In OTL formerly the Duke of Gloucester, who became King of England 1483-5, having ousted his nephew Edward V, who was a minor, and killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field.

Possible alternative histories (which can be created):

  • Richard gets married during his minority but with another girl than Anne Neville.
  • Richard's wife, Anne Neville, has a child by her first marriage to Henry VI's son.
  • Richard, as Duke of Gloucester, is killed during one of the battles of the Wars of the Roses.
  • Richard joins his brother, George, Duke of Clarence, in the conflict with their elder brother, Edward IV.
  • Edward IV survives for several more years, and his son succeeds as Edward V, being an adult: Richard of York retains his leadership of the north of England, and intervenes on occasion in both the London and the Scottish government. A notable patron of the arts, he encourages William Caxton to set up a subsidiary printing press in the north, with consequent results on the development of "northern English."
  • Richard allows his nephew to succeed to the throne in 1483 (possibly by coming to an arrangement with the Woodvilles): possibly strengthening his own regional leadership, with potential for conflict.
  • Edward V's mother's family ousts Richard from the position to which he has been appointed by Edward IV.

Richard III succeeds:

  • Edward V and his brother Richard survive in a visible position: and either disappear into obscurity, or lead/become the figureheads of a rebellion.
  • The Duke of Buckingham succeeds in his rebellion: Richard ousted and/or killed: conflict over the succession ensues.
  • Richard's son survives - or there are other children which survive (whether with Anne Neville or a second wife), reducing the possibility of dynastic conflict.
  • Henry Tudor (in OTL the future Henry VII) dies during Richard's reign (of whatever causes), or comes to an arrangement with Richard.
  • Richard survives the Battle of Bosworth - as monarch, with Henry Tudor surviving to fight another day, is marginalised, or is killed.
  • Richard survives the Battle of Bosworth, as an ousted monarch in exile, possibly living with his sister in Burgundy.
  • The Scottish decide to intervene in English politics, in revenge for Richard's activities in Scotland, or in conjunction with the power struggle within Scotland.
  • Henry Tudor links up with the Scottish king/other Scottish royal. (Possibly in conjunction with previous point.)
  • Henry Tudor waits until after 1485. Richard III marries off his brothers' daughters (Edward had five, and George, Duke of Clarence had one), thus thwarting Henry's attempted dynastic union.
  • Richard III's arrangements to have his niece Elizabeth married to minor foreign nobility are successful and he then dies at Bosworth - Henry Tudor faces a succession crisis.
  • Richard III's nephews are singly or severally in a position to oust Henry VII.

George, Duke of Clarence:

In OTL George variously supported his elder brother Edward and then, for various reasons, their relative, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, before marrying the latter's elder daughter, eventually returning to support his brother; after various further disruptive activities he died in mysterious circumstances (traditionally in a butt of malmsey) in the Tower of London.

Various possibilities arise:

  • The roles George and Richard played during the return of Henry VI are reversed.
  • George remarries and has further children.
  • George prevents Richard from marrying Warwick's younger daughter. Possibly Richard then negotiates with the Scottish royal family/Scottish nobles, and acquires a bride from that country and creates a powerful autonomous "substate" in the middle region of the British Isles. (The historic Danelaw - which had cultural, legal and other differences from South England).

George survives, and Edward IV dies as in OTL:

  • George plays the long game and survives to play a role in the situation after Edward IV's death, whether in cooperation with Richard of Gloucester (our Richard III) or on his own account, or with the Woodvilles, so there are several parties claiming the succession..Richard might adopt the 'Central England strategy' mentioned above.
  • George dies but the succession of his children is seriously considered (whatever the state of his attainder)

Edward dies later than in OTL

  • Edward allows George to live, but the latter continues to cauese disruption.
  • George again plays the long game,.whether or not remarrying, and Edward V succeeding has to face two paternal uncles with strongly entrenched powerbases..

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