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The Republic of Yucatan, or the Second Republic of Yucatan, is a seccessionist state formerly part of Mexico. Its political independence is unrecognized internationally, though it receives support from Guatemala and Cuba. Practically, Yucatan is dependent on Mexico enough to where most locals have called for rejoining the United Mexican States.
The main reason that hasn't happened, and won't seem to happen anytime soon, revolves around the same Yucatan nationalists who sparked the independence movement in the 1980s and the Yucatan War that ended in 1993. The nationalists have radicalized to the point where they have committed acts of terrorism within and outside of Yucatan against Mexican military, political and civilian targets.
South American and Central American drug lords, including some driven out of Mexico by its military in the past few decades, are increasingly using Yucatan as a harbor for their trade. In turn, this has led to increased calls with the Mexican Congress by conservatives to invade the breakaway state, rejoin it with Mexico and take down the radicals and criminals.
It encompasses the former Mexican states of Yucatán, Quintana Roo and Campeche.
Yucatan is governed by the Constitution of 1993, which borrows many of its provisions from the Constitution of 1841 which governed the region during its short period of independence from 1841 to 1848.
Pre-Doomsday, 19th century
After the Spanish conquest of Yucatán, the Peninsula was a single administrative and political entity, the Captaincy General of Yucatán.
Following independence and the breakup of the Mexican Empire in 1823, the first Republic of Yucatán was proclaimed, which was then voluntarily annexed to the Federal Republic of United Mexican States on December 21, 1823.
On March 16, 1841, as a result of cultural and political conflicts around the federal pact, Yucatán declared its independence from Mexico. forming a second Republic of Yucatán.
Eventually on July 14, 1848, Yucatán was forced to rejoin Mexico. In 1858, in the middle of the caste war, the state of Yucatán was divided for the first time, establishing Campeche as a separate state (officially in 1863). During the Porfiriato, in 1902, the state of Yucatán was divided again to form the Federal territory that later became the present state of Quintana Roo.
The Yucatan and Chiapas uprisings
Doomsday led to an influx of refugees into Yucatán and the Mexican state of Chiapas from Central American nations undergoing chaotic changes in the wake of the Third World War. Indigenous groups within the two Mexican states were unhappy over the perceived incompetence of the Mexican government, and especially the ruling Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) party, in stemming the refugee surge and its inability to stem the rapidly failing local economy. They saw the chaos as their best chance for Yucatan and Chiapas to separate from Mexico and form their own nations.
Increased protests, and uprisings led President Miguel de la Madrid to send Army troops into Chiapas and Yucatan on May 10, 1987. His action is recognized as the unofficial start of the "Yucatan War", the beginning of years of conflict in the region that ultimately would lead to the secession of the Yucatan into a socialist republic and the eventual loss of influence for the long-ruling PRI. Víctor Cervera Pacheco, the PRI governor during Doomsday, left the government and was replaced by Dulce María Sauri Riancho (of the PRI), creating the Yucatan Self-Defense Army with help of the military in Mérida, as the regional government hated the politics of the president.
The Yucatan War
The war that came to become known as "Mexico's Vietnam" began in earnest on February 9, 1988, when insurgents launched a series of guerrilla attacks on Army troops throughout Yucatan, killing 15 soldiers and injuring 11 more.
Over the next several years, the Mexican Army - helped by efforts amongst the American refugees to be peaceful despite ongoing tension surrounding their presence, and by the northern states ably patrolling the US border - sent much of its forces into Mexico's southern states and particularly Yucatan.
Aided by outside assistance in weapons and manpower, the insurgents eventually took de facto control of the state in 1992. The Yucatan branch of the Partido Socialista Unificado de México (PSUM), renamed as the PSUY and ruled by Francisco Luna Kan, a pure Maya ancestry candidate who resigned from the PRI and joined the PSUM, was proclaimed as the rebels leader, after overthrowing the PRI regional government ruled by Dulce María Sauri Riancho; as more and more Mexican soldiers died in the never-ending conflict, public opinion amongst Mexicans gradually shifted from support for overthrowing the resurgents to leaving Yucatan to fend for itself.
Salinas himself changed his opinion from winning the war at all costs to negotiating with the insurgents, but was opposed by military leaders the entire way. Similarities between Yucatan and American involvement in Vietnam, and pundits and experts alike began to predict a similar fate for the Mexican military. Conflicts between the President, the Congress and the military hampered efforts to fight the war, and eventually led to the insurgents permanently gaining the upper hand over the Mexican military.
Only when it became clear that the military was clearly losing the war and that nothing short of a nuclear bombing would defeat the insurgents, the politicians and military finally agree on something: the military's gradual withdrawal from the region.
On October 18, 1993, a ceasefire was called, being the base for the Treaty of Antigua Guatemala
Yucatan formally declared itself as the Republic of Yucatan the next day and received its first ambassador - from Nicaragua - on October 30. On November 9, Mexican President Salinas and Yucatan independence leaders signed a treaty bringing an end to the war and giving Mexico's formal sanction to the creation of a Yucatan Republic. Mexico formally recognized the new nation on November 21, 1993, allowing the young nation to stand on its own.
It would, but not after many growing pains, and not until Yucatan's leaders realized that for Yucatan to prosper, it would have to tie its economy to the one nation it wished not to be a part of Mexico.
1994-2003: Uncertain times
Between the war and a treaty to secure their independence, a new era began. The PSUY government reorganized the country in 4 states, creating an autonomous Maya State with capital on Chichen Itzá, and securing the borders with Chiapas, Guatemala and Belize. Those years, the young republic was
2004: The treaty with Mexico
In 2004, a treaty between Mexico was signed on Antigua Guatemala, based in the ceasefire of the 18 of October of 1993, creating a border between Mexico and Yucatan, although most nationalist factions were more aggressive, and wanted Mexico to recognise their independence, responding to the "soft-line" of Yucatan government with terrorist attacks. While tourism was starting to get back to the region, the nationalists destroyed the idea of a prosperous, peaceful republic.
Yucatan nationalists' response: terrorism
More to come...
Yucatan in 2011
In 2011, Yucatan has established as a small power on Central America.
Due to being cut of from most of the world and coming from a part of Mexico whose economy was heavily based on tourism, Yucatan struggled economically for years. The beautiful beaches of the Mexican Caribbean were empty and rarely saw any tourists due to the political situation.
After "reconciling" with Mexico in the wake of the signing of the economic treaty with Mexico in 2004, the beaches and resorts began to reopen, and for a while it seemed that Yucatan's economy would gain a massive boost.
However, subsequent terrorist actions by Yucatan nationalists have largely shut down the fledgling tourism industry, and once again the beaches and resorts sit empty.
Yucatan's economy has become mainly based on growing coffee and some tropical fruits in the fertile regions of the peninsula.
Yucatan is a bilingual country with Spanish and Mayan as the official languages in government documents, signs and public places. Since Doomsday, the Mayan language has experienced a revival even amongst non-native speakers.
Being an unrecognized state by much of the world, the Republic of Yucatan's international relations consist mostly of aid sent by Cuba and Guatemala. It also has diplomatic relationships with Honduras and Nicaragua.