Alternative History

This is the Official Timeline for the Principia Moderni III Universe. It is divided by decade, and only major events are included.


The 1400s as a Century were a very troubling time period. Conflicts raged across Europe and the Near East. At the same time, exploration began in earnest, with trade picking up. New technologies, like the caravel and printing press, emerged to better society. Also, religious reforms began, notably with the Great Schism of the Catholic Christian Churches.


  • The early 1400's saw the end of the Ottoman Blockade of Constantinople which had ensued for over a decade. Aided by several major powers across Europe, the Roman Empire ensured its survival for years to come.
  • In 1401 the nations of Poland and Lithuania, under Wladyslaw Jagiello, saw an opportunity to take the burgeoning Muscovite nation, and declared war, beginning the Great Northern War. Aided by the United Norse Crown, a union of Norse states in Scandinavia, and by a recent raid of the city states by the Golden Horde, Muscovy was defeated and its government replaced by a pro-Polish leader.
  • Soon after the defeat of Muscovy, the nation of Prussia, formed from the state of the Teutonic Order, invaded Poland as part of a series of wars between the two nations.
    • Lithuania, newly converted to Christianity, and thus removing the Teutonic Knights' casus belli to forcefully convert their old enemy, argued that Poland and Lithuania had not converted properly and fully, and therefore invaded to spread Christianity in what's known as the Muscovite Crusade.
    • Prussia was aided by the rebelling Muscovite nation, and the states of Russia still loyal to the true Muscovite government. In the west Prussia was aided by the Holy Roman Empire through a series of alliances with the nation of Austria.
    • Poland was defeated, and in the ensuing Treaty of Heilsberg Muscovy was granted its independence, more so to weaken Poland than to reward Russia, as well as some other minor border changes in Russia.
  • Eager to gain territory after the blockade, the Roman Empire aided the nation of Venice in Antonio I Acciauoli in The Bastard's Rebellion, retaking the Duchy of Athens. Venice, who had defeated Epirus that year, divided the Duchy of Athens among Venice and the Roman Empire.
  • In the West, England and France managed to put their violent history behind them. England then worked to unite the British Isles, while France tried to control its feudal messes. Meanwhile, the Castilians took parts of Morocco to secure Gibraltar.
  • At the same time, Timur the Lame continues to conquer huge chunks of the Near East, including Damacus, which was under the Mamluk Sultanate. His holdings would not last, however, as a Civil War broke out near the end of the decade.
  • With support from Latin mercenaries and many other states at different times, the Roman Empire continued its conquest and conflicts, fighting against several different state.
  • The United Norse Crown, a kingdom consisting of the crowns of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, began expanding rapidly into northern Germany, through conquest and diplomatic maneuvering, causing fear among many North German states, who felt the UNC was undermining the political stability of the Holy Roman Empire, as well as threatening valuable trade routes in the area. By this time the UNC had already partially restricted access for German and Hanseatic ships through the Øresund, hindering the free flow of valuables to the Russian states and to Germany. This would lay the foundation for the Norse Wars a few years later.


  • The Timurid Civil War continued into the early part of this decade. At first, new survivor states emerged in the Middle East, but most states end up in the Mamluk fold, who survived an invasion from Yemen, and even came out stronger with the vassalization of Yemen. The Mamluks also gained Mecca and Medina, Makuria and Alodia, as well as Mesopotamia.
  • In the New World, the Cahokian Civilization grew techonologically to incorporate iron into their military and tool-based assemblage of tools. The Incans and other Southern Tribes gained copper, triggering their Metal Revolution.
  • In 1410 the reigning emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Rubert II of the County Palantine, died, leaving the electors to elect a new ruler. In the election the young but determined Archduke of Austria was elected Holy Roman Emperor, becoming known as Albert II of Germany. Albert was unanimously elected, using his favor and influence that his nation had acquired over the last decade to become a valid candidate among the electors, with many of which he has already retained positive relations and alliances which he inherited from his father’s rule. Albert would promise to the German states and many nobles, following the recent uproar over the collapse of Genoa, that he would become a strict ruler of the empire to prevent such a thing happening again.
  • In 1411 Venice invaded the Holy Roman Empire city state of Padua, and in fulfillment of his promise, Albert II declared war, beginning the Venetian-Padua Conflict.
    • The brief conflict ended with status quo ante bellum, and an Imperial tactical victory for Austria's ability to liberate Padua and prevent any states from switching hands. Albert II's handling of the situation impressed many skeptical nations of Germany, and helped increase confidence in the new ruler.
  • In 1413 the United Norse Crown began an invasion of Northern Germany via the state of Lüneburg, beginning the Norse Wars. The UNC invasion of Germany was said to be in retaliate of actions against Venice, but more so to further the expansion goals of the nation south.
    • Albert II of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria responded by declaring war on the United Norse Crown, and asking all his allies to follow, stating that no excessive act of aggression against the Holy Roman Empire by a foreign power would be tolerated. Many North German states followed, swearing to protect their homeland at all costs. Satisfied with the diplomatic end to skirmishes in Venice, many German states were persuaded to give support, those of which including the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Margrave of Moravia, the Electorate of Brandenburg, the Duchy of Luxembourg, the ecclesiastical prince-electors of Mainz,Trier, and Cologne, and the nation of Hesse.
    • Hoping to break away from Norse influence, many oppressed or otherwise occupied vassals in Germany attempted to declare independence from the UNC in favor of supporting their German brothers in liberation of their homeland; those being the states of Hamburg, Mecklenburg, and others, who all openly rebelled against the Norse.
    • Sensing the opportunity as a time to strike against the Norse and effectively end their monopoly on the Russian trade markets, in 1413 the Russian states declared war on the UNC, those including the nations of Muscovy, Novgorod Republic, Tver, and Pskov, who all mobilized immediately to strike against the UNC while their attention was diverted. The Russian states, although initially successful in applying pressure to the UNC, would be attacked by the Golden Horde, who slowed down any advance by the Russians.
    • Ultimately the war in North Germany would come to an end, with neither side able to make any significant campaigns into the other's heartland. German forces took back much of their territory south of the Jutland Peninsula and in Pomerania, but were stopped in Denmark by the Norse army. The war became a stalemate, eventually forcing both sides to meet and discuss terms for peace. In 1415, with neither side gaining any real significant advantages over the other, the belligerents of the war met in the city of Danzig to discuss peace. The ensuing Treaty of Danzig would be signed officially ending the war.
  • Weakened by multiple wars against it, and following the death of its king, Eric of Pomerania, the union of the United Norse Crown collapsed, creating three independent kingdoms at war for the throne, beginning the Norse Civil War (1415 - 1419).
    • The Kingdom of Sweden defeated both the Danish and Norwegian claimants, choosing to recreate the United Norse Crown under Swedish leadership.


  • With both the Ottomans and the Mamluks struggling to fill the perceived power void left by the Timurid Civil War, tensions built up as vassals grew into contention. This triggered the Ottoman-Mesopotamian War (1420 to 1427).
    • When the Georgians intervened, however, the Ottomans gained the upper hand. This triggered a period of prosperity for the Georgians, while the Mamluks devolved into civil wars, largely fought over republicanism.
    • The Treaty of Adana was signed in 1427 officially ending the war. In general, the Treaty secured Ottoman dominance over the Turkomen regions to the north of Mesopotamia, and also expanded Georgia's territories while Mesopotamia and the Mamluks lost some claims but gained recognition of other claims.
  • During the 1420's the nation of Naples established itself as the dominant Italian power, peacefully acquiring the nation of Tuscany as a vassal, and several other states.
  • With the support of Castile and economic aid from Austria and others, in 1425 the Roman Empire and the Knights Hospitaller successfully defeated the Kingdom of Cyprus in the Second Cypriot War.
  • During this time Albert II of Germany began growing in power and establishing ties around Germany.
    • In 1422 Elisabeth, monarch of the Bohemian crown, and its possessions; the Margrave of Moravia, the Electorate of Brandenburg, and the Duchy of Luxembourg, was wed to Albert II of Germany, placing the ruler of Austria in a personal union with Bohemia, and those territories being inherited to the Austrian ruler.
    • Hesse and Bavaria became regional power, influencing many of the states around them, and supported by the Holy Roman Emperor.
    • A dispute over the vassilzation of Burgau between the nations of Austria and Bavaria brought upon a civil war in the nation between the Pro-Austrian government and Bavarian supporters. The situation would be handled by Albert II, granting Burgau to Bavaria.
  • In the New World, Cahokia underwent a massive plague, which caused widespread havoc and a shrinking of both population and the nation's size. Cahokia was also attacked in the east by various Algonquian peoples, destroying many of their outposts east of the Mississippi, and establishing the Lenni Lenape as a strong nation in the area.
  • The Aztec Triple Alliance was also founded in this decade, as was the Colorado Confederation.
  • In the Far East, Japanese feudalism continued, but was interrupted by an invasion from Ming China, that took place from 1424 to 1427.


  • In Europe the nation of Naples begins expanding into the peninsula and neighboring area.
    • The king of Naples, Ladislaus I, is crowned King of Italy by the Pope.
    • With Genoa, Savoy, and other areas of Italy in the possession of Naples, or having sworn fealty to the king in Naples, the nation begins reorganizing the territory into manageable sections.
  • The Second Morocco Crusade (1439) is launched by Castile, Venice, and Austria to spread Christianity to Morocco.
    • Cities seized by the warring powers are established as territories of their respective holders, taking much of the Moroccan coastline.
    • Melilla is established as a colony of Austria, as an enclave within Venetian territory.
  • Lord Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson begins a Swedish rebellion known as the Engelbrekt Rebellion against the monarch of the United Norse Crown. The Swedish become unhappy with the Danes' recent actions in Schleswig, Holstein, Mecklenburg, and other states, which have caused a disturbance to Swedish exports of iron and other products.
    • A group of enraged miners and peasants burn the castle of Borganäs near Borlänge. The tension spread, causing several assaults on castles across Sweden. Nobleman Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson officially becomes the rebel leader, commanding a peasant army.
    • Sweden's first Riksdag of the Estates is summoned under rebel leader Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, who is elected rikshövitsman (military commander of the realm) in the absence of a king.
    • Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson remains the leader of the independent realm, in his capacity of rikshövitsman (military commander of the realm). Charles Knutsson becomes joint rikshövitsman with Engelbrekt. Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson is later murdered by a personal enemy, leaving Charles Knutsson to temporarily hold the position of leader alone. The first meeting of the Riksdag of the Estates afterwards takes place in Uppsala.
    • In 1437 the rebellion is officially put down by the United Norse Crown government.
  • The Albion, based in Britain, vassalizes Scotland in this decade, uniting Britain.
  • The Aztecs and Mayans both expanded by large amounts this decade. The Yucatan began to organize itself, using technology from its northern neighbors.
  • In the Near East, the Mamluk Sultanate falls into all-out rebellion, continuations from the spill-over that resulted at the end of the Ottoman-Mesopotamian War. The Sultanate managed to win a majority of the conflicts, securing Nubia for the sultanate, but in the eventual wars of independence, lost Oman, Yemen, and Swahili.
  • In the Caucasus, the prospering Georgians declared war on Azerbaijan, their Muslim neighbor to the East. Along with the Golden Horde, they managed to reduce the power of that Sultanate.




  • In 1464 Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor dies peacefully in Vienna. His death is mourned by people all across the Holy Roman Empire, who valued him as a wise and successful ruler. Albert “the Magnanimous” is buried in St Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, surrounded by friends, family and hundreds of noble lords from across the realm. His first son George is crowned Archduke of Austria, who departs for Augsburg to appear before the electors as a candidate for emperor. In Augsburg George I, son of Albert II is elected Holy Roman Emperor. Famous electors present include Jakob von Sierk, Elector of Trier, who was also the empire's first chancellor.



  • George I, Holy Roman Emperor dies in 1486 and is succeeded by Maximilian I. He is elected Holy Roman Emperor in Frankfurt later that year. Famous electors present include Archbishop Karl von Henneberg-Römhild, elector of Mainz and Archbishop Christian von Wurtembourg, Elector of Trier.



  • Maximilian I dies in 1508 and is succeeded by Charles V. The following imperial election becomes a controversial one, with Charles V ruling as King of Spain, although he manages to negotiate his election nonetheless. Famous electors present include Archbishop Karl von Henneberg-Römhild, Elector of Mainz, Archbishop Christian von Wurtembourg, Elector of Trier, Archbishop Albert III, Elector of Cologne, Charles V, Elector of Bohemia, Charles I, Elector of the Palatine, George von Wettin, Elector of Saxony, and Magnus von Habsburg, Elector of Brandenburg.







  • Tulip mania!
  • Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor abdicates the throne of Spain in 1561, his first son Phillip succeeding him as King of Spain. Charles V continues to rule as Holy Roman Empire, while residing in a monastery in Spain.
  • In 1562 Charles V dies in Yuste, Spain. He is succeeded by his second son Ferdinand in Austria, who travels to Frankfurt for his election, where he is elected unanimously. Famous electors present include Archbishop-Elector Albert III of Liechtenstein, Elector of Mainz, Archbishop Johann of Isenburg-Grenzau, Elector of Trier, Archbishop Salentin IX, Elector of Cologne, Ferdinand I, Elector of Bohemia, Frederick II, Elector of the Palatine, Adalbert von Wittelsbach, Elector of Saxony, and Lothar von Habsburg, Elector of Brandenburg.




  • In 1592 Ferdinand I dies and is succeeded by Wolfgang I, who is elected Holy Roman Emperor in the ensuing election. This is the first election since the rearrangement of the imperial elections following the conclusion of the Second Franco-Austrian War. Famous electors present include Archbishop-Elector Sebastian of Homburg, Elector of Mainz, Wolfgang I, Elector of Bohemia, Louis VI, Elector of the Palatine, Frederick II von Wettin, Elector of Saxony, Archbishop-Elector Leopold von Wellenburg, Elector of Salzburg, Otto I Von Hamburg, Elector of Hamburg, and Archbishop-Elector Otmar Müller, Elector of St. Gall.
  • After the Kingdom of Prussia underwent a major succession war, the oppressed Livonian population broke free of Prussia forming the Duchy of Livonia. Similarly, Courland and Osel-Wiek rejected their promises of vassalage to the Prussian Kingdom, declaring independence.




  • 1610-1614 : Livonian war sees the end of the short-lived independent Duchy of Livonia and the strengthening of Pskov as a Colonial Power.



  • In the later part of this decade, the Kiatagmiut Band of Central Yup'ik (a type of Inuit tribe) began to develop as a nation. While it had existed as a nomadic state for centuries prior, the massive shift in lifestyle emerged as a result of the arrival of luussitars (horses) in 1637. The Band then went on to expand a little bit into the lands of the Akulmiut, and then in 1639 the revolutionary Lavkar Reforms were agreed upon, which would impact the Band for the next decade.


  • After the Lavkar Reforms were first tested in the 1630s, the Kiatagmiut Band continued to advance. Trade with other Kusquqvagmiut peoples along the Kusqusvak River, the Band came to be one of the primary groups in southern Kelutmun (Alaska). Economic growth was extremely surprising to the Kiatagmiut leaders, who then began to fall into an organized shamanistic religion, with some emphasis placed upon the Cult of the Supreme Spirit which enshrined the Great Elder as being possessed by the most holy of shamanistic spirits.


  • Whereas the 1640s were vital for the transition from a nomadic to semi-nomadic lifestyle for the Kiatagmiut Band, the 1650s served to make the Kiatagmiut Band practically domestic in every aspect. Besides expansion into Caninermiut land in the early part of the decade, the domestication of wild berries and then, later on, of reindeer and elk transformed the lifestyle even more. A small merchant class even began to develop out of the city of Naparyarraq. Relations with the Togiagmiut increased to the point of integration, which was achieved finally in 1659.
  • By 1658, the system of Eunuchs is abolished in the Manchu Empire as it sets its sight upon rapid development of the state in order to acquire a dominant position in comparison to other Chinese states.



  • The Kiatagmiut Band, after having become a dominant power in Kelutmun, entered this decade with rumors of settlers in the Ale'uts common. The theaters all dramatized the arrival of unknown foreign people, but by 1675, this imaginary idea had become reality as qayaq traders discovered Nivkh sailor and explorer I'mlos'taga'in. I'mlos'taga'in would be brought to the Kiatagmiut capital of Mamterilleq, where he improved local knowledge of sailing and language. During this decade, walrus and fish domestication also began to take hold, with privatization gaining practical application.