|Official languages||Swedish, Danish, Finnish, Norwegian, Estonian and Icelandic|
|Regional languages (limited legal recognition)||Greenlandic, Faroese and Sámi|
|Headquarters Nordic Council||Gothenburg (Sweden)|
|Currency||see Nordic Monetary Union (1931)|
The Nordic Association is regional economic, political and defense entity created in 1934, after the failure of the Conference on European Union. Its purpose is to promote regional cooperation beyond the Nordic Monetary Union.
The Nordic Association functions mainly by means of membership in a series of multilateral treaties and organizations that collectively form the Nordic Council.
Economic integration by means of a common economic zone and common currency is still under study. The Stockholm Convention of 1937 established a 3 year road map for the inauguration of a free trade zone between its members. Each member state controls its foreign trade policy outside the Nordic Council.
While the Nordic Council is not a customs union, it only establishes between its members states a free trade zone, member states have full rights to enter into bilateral third-country trade arrangements, they can agree to have a co-ordinated trade policy. As a result, its member states have jointly concluded trade agreements with Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.
Structure of the Nordic Association
The Nordic Council is the established forum coordinating intergovernmental cooperation and decision making. It is integrated by the chiefs of government and delegates. Each government implements the agreed measures through each country's legislative assembly or multilateral treaties and organizations.
The multilateral organizations of the Nordic Council are:
- Nordic Monetary Union (NMU, 1931), and its Nordic Investment Bank and Nordic Industrial Development Fund. The Treaty of the NMU, amended in 1934, adds the prevision of incorporating other fields of cooperation or multilateral organizations that fall under the guidance and consultation of the Nordic Council.
- Arctic Maritime Organization(1934) created to improve safety at sea, facilitate trade among seafaring states and protect the maritime environment. It coordinate coast guard and rescue activities. Maintains a common oceanographic and meteorological center.
- Arctic Scientific Exploration Committee (1934), in charge of all scientific activities in the Arctic region.
- Scandinavian Defense Union (1934), that coordinates the mutual defense of member countries and implements the collective neutrality policies. It is in charge, along the defense ministries, of the multi-national military units.
- Scandinavian Airlines System (1937), A private-state society created by the integration of state and private airlines of member countries.
- Scandinavian Scientist Conference, organization in charge of promoting scientific research and development. It is responsible in all areas of cultural and scientific development either by mean of treaties or joint research installations.
- Nordic Council for the Arts and Culture. It promotes cooperation and cultural exchange between member states. It is in charge of the Nordic Houses (in member states and territories) and Nordic Institutes (rest of the world)
- Nordic Electricity Authority (1936), public corporation in charge of the Nordic Electrical Grid (NORDEL) and responsible for the generation, distribution and sale of electricity to users.
- Nordradio (NR), renamed later has Nordradio/Nordvision (NR/NV), is the regional broadcaster for the Nordic countries created has a joint public enterprise of the national public broadcasters.
- Nordic Passport Union Agreement, that allows citizens of the Nordic countries to travel and reside in other Nordic countries without a passport or a residence permit.
- Nordic Language Convention, that recognizes the equal status of the official languages (Swedish, Danish, Finnish, Norwegian (Bokmål and Nynorsk), Estonian and Icelandic) of the Nordic Association and regional languages of member countries (Greenlandic, Faroese and Sámi), for educational, cultural and judicial purposes.
- Nordic Sami Convention, it recognizes the Sami as one indigenous people residing across national borders of Norway, Sweden and Finland. It gives cultural, educational, political and economical rights of the Sami people. It also recognizes the Sami Parliament has the political representation of Samis and their cooperation with national parliaments. Saami Council is organized has the counterpart to the Nordic Council.
The full members countries are:
|Member state||Capital||Area (km2)||Population (aprox.)||Main languages||Currency|
|Denmark||Copenhagen||43,075||3,700,000||Danish and German||Danish krone|
|Sweden||Stockholm||450,295||6,400,000||Swedish, Saami languages and Finnish||Swedish krona|
|Norway||Oslo||324,177||2,900,000||Norwegian (Nynorsk and Bokmål) and Saami languages||Norwegian krone|
|Finland||Helsinki||338,424||3,600,000||Finnish and Swedish (official) and Karelian, Saami languages, and Vep||Finnish markka|
|Estonia||Talinn||45,227||1,200,000||Estonian (official), Russian, and German||Estonian kroon|
|Iceland||Reykjavík||103,001||120,000||Icelandic and Danish||Icelandic kron|
Associated members (territories of Denmark and Finland) are: