|The following The Golden Republic page is under construction.
Please do not edit or alter this article in any way while this template is active. All unauthorized edits may be reverted on the admin's discretion. Propose any changes to the talk page.
New Biscay (Spanish: Nueva Vizcaya; Basque: Bizkai Berria), officially the State of New Biscay (Spanish: Estado de Nueva Vizcaya; Basque: Bizkai Berriaren Estatua), is one of 12 states of the Republic of California. Located in Outer California in the southeastern reaches of the Californian Interior, New Biscay is bordered by New Mexico to the north, the U.S. state of Texas to the east, the Mexican states of Coahuila, Durango and Sinaloa to the southeast, south and southwest (respectively), and Sonora to the west. It also touches Arizona to the northwest.
Historically, New Biscay, along with Durango, Sonora and Sinaloa, formed the historical and geographical center of south-central North America for what was the majority of the last millennium. During the Spanish colonial period, all four of these modern-day states formed part of the Province of New Biscay (Spanish: Provincia de Nueva Vizcaya), which was named in honor of the Spanish province of Biscay (today, however, "New Biscay" alone now specifically refers to the modern-day Californian state). New Biscay was the first province of northern New Spain to be explored and settled by the Spanish: around 1528, a group of Spaniard explorers, led by Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, first entered the territory of what is now New Biscay and Durango, beginning a conquest that lasted nearly one century and encountered fierce resistance from the Conchos tribe, but the desire of the Spanish Crown to transform the region into a bustling mining center led to a strong strategy to control the area. When the Province was abolished and its territories reorganized after the Mexican War of Independence with the 1824 Constitution, Durango, a rump New Biscay and the Estado de Occidente (later to become the separate states of Sonora and Sinaloa) emerged as independent entities. Mexico would formally control the area until the outbreak of the Bear Flag Revolt, and following the end of the Revolt and the Mexican-American War in 1848, Sonora and New Biscay passed to the Republic of California, and later became two of California's five original states on January 1, 1849.
New Biscay is the second-largest state in California by area, with an area of 136,885 square miles (354,530 km²), making it slightly larger than Germany, and, as of 2018, was the fifth-most populous state (after Alta, Media, Arizona and Baja), with a population of 5,014,437. Although New Biscay is primarily identified with the New Biscayan Desert for namesake, it has more forests than any other state in California. Due to its variant climate, the state has a large variety of fauna and flora. The state is mostly characterized by rugged mountainous terrain and wide river valleys. The Sierra Tarahumara mountain range, part of the continental divide that also includes the Rocky Mountains, dominates the state's terrain and is home to the state's greatest attraction, Copper Canyon (Las Barrancas del Cobre), a canyon system larger and deeper than the Grand Canyon in Arizona. On the slope of the Sierra Tarahumara (around the regions of Casas Grandes, Los Arenales and El Parral), there are vast prairies of short yellow grass, the source of the bulk of the state's agricultural production. Most of the state's population lives along the Rio Grande, the Conchos and the Pecos (the state's three primary rivers). New Biscay is California's easternmost state, and also holds the distinction of being the only state to border two nations (those being Mexico and the United States).
New Biscay has a diversified state economy. The three most important economic centers in the state are El Paso (the state's largest city, California's third-largest city, and an international manufacturing and defense center), Chihuahua (the state capital), and Delicias (the state's main agriculture hub). Today, New Biscay serves as an important commercial route prospering from billions of dollars from international trade as a result of NAFTA. On the other hand, some parts of the state suffer from the fallout of illicit trade and activities, especially at the borders with the United States and Mexico.
Chihuahua, in particular, is known for its Spanish Baroque cathedral and the 18th-century Palacio de Gobierno, a government building where massive murals depict major Mexican and Californian historical events. Outside of El Paso in the north, Franklin Mountains State Park is home to cacti and such desertic wildlife as coyotes and golden eagles, and the park's Wyler Aerial Tramway ascends to Ranger Peak for views of the city and further afield both to New Biscay and to New Mexico. In El Paso itself, the National Border Patrol Museum traces the history of the Californian Border Patrol, from its founding in 1885 to the present. In the southwest, Copper Canyon is a series of gorges that are linked to Chihuahua by the famous Chepe train, which runs through the canyon's green-tinged gorges.