Although every republics have their own quirks, all of them have at least some customs and systems of government based on what came to be known as "the republican system".
- Head of state (name varies by countries but most common is "Grand Elector"): Has limited power of dissolution of council and can destitute a consul in case of breach of the constitution. The post is for life but cannot then pass to someone to whom he is related by blood, marriage or affiliation.
- Co-Consuls: one is in charge of internal affairs, the other of external one. Is designated by the head of state based on the recommendations of the senate.
- Senate: elected by and representing the people. From among themselves are chosen the consuls and head of state whom they can destitute if found to be in breach of his constitutional role. Members of the senate are named to various committees which chose civil servants based of the List of Notables.
Both councils are composed of members chosen from the Lists of Notables
- Conseil des Tribuns: Discuss Laws and propose amendments.
- Conseil des Légats: Can either accept or reject laws but are not allowed to amend them.
Citizens vote for the senate and for Lists of Notables. Elections for the senates are only held to replace members which have retired (for personal reasons or due to the age limit) or been destituted. Senators do not represent any given region.
List of Notables are voted for on a regular basis (every year or so). From these, individuals are chosen to fill various function within the apparatus based on there competencies and recommendation of a committee. Candidates to the lists must fulfill certain criteria (sane, never convicted, over a given age, etc ...).
A citizen can be elected to one of the following type of lists: Cantonal, Districtal, Departemental and National. Each type of list served to find replacement for different roles, ex: mayors are chosen from the cantonal lists, Prefets from the departemental ones, etc ...
- Departments: first Administrative division of a state. To break with the old regime and discourage regionalism, their borders have been purposefully designed to cut cut across traditional region. In addition, they are usually named after physical features (such as mountains and rivers) instead of ethnic or historical ones. The capital city is the "prefecture" where the department's head (the préfet) has his headquarters. Departments are then divided into districts and canton.
Religion and the State
- The government is prevented by law from promoting any religions (or part of its credo) as well as granting any public funds to an openly religious group.
- Religious groups are not afforded any special prerogative in republics meaning that to be able to own lands and have employees (priests) they must organised themselves as fraternal societies which by law must be fully owned by local citizens. Although outwardly many of the local representatives of mainstream religions maintain a public image identical to their counterpart in other countries (i.e. uniforms and titles, use of distinct architectural buildings) they are, from a legal point of view, completely separate entities.
- No sacraments have any legal bearing so wedding must be performed through the civic authority to be recognised. A religious wedding is seen as no more then a celebration.
- "Religious exception" is never a defence in either criminal or civil court (for example to justify a dismissal or to request a derogation to a particular rule).
- Disturbing a lawful religious ceremony however is a crime and so is forcing a person to respect a religious observance or prevent him from doing so. In this later case, it cannot obviously be under circumstances that would go against laws or internal rules that apply to all.
Law enforcement and crime prevention are performed by a national force made of volunteers. Officers and local chiefs are designated civil servants and chosen based on seniority and capabilities. These not, however, taken from a local List of Notables but from members of the police force.
- There is a mandatory period of service although many special groups (students, sole supporter, handicapped, etc ...) can either defer it, do an equivalent period performing community services or be exempted outright.
- officers are trained at "Schools of Mars" (Military academy). The oldest one was built on Sablons Plain in front of the Boulogne Park, Paris. the schools are opened to all who can succeed the entry test.