The Principality of Prussia, Prussia, Gothenlandic Prussia, is a constitutional monarchy situated in the South-West Baltic. It is completely surrounded to the West, south and East by Poland-Lithuania. Its capital is Königsberg. Its population is around 1.9 million.
Its current head of state is Prince Olaf VII.
Its currency is the Prussian Mark (PSM).
Prussian and German are the official languages of the country. German is more of a city language whilst Prussian is more rural, though this is slowly changing as the cities grow under industrialisation. Gothenlandic is normally used as a common 'bridge' language and Polish is spoken by some communities in the south.
Throughout the 10th century Polish dukes made several attempts to Christianise their northern neighbours, but were regularly foiled by the area's marshy terrain. The Order of Teutonic Knights, originally crusading in the Holy Land, took the main thrust of their crusade into Prussian territory. The terrain and military skill of the Prussians meant the crusade lasted much longer than in Livonia and was not completed until 1283. There were regular revolts and the harsh repressions that followed were criticised even at the time. The church often then refused to Christianise the population as it was found they were easier to rule as pagans.
Prussian land, like that of Livonia, was divided in 1243 by the papal legate William of Modena into the Bishoprics of Culm, Pomesania, Ermland and Samland (all under Riga's control), whilst the remaining land was divided between the knights of the Teutonic Order.
To replace population losses from the endless fighting and the Black Death the knights asked for German settlers. Many did settle in the territory, however the revolt of Pomerania prevented many settlers from reaching their destinations. This kept the Prussian character of the region that may have otherwise been lost. Prussia was pulled into the German orbit when Emperor Olaf brought the two crusader states back into the Holy Roman Empire
From the mid-14th century most of the Order's energy would be spent fighting pagan Lithuania. They were joined and supported by, (and occasionally fought against), Gothenland which held sections of the North Prussian coastline as well as campaigning heavily in Eastern Pomerania and Pomeralia.
The Lithuanian union with Poland and its subsequent christianisation essentially removed the Order's crusading purpose but the territorial feuds with Poland-Lithuania and increasingly Gothenland and Denmark continued. Denmark and Gothenland had carved up Eastern Pomerania by 1441 and the region of Newmark lost to Brandenburg by 1452. Comprehensively defeated by Poland-Lithuania at Grunwald in 1485, the Order split from its Livonian brothers (who had already been outlawed by the papacy). The Fourth Peace of Thorn gave Ermland to Poland and Samland to Gothenland. However during the same period the economy boomed as trade flowed into Prussia from the virtually land-locked Polish/Lithuanian territories. Prussia itself became immensely wealthy and the previously sidelined native Prussians began reasserting their rights.
The Prussian navy was wiped out by Kalmar ships in 1501 at the Battle of Memel and soon after West Prussia was lost to Gothenland. By 1513 the Grandmasters had lost all independence and sworn fealty to Poland-Lithuania. In return Poland assisted the Order in reforming the territory, abolishing itself and elevating the last Grandmaster to Prince. Prussia became largely Lutheran during the reformation and the Princes were able to dissolve the Bishoprics' land, though Polish pressure ensured the bishops themselves were kept in place.
The death of Prince Albert II in 1622 without heirs unleashed the Prussian Succession War (1622-1635) as various parties claimed the Principality; Brandenburg (cousin), Gothenland (cousin) and Poland-Lithuania (as ultimate lords). The Treaty of Danzig left Gothenland ruling Prussia as a fief of Poland whilst holding on to Samland and Pomerelia as direct holdings of the crown. Poland took West Prussia and kept Ermland. Brandenburg and Gothenland would go to war 5 more times over Eastern Pomerania during the next 20 years while both were nominally allies in the continuing Fifty Years War. The title of Prince of Prussia was given to King John VI's brother Olaf. And in 1785 Poland-Lithuania would give Gothenland full reign in Prussia in return for non-cooperation with Denmark and Svealand during the 3rd Hungarian War. Subsequently Samland was reattached to Prussia and Königsberg was made the capital of the united Gothenlandic Prussia.
Under the terms of the Treaty of Oland (1894) Prussia became an independent country. Discussions for Prussia to join the Kalmar Union have faltered as Poland has said it would regard this as a declaration of war.
The current head of state of Prussia is Olaf VII. He is also an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. The Chancellor is Herman Plauen.
The arrangement of government is based on the Gothenlandic model, though with generous provisions for traditional Prussian law. Elections are held every 5 years.