|New York Compacts|
|28 November 1918|
New York, USA
The New York compacts were loose promises by the signatories of the Treaty of Manhattan to give effect to the Ten Point Peace Plan. The signatories agreed to further negotiate issues primarily involving national self-determination in Europe and the Near East. Significant issues involved the Arab Revolt and the Irish Revolt. The status quo was to be maintained in Austria-Hungary, but a quickly deteriorating situation was further dealt with in the Second Congress of Berlin.
The agreements were extremely vague, each signatory agreed to negotiate self determination for the respective subnational groups and that other signatories would refrain from interference, but there were no contingencies built if negotiations failed. "Self-determination" was ill defined, could and was "interpreted" to mean anything from independence to "home-rule" by the parties involved. Additionally, "Compacts" were explicitly not a "treaty" simply a "framework." Violations occurred almost immediately, justified by the "lack of cooperation," "failure of negotiations," "superseding national interest" etc, or even references to the Ten Points. As a practical matter, however, Germany recognized an independent Poland and Belarus, albeit economically dependent, in order that Germany and Russia would not share a common frontier as in 1914. Germany and Austria-Hungary also acquiesced to an independent Czechoslovak state, its de facto existence having been established 1918-1919, and Kaiser Karl unwilling to resort to armed force, despite exacerbating instability within Austria-Hungary.
Germany violated the accords almost immediately by supplying arms clandestinely to the Irish Republican Army. Britain similarly to various Arab groups, further destabilizing the Ottoman Empire.
President Wilson had hoped the nascent League of Nations would take on the primary role in these discussions, but its as yet ephemeral nature prevented it taking any meaningful role.
Result, nominally independent Kingdom of Syria and Iraq within Ottoman "sphere of influence" completion of Berlin to Baghdad Railroad; (ultimately) Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Result: Independent Poland, Czechoslovakia, autonomous Kingdom of the Southern Slavs (Yugoslavia) independent Hungary and Banat.
Result: Fix compensation from Germany to Belgium.
Result: German protectorate of "Congo State."
Egyptian independence, evacuation of Britain from Egypt and Sudan. (German logistical support to Egyptian independence movement 1919.)
Result: Irish republic, status of Ulster undetermined.