An alternate timeline by Althistorian 2005.
What if the Republican party rift hadn't emerged during Taft's presidency, and Teddy Roosevelt had been nominated by the Republican Party for the 1912 presidential election?
1912: Without the Republican party rift, Teddy Roosevelt is nominated for president in the 1912 elections. He easily defeats Democrat candidate Woodrow Wilson since his image as an American symbol is still fresh in the popular consciousness.
1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria is assassinated on June 28. World War 1 starts almost exactly a month later. Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Serbia are now engulfed in a large-scale war all because one archduke was assassinated. Nonetheless, they are at war. In December, the Ottoman Empire jumps onto the bandwagon of war on the side of Germany and Austria-Hungary (the Central Powers), fighting against Britain, France, Russia, and Serbia (the Allied Powers). Meanwhile, TR lobbies strongly for Congress to join the war on the Allies' side with the slogan "Rough Ridin' Over the Kaiser" following the violation of Belgian neutrality.
1915: Italy, Romania, and the US join the war on the Allies' side while Bulgaria joins the Central Powers, helping Austria-Hungary to defeat Serbia and push Romania to the brink of defeat. American troops soon begin arriving on the Western Front to push back the Germans.
1916: On 4 June, the Russian Brusilov Offensive begins, breaking Austrian lines and causing German troops to be diverted from the Western Front to push it back. The Allies then manage to breakthrough on the Western Front, enabling the Russians to launch more offensives. Then, Russian Tsar Nicholas II uses his family ties with Greek monarch Constantine I to get Greece into World War 1 on the Allies' side, despite Constantine's German wife and pro-German courtiers. Meanwhile, Austrian Kaiser Franz Joseph I dies in November, causing Austria-Hungary to collapse. Allied and German troops eventually move in to fill the power vacuum while President Roosevelt is re-elected.
1917: In February, a revolution overthrows Tsar Nicholas, but unlike OTL, the Provisional Government decides to leave the war, thus enabling them to suppress the Bolshevik Revolution which then happens in October. Bulgaria, seeing that the Allies are winning nonetheless, decides to try negotiating an armistice with them. An agreement is reached, and a peace treaty is signed in Neuilly, France:
- Bulgaria gains Serbian Macedonia.
- The rest of Serbia is restored as an independent kingdom on the side of the Allies.
- The Allies gain military access through Bulgaria for the remainder of the war.
Germany and the Ottoman Empire are now surrounded. The Ottoman Empire decides to capitulate before the Allies march on Istanbul, while Germany agrees to begin peace negotiations. Later, Finland declares independence from Russia, which the Provisional Government agrees to on the conditions that the Aland Islands are ceded to Sweden and some money is paid to Russia.
1918: The Treaty of Versailles is signed, ending the First World War:
- Alsace-Lorraine will be returned to France.
- Neukamerun, ceded to Germany from France in 1911, will be returned to France as well.
- German East Africa and German New Guinea will be ceded to Britain.
- The remainder of Germany's Pacific territories will be ceded to Japan.
- The remainder of Germany's African territories will remain German-ruled.
- Germany will pay some war reparations. (But not as much as in OTL)
- Some Danish-German border regions in northern Germany, around the Schleswig-Holstein area, shall hold referendums to decide whether or not to stay in Germany.
- Germany will not be allowed to attack anyone, nor will anyone be allowed to attack Germany, until 1935.
- If the temporary German neutrality is breached before 1935, Britain and France will be obliged to assist Germany in defense of German territories.
- The entire German military will not be allowed to expand or update their equipment until 1935.
- The Rhineland will be demilitarised until 1928.
Unlike OTL, the League of Nations is not proposed.
Then, the Treaty of Sevres is signed with the same terms as in OTL, and it still causes national outrage in Turkey, followed by a civil war which also soon encounters foreign intervention.
1919: On January 6, President Roosevelt dies from a pulmonary embolism. He is succeeded by Vice President Hiram Johnson. Later in the year, the Treaty of St. Germain is signed, finally partitioning Austria-Hungary and transferring territories of the former empire to civilian rule:
- Czechoslovakia is created, stretching from the Sudeten Mountains in western Bohemia all the way to the province of Galicia, encompassing multiple ethnic groups and hopefully becoming a symbol of racial unity in Europe.
- All Serbian ethnic lands are ceded to Serbia.
- All Croatian, Slovenian, and Bosnian ethnic lands are combined with Serbia to form Yugoslavia.
- Italian and Romanian ethnic lands are ceded to their respective home countries.
- Hungary is separated from Austria.
- Austria is annexed by Germany, but as a demilitarised zone.
- German-populated areas in Bohemia will be transferred to the German Empire in 1925.
- British and French Somaliland are ceded to Italy.
Later in the year, the 19th Amendment is ratified, granting American women the right to vote.
1920: Instead of President Johnson, Warren G. Harding is somehow nominated as the Republican candidate in the presidential elections, finally winning and being inaugurated as president the following year.
1921: With the post-war chaos finally settling, a massive global economic boom begins, allowing countries now poor due to the war, like Germany and Russia, to rebuild their economies.
1922: After the Turkish Civil War ends with the victory of the nationalist rebels, the Treaty of Lausanne is signed by the new Turkish government, revising the Treaty of Sevres, and with the same terms as in OTL. Meanwhile, Italian political activist Benito Mussolini rises to power the same way he did in OTL.
1923: President Harding dies and is succeeded by his Vice President, Calvin Coolidge.
1925: President Coolidge is nominated as the Republican candidate in the 1924 elections and wins. Then, the German-populated areas in Bohemia, now known as the Sudetenland due to the Sudeten Mountains, is transferred to German rule as per the Treaty of St. Germain.
1928: The Rhineland is remilitarised as per the Treaty of Versailles. Then, following President Coolidge's decision not to run for a second term, Herbert Hoover is nominated as the Republican candidate in the presidential election and wins.
1929: In October, the New York Stock Exchange collapses, just like in OTL, setting off a chain reaction that collapses the global economy. However, despite Teddy's legacy changing the course of the Republican Party, President Hoover and the GOP still don't do anything about the economic recession, calling it a normal bust phase in the business cycle. Thus, the American people look to the Democratic Party to solve the economic recession, paving the way for Teddy's fifth cousin, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR), to become president in the 1932 elections, ending a long period of Republican political domination dating from 1861.
1931: Due to the Great Depression caused by the New York Stock Exchange collapsing, Japan begins to have a trade deficit, with silk exports no longer being able to keep up with raw material and food imports. Thus, the Japanese turn to building an Asian empire to sustain a growing population. They sabotage their own railway in Manchuria, a region of China, and blame it on Chinese soldiers. Then, with this excuse, they invade Manchuria and set up a puppet government named Manchukuo. Meanwhile, the Spanish monarchy is overthrown and replaced with a republic.
1932: FDR is elected as the 32nd president of the United States, ending a long period of Republican political domination dating from 1861. After his inauguration, he starts a new policy to repair the economy, called the New Deal. He encounters some strong Republican opposition, but not as much as in OTL.
1935: Mussolini decides to expand the Italian empire and takes the Wal-Wal incident as an excuse to attack Ethiopia, starting the Second Italo-Ethiopian War.
1936: FDR is re-elected, and since the Republican opposition is weaker in this timeline than in OTL, he decides not to cut the New Deal budget, and the 1937 recession doesn't happen. Later on, nationalist Spanish rebels, led by Generalísimo Francisco Franco, start the Spanish Civil War while Ethiopia is annexed by Italy, creating Italian East Africa. After annexing Ethiopia, Italy begins sending support to the Nationalist rebels while Britain and France send support to the Republican government.
1937: The Marco Polo Bridge Incident happens, giving the Japanese an excuse to once again attack China, which they take without hesitation, finally starting the Second Sino-Japanese War.
1938: Due to Italy being their only foreign supporter, the Nationalist rebels are defeated, ending the Spanish Civil War while Japan and Italy sign an alliance treaty.
1940: FDR is re-elected again, entering a third term as president. Later, Mussolini decides to expand the Italian empire once again by attacking Yugoslavia while Japan agrees to attack British and French colonies in Southeast Asia, starting World War 2. Italian troops easily defeat the weak Yugoslav army, but then French troops begin storming into northern Italy and the French navy obliterates the Italian navy while Italian East Africa and Italian Libya are easily seized by the British after naval and air supply routes are cut. Germany later agrees to join the war in return for Italian Libya, but by then French troops are already speeding down to Rome, so Germany agrees to help in Southeast Asia instead. In Asia, Japanese troops manage to defeat French resistance in Indochina while gaining an ally in Thailand. The British forces in Burma and Malaya are then reinforced with retreating French troops from Indochina and later with French and German troops from Europe. Russia is later persuaded to attack Japan as well in return for the island of Hokkaido and the south half of the island of Sakhalin after the war.
1941: Italy surrenders while Yugoslavia is liberated from Italian occupation. Then, the Yugoslav government returns to neutrality while Italian East Africa regains independence as Ethiopia. Italian Libya is then ceded to Germany while Italy also returns to neutrality, albeit still under Mussolini's government. The Italo-Japanese alliance is also ended. Meanwhile, the Japanese navy slowly begins losing to the Russian navy in the Sea of Japan, in a reversal of the Russo-Japanese War, causing them to send more ships there and weakening them in other areas of the Pacific. Later, Kaiser Wilhelm II dies and is succeeded by Crown Prince Wilhelm, who becomes Kaiser Wilhelm III.
1942: A large-scale Anglo-Franco-German offensive is launched on Thailand, causing them to seek an armistice with the Allies. A white peace is agreed, with Allied military access through Thailand, allowing for the liberation of French Indochina.
1943: Large parts of China are liberated by the Allies and the United Chinese Front while Japan successfully signs a separate peace with Russia, ceding Hokkaido and South Sakhalin to Russian rule.
1944: Manchukuo and Korea are liberated, crushing and crippling the Japanese army. The Russian government then tries to mediate a peace treaty between Japan and the Allies, threatening Japan to re-enter the war if they don't agree to the terms. Meanwhile, FDR wins a fourth term, but then dies the following year, just 11 weeks into it. He is then succeeded by Harry S. Truman.
1945: In February, Japan finally agrees to peace, with the British army gaining exclusive rights to occupy the remaining Japanese home islands while Korea gains independence and Manchukuo is returned to Chinese rule. Virtually no borders are changed, but the Japanese finally allow their national identity to undergo a substantial change over the next six years.
1947: All the regional warlords are finally defeated by the Kuomintang government, uniting China and allowing for a national revival with Anglo-Franco-German support. Then, India gains independence, beginning the gradual process of decolonization the same way as in OTL, despite Hitler not having tarnished racism in this timeline due to him not rising to power.
1948: Despite the lack of a Soviet Union to oppose to strengthen his campaign, President Truman is elected to his own presidential term.
1951: Japan is freed from British occupation, but is only allowed to have a defensive army. Meanwhile, the 22nd Amendment to the US Constitution is ratified, prohibiting any US President from having more than two terms.
1952: Without the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, or US involvement in World War 2 in this timeline, Dwight D. Eisenhower remains a fairly unknown soldier in the army while Robert A. Taft, the son of former president William Howard Taft, wins the Republican nomination and the presidential election.
1955: The African-American Civil Rights Movement reaches the national spotlight for the next 13 years after an African-American woman, Rosa Parks refuses to leave her bus seat in Montgomery, Alabama.
1956: President Taft wins re-election.
1958: The Polish national independence movement finally secures Polish independence, marking a big step in ethnic self-determination.
1959: Cuban revolutionary Fidel Castro overthrows the Cuban government, causing the US to cut off relations with his newly-formed government, which is communist-leaning despite the failure of the Bolshevik Revolution. This starts the Cuban Crisis.
1960: John F. Kennedy wins the presidential election for the Democrats and decides to put even more pressure on Cuba.
1961-2: Castro refuses to compromise, and President Kennedy finally decides to invade Cuba, finally deposing Castro and ending the Cuban Crisis. Measures are put in place to ensure American-style democracy in Cuba and prevent another Cuban Revolution.
1963: The March on Washington marks the peak of the Civil Rights Movement.
1964: Due to the success of the 1961 invasion of Cuba, President Kennedy is not assassinated and is thus re-elected. He then proceeds to pass multiple Civil Rights Acts with the help of Vice President Lyndon Johnson's expertise at handling Congress.
1968: After President Kennedy passes one last Civil Rights Act, civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. After this, Republican Richard Nixon defeats the Democrat candidate in the presidential elections by promising law and order following race riots sparked by King's assassination.
1974: The Portuguese Estado Novo regime, which secretly supported the Nationalist rebels in the Spanish Civil War, ends with the Carnation Revolution on April 25, freeing all Portuguese colonies except Macau, which is peacefully transferred to China in 1999.
1979: The Iranian Revolution happens the same way as in OTL.
1980-8: The Iran-Iraq War takes place the same way as in OTL, except that peace is mediated by Britain, France, and Russia.
1990-1: The First Gulf War takes place the same way as in OTL, except that less countries join the coalition due to the lack of a UN to call them to action. Still, the US leads the coalition and defeats Iraq.
1997: Hong Kong is returned to China.
2001: Islamist terrorists attack the World Trade Center Twin Towers on September 11th, making that day a major event in American culture and history for the next few decades or so. The president, which is now Republican George HW Bush, declares a war on terror, promising to hunt down terrorists and defeat them.
2003: Coalition forces invade Iraq again, this time finally deposing Saddam Hussein and soon beginning a long period of instability in Iraq and its neighbor, Syria.
2004: President Bush is re-elected.
2008: Democrat Barack Obama, the first African-American president, takes office.
2011: US forces successfully hunt down and finally kill Osama bin Laden, the leader of the terrorists who attacked the World Trade Center Twin Towers.
2012: President Obama is re-elected.
2015: Gay marriage is legalised in the US, setting the stage for Republican Donald Trump to run for office on a conservative ticket set against these changes.
2016: Democrat Hillary Clinton, the wife of former president Bill Clinton (1992-2000), narrowly loses to Trump, who secures a Republican White House once again.