British Raj (1858–1947)
In 1765, Robert Clive (1725–1774) led the East India Company to an expanded influence in India with victories over the French, the Bengalis, and the Mughals. In the hundred years after, the EIC conquered the entire northern part of Indian sub-continent by trade, political intrigue, and direct military action. However, disaffection with the EIC set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. It was brutally suppressed as the rebels were disorganized, had differing goals, and were poorly equipped. The Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, who supported the rebellion, was exiled to Burma and the remnants of his empire were taken over by the British.
Nevertheless, the rebellion shook the foundations of East India Company rule in India. Afterward the British government took control away from the Company. In 1858, a part of the British Empire and Queen Victoria was crowned as the Empress of India. After 1857, the British rule in India strengthened and expanded its infrastructure via the court system, legal procedures, and statutes. The Indian imperial government invested heavily in infrastructure, including canals and irrigation systems in addition to railways, telegraphy, roads and ports. However, the rush of technology and the commercialization of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks.
The birth of Muslim nationalism (1905–1930)
Pakistan movement (1930–1940)
World War II (1939–1945)
Partition of British India (1946–1947)
Independent Pakistan (1947–present)
Liaquat I government (1947–1955)After independence in 1947, Jinnah became the nation's first Governor-General cum the Speaker of the Constituent Assembly and Liaquat Ali Khan, the secretary-general of the League, was elected the nation's first Prime Minister. During its early days, both Pakistan and India were thrown into chaos as the partition sparked mass migration, murders, and ethnic cleansing. In addition, only few handful members of the colonial civil service and police service had chosen Pakistan, resulting in staff shortages. Jinnah and other League leaders had to create functioning government and civil service from the scratches.
Although already frail and weak due to his age and lung illness, Jinnah traveled across West Pakistan during the early tumultuous months, serving as a symbol of newly-emerged state. For his leadership, he was honoured popularly as Quaid-i-Azam (Urdu: قائد اعظم; Bengali: কায়েদ ই আজম, "Great Leader") and Baba-i-Qaum (Urdu: بابائے قوم; Bengali: বাবা ই কাউম , "Father of the Nation"). Jinnah also traveled to East Pakistan in March 1948 despite his rapidly declining health. Jinnah's capacity as the head of state, however, took a toll on his health. In June 1948, he was diagnosed with advanced tuberculosis and suspected lung cancer. Jinnah died on September 11, 1948 at his home in Karachi at the age of 71. Khawaja Nazimuddin was appointed as new Governor-General.
In 1950, the neighboring India had enacted its constitution three years after its independence. On other hand, by 1951, the Constituent Assembly was still unable to draft any constitution. As the disagreements among the assemblymen resulted to deadlock, Khan turned to the princely states for supports. He offered them a system of rotating head of state among the princes in return to their political and financial supports to his unstable government. On July 12, 1951, the Karachi Durbar was attended by the rulers of thirteen princely states. It adopted a resolution for the establishment of a Pakistani-style monarchy in the place of the British monarch.
Following the sudden death of George VI on February 6, 1952, the Assembly adopted the Karachi Resolution and passed the Monarchy of Pakistan Set. The set established the office of ceremonial head of state, Sardar-e-Azam (Urdu: سردار اعظم; Bengali: সরদার ই আজম, "Great Chieftain"), which elected by and among the princes. Governor-General Khawaja Nazimuddin resigned effectively on February 20, 1952 when Sadeq Mohammad Khan V of Bahawalpur was elected by the Durbar of Princes as the first Sardar. On March 23, 1952, the Constitution of Pakistan was ratified by the Sardar-e-Azam.
Liaquat II government (1952–1955)
Zafarullah government (1955–1956)
Jinnah I government (1956–1961)With the collapse of his government, Zafarullah and other League progressives offered supports to Fatima, the sister of late Muhammad Ali Jinnah, to became the party leader and, effectively, the premiership candidate. Jinnah, who had retired from public life, accepted it and stood in the leadership election. Her candidacy was controversial among the right-wing League element which did not wish to have a woman as the country's leader. Khawaja Nazimuddin allied with right-wing party leaders to block Jinnah's campaign, which frustated her. When the party convention was rigged in favor of Nazimuddin, Jinnah and the League progressives contested on their own as the Pakistan Muslim League (Council), or the PML-C, in 1956.
Jinnah allied with the Bengali-dominated Awami Muslim League during her campaigns. Her opposition to the controversial One Unit plan gained her a wide support in both wings. Combination of both factors resulted to the victory of pro-Fatima parties in the 1956 general election, much to dismay of conservatives. As the majority leader, Jinnah was appointed by Sardar-e-Azam Khan V as the first female Prime Minister of Pakistan and also the first female head of government both in the world and among the Muslim-majority nations. She appointed Hussein Suhrawardy as deputy prime minister and Zafarullah to his old foreign affairs portfolio to her first cabinet.
Referred popularly as "Mother of the Nation" (Urdu: مادر ملت; Bengali: মাদার ই মিল্লাত Māder-e Millat), Fatima became a symbol of political stability and parliamentary democracy in the early decades of Pakistan. Opposition against her drawn from the conservatives and certain elements within the Pakistan Armed Forces, mostly because of her gender and other because of her Bengali-friendly policies. In October 1958, Defense Minister Iskandar Mirza attempted a military coup against Jinnah, which backed by conservative parties; the coup was failed when officers loyal to Jinnah, led by General Azam Khan, refused to follow Mirza's order.
Jinnah brought Pakistan closer in alliance with the United States to contain the Soviet influence in the region, especially after Indian President Subhas Chandra Bose had approached the Soviet Union by the late 1950s. Jinnah paid a visit to the United States in 1957 and had the honour to address the joint session of U.S. Congress. Jinnah also visited Japan, China and Indonesia in 1959 to reaffirm diplomatic ties with those countries. In 1960, Pakistan and India were at the verge of war due to the dispute of Indus river water system. Conflicts were eventually resolved when Jinnah and Indian Prime Minister, Mahendra Pratap, signed the Indus Water Treaty in Karachi, which allocating Pakistan 86% of water carried by the Indus system.
Jinnah II government (1961–1966)
Fatima was re-elected when her coalition of parties regained majority in the 1961 general election, making her the first sitting Pakistani prime minister to be re-elected as well as the first to complete a full parliamentary term since 1947.