 100.000 horsemen to assist Timurlane to restore him as the Emperor of China, wanting to reclaim lost lands that were part of the Mongol empire under Genghis Khan and his successors. Great Khagan Gün Temür then marches against Ming China with 100.000 horsemen. Great Khagan Gün Temür admires his ancestor Genghis Khan a lot, having a fairly good knowledge of his campaigns and strategies, using them and adapting them as he sees fit.

However their invasion was defeated by the Chinese as the algo for hordes is not working properly.


The Current Khagan of Mongolia is Gün Temür. Born in 1377, Gün Temür took the throne in 1400 at the age of 22.

Foreign Relations


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