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Philippine Union
Unyon ng Pilipinas
Timeline: 2018: The Philippine Uprising

OTL equivalent: Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Singapore
Philippine Union Coat of Arms
Flag Coat of Arms
EmpirePH
Location of The Philippine Union

Motto
Makatao, Makalikasan, Makadiyos, at Makabansa
("For the People, Nature, God, and Country")

Anthem "Lupang Hinirang"
Capital Manila, Philippines
Largest city Jakarta, Indonesia Province
Language
  official
 
Filipino
  others English, other local dialects
Religion
  main
 
Christianity
  others Islam, Paganism
Ethnic Groups
  main
 
Tagalogs, Bisya, Cebuano, Bikolano, Davaoeño, Aeta
  others Multiple
President Rodrigo R. Duterte
Vice President Alan Peter Cayetano
Population 700,621,819 
Currency Philippine Peso
Calling Code +63
Internet TLD .ph

The Philippine Union (PHU), commonly known locally as Unyon ng Pilipinas(U.P. or UP), the SEA Union or simply Philippines, is a country comprising of 45 states, a federal district, three major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 4.5 million square kilometers, it is the world's seventh largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe.Most of the country's business is located between Mainland Southeast Asia. With an estimated population of over 550 million people, the Philippine Union is the third most populous country. The capital is Manila, the administrative is in New Clark City and regional capital in Jakarta, and the most populous city is Manila.

History

Pre-history

Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. The Philippines served as a connection to mainland Asia and Wallacea during the Early to Middle Pleistocene, facilitating the spread of hominins and megafauna to what is now eastern Indonesia.

Tabon Caves are the site of one of the oldest human remains found in the Philippines: Tabon Man

The oldest remains of modern humans in the islands, however, is the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to 47,000 ± 11–10,000 years ago. The Tabon man is presumably a Negrito, who were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, descendants of the first human migrations out of Africa via the coastal route along southern Asia to the now sunken landmasses of Sundaland and Sahul. Previously, it was believed that the earliest putative record of modern humans in Southeast Asia is from the Callao Cave of northern Luzon, dated to around 67,000 BP. However, in 2019, the remains were identified as belonging to a new species of archaic humans, Homo luzonensis.

There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos, starting with the "Waves of Migration" hypothesis of H. Otley Beyer in 1948, which claimed that Filipinos were "Indonesians" and "Malays" who migrated to the islands. This is completely rejected by modern anthropologists and is not supported by any evidence, but the hypothesis is still widely taught in Filipino elementary and public schools resulting in the widespread misconception by Filipinos that they are "Malays".[49][50]

In 1967, Filipino anthropologist Felipe Landa Jocano proposed the "Core Population" theory which posits that ancestors of the Filipinos evolved locally, rejecting Beyer's assertion that Filipinos are the same ethnic groups as the Malay people. His proposal roughly aligns with the more recent "Out of Sundaland" model proposed by a minority of academics, which includes Wilhelm Solheim's "Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network". It postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area (modern Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula) which was then inundated by rising sea levels at the end of the Last Glacial Period (around 11,700 years ago). They propose that there was then a range of material and genetic exchanges between populations in an arc from the coasts and islands of Papua New Guinea to Japan by around 48,000 to 5000 BC rather than by wide-scale migration.

The most widely accepted theory, however, is the "Out-of-Taiwan" model which follows the Austronesian expansion during the Neolithic in a series of maritime migrations originating from Taiwan that spread to the islands of the Indo-Pacific; ultimately reaching as far as New Zealand, Easter Island, and Madagascar. Austronesians themselves originated from the Neolithic rice-cultivating pre-Austronesian civilizations of the Yangtze River delta in coastal southeastern China pre-dating the conquest of those regions by the Han Chinese. This includes civilizations like the Liangzhu culture, Hemudu culture, and the Majiabang culture. It connects speakers of the Austronesian languages in a common linguistic and genetic lineage, including the Taiwanese indigenous peoples, Islander Southeast Asians, Chams, Islander Melanesians, Micronesians, Polynesians, and the Malagasy people. Aside from language and genetics, they also share common cultural markers like multihull and outrigger boats, tattooing, rice cultivation, wetland agriculture, teeth blackening, jade carving, betel nut chewing, ancestor worship, and the same domesticated plants and animals (including dogs, pigs, chickens, yams, bananas, sugarcane, and coconuts)

Pre-Independence 

In this timeline, history, since the start of the American era, has been on the more favorable side for the Philippines. Without the violent Katipunan revolt headed by Emilio Aguinaldo. The Philippines was handed down by Spain to America through peaceful means, without engaging into war against each other. Nationalisation took place during the era, while strengthening the presence and use of the English and Filipino language. This was a time of socioeconomic prosperity, yet the rise of Communist forces, demanding equal treatment of farmers and landowners in the country. The Communists, locally known as Hukbalahap, fought against the Japanese imperialists during the Second World War, and ended up triumphant. After the war, they engaged in friendly relations with the Americans and the Philippine government resulting in a peace agreement and ceasefire. On July 4, 1946, the United States granted independence to the Philippines, yet retained their military bases and promised to cooperate with the independent government.

Republic of the Philippines (1946-1996)

Elpidio Quirino, a Nationalist, became the first president of the Second Republic, granted asylum to all political and war prisoners of the Huks (HukBaLaHap), as part of ongoing peace efforts. His successors, Ramon Magsaysay and Carlos Garcia, promoted Philippine culture and product exports which made the Philippine economy boom. The administrations of Diosdado Macapagal and Ferdinand Marcos were known as railway systems and a large road network, known collectively as the Daang Maharlika, were built in different urban areas of the country. Which made the business easy for the Urbans to the Rurals and vice-versa, economy booms more and more while the communism ideology in the country began to decline.

Since there is no need to declare Martial Law by Ferdinand Marcos, the 1972 election was held and was eventually succeeded by his close friend Benigno Aquino Jr., who established significant economic reforms which made more communists to surrender and became popular among the people. Aquino sent large troops to aid US and South Vietnam, which ended up in a South Vietnamese victory. A year later, the Republic of Vietnam established its embassy in the country, promising friendly diplomatic and trade relations with the Philippines. The Southeast Asian region prospered economically and culturally. However, a global economic recession took place from 1976, the same year that the country will have its election , as a result of stock markets crashing across Europe and Asia, and ended in 1981. Unfazed by the economic plunge, the Philippines' growth continued yet was still slowed, in comparison to the rapid growth in the previous years.

In 1980, Salvador Laurel was elected and subsequently placed the country in a transitional government to create the government for federalism to work efficiently. Under her term, the GDP surged with a growth of ~30% per annum, among the highest and fastest growing globally. Wind and solar power were created to address concerns over the depletion of conventional electricity sources. He was succeeded by Miriam Defensor-Santiago in 1988. Defensor-Santiago had the same mindset as him and made significant reforms to invite more businessmen to invest in the Philippines, so she made the country open to investors. In 1991, she expressed plans to convert the unitary form of government to a federal system, to better cater the needs of those in rural and less affluent areas. As planned, a constitutional convention was held in 1995, the year before she will stepped down

 The New Filipino (1996-2000)

The constitutional convention for change in form of government yielded an overwhelming vote in favor of the amendment, and was implemented the following year. The country's official name was changed from the Republic of the Philippines to the Federal Republic of the Philippines, and a change in the country's official seal. Defensor-Santiago administration stepped down from power in 1996. And was succeeded by her endorsed candidate Joseph Ejercito-Estrada. In 1997, as Southeast Asia underwent a financial crisis, the Philippines was totally unaffected, with growth eventually reaching 15% before the end of Santiago's term and the start of Estrada's, the GDP surpassing the ₱5 trillion mark, the first country to do so in the region. Estrada aimed to fulfill his anti-poverty programs to solve the lack of settlements and increasing street dwellers. Estrada built high-rise apartments to serve their needs and make use of the small land area of the country, alike that of Singapore. This significantly changed the poverty and housing problems in the Philippines, since it resulted in the demolition of the slum area to make use of it for different government projects and businesses. 

The Roaring Tiger of Asia (2000-present)

His successor, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo continued his advocacy and sustained the country's economic progress. During Arroyo's term, the GDP had grew at a peak of 24%, marking the highest growth in Philippine or Southeast Asian history. The country became part of the G7 in 2008, being the only country in the region to become a member of the group. Under Arroyo's term, the poverty rate dropped to an all-time low of 7% in international standards. Under her term, the Great Peninsula War started by the country annexing Singapore by peace which earned the ire and prompted the Indochina countries to declare war on the country. Despite of this, the country remains unaffected and one by one annexed the mainland Southeast Asia and totally in 2015. Corruption were problems of his successor, Gilbert Teodoro, to resolve, with the administration passing several anti-corruption laws in the Batasang Pambansa. The country then sustained economic growth, albeit being lower at 20-25% per annum. In 2013, the IMF and the World Bank classified the Philippines as an advanced economy, being the second country in the region following Singapore. The GDP reached $3 trillion the following year, with it retaining the same growth rates, making only the Philippines and India reaching such while maintaining a very positive growth rate. 

Government

The Philippines is the world's youngest federation. It is a representative democracy, "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the U.P. Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. For 2018, the U.P. ranked 15th on the Democracy and Peace Index 22nd on the Clean Government Index.

In the Philippines federalist system, citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: federal, state, and local. The local government's duties are commonly split between provincial and city governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. There is no proportional representation at the federal level, and it is rare at lower levels.

The federal government comprises three branches:

  • Legislative: The bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse, and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government.
  • Executive: The president is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law (subject to Congressional override), and appoints the members of the Cabinet (subject to Senate approval) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies.
  • Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the president with Senate approval, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.

The House of Representatives has 700 voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year. At the 2020 census, only one state had the minimum of one representative, while Luzon, the most populous state, had 49. The New Clark District and the three major territories each have one member of Congress — these members are not allowed to vote.

Religion

States in the Philippines practice many different religions. By population, Islam is the most practised faith, numbering approximately 240 million adherents, or about 40% of the entire population, concentrated in states of Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, Southern Thailand and in the Mindanao. Indonesia is the most populous Muslim-majority country around the world.

There are approximately 205 million Buddhists in the Union, making it the second largest religion in the region, after Islam. Approximately 38% of the global Buddhist population resides in Southeast Asia. Buddhism is predominant in Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma and Singapore. Ancestor worship and Confucianism are also widely practised in Vietnam and Singapore.

Christianity is predominant in the Philippines, eastern Indonesia, East Malaysia and East Timor. The Philippines has the largest Roman Catholic population in Asia. East Timor is also predominantly Roman Catholic due to a history of Portuguese rule.

No individual Southeast Asian country is religiously homogeneous. Some groups are protected de facto by their isolation from the rest of the world.

The federal government comprises three branches:

  • Legislative: The bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse,[380] and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government.[381]
  • Executive: The president is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law (subject to Congressional override), and appoints the members of the Cabinet (subject to Senate approval) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies.[382]
  • Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the president with Senate approval, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.

The House of Representatives has 435 voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year. At the 2010 census, seven states had the minimum of one representative, while California, the most populous state, had 53. The District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories each have one member of Congress — these members are not allowed to vote.

Tourism

To be written'

Education

State governments set overall educational standards, often mandate standardized tests for K–12 public school systems and supervise, usually through a board of regents, state colleges, and universities. The bulk of the ₱1.5 trillion in funding comes from state and local governments, with federal funding accounting for only about ₱300 billion. Private schools are generally free to determine their own curriculum and staffing policies, with voluntary accreditation available through independent regional accreditation authorities, although some state regulation can apply.

In 2013, about 87% of school-age children (those below higher education) attended state funded public schools, about 10% attended tuition- and foundation-funded private schools, and roughly 3% were home-schooled.

By state law, education is compulsory over an age range starting between five and eight and ending somewhere between ages sixteen and eighteen, depending on the state. This requirement can be satisfied in public schools, state-certified private schools, or an approved home school program. In most schools, compulsory education is divided into three levels: elementary school, middle or junior high school, and high school. Children are usually divided by age groups into grades, ranging from kindergarten (5–6-year olds) and first grade for the youngest children, up to twelfth grade (17–18 years old) as the final year of high school.

Sports

War Games and Death Matches

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