Alternative History

Presenting the rules for Principia Moderni III

Basic Rules

The basic tenets of the Principia Moderni series. These were the original rules set down by the original creator, Cosman246. Although they have been modified, they constitute the foundations of the series.

  • The main goal of these rules are to keep the game realistic. Every turn must be plausible and no one can achieve world domination in ten turns,
  • A turn is one day. Each turn is composed of actions, which can be militaristic, economic, diplomatic or constructive.
  • Turns begin at 00:00 UTC. Do not edit past turns.
  • Any conquered lands have their inhabitants, and they must be dealt with.
  • Keep in mind the linguistic effects of conquering and colonisation.
  • Every five years a map is to be made. A moderator marked as the Mapmaker will edit the map.
  • Every map must be saved as a .png on the current map template.
  • Each player will "call" a nation, this will be their main nation.
  • The moderators of this game have the power to grant and regulate all technology for each state as well as regulate plausibility. They also have the right to create random yet plausible and fair events in any and every nation throughout the course of the game. 
  • Espionage is allowed and will be detailed later, there is a clear distinction between espionage and meta-gaming.
  • Alliances and unions are allowed as is bargaining to achieve these, although remember to be plausible.
  • If a nation is inactive then it is considered to have become isolationist and is fair game for conquering and attacking. However, there will be resistance.
  • There are super-national confederations (e.g. The Holy Roman Empire, The Kalmar Union, The European Union, The African Union, etc). They function like alliances and can be broken and formed. 
  • You can commission privateers to raid a nation's shipping but they will reduce relations with the nation you hired them against.
  • The game ends in the present year.
  • Profile pages for your state are highly recommended. See here for an example.
  • If you are new, you may start the game in the turn that you joined.
  • No editing any past turns to contradict events which have already happened.
  • Not everyone can have an industrialized, liberal, stable, peaceful nation.
  • Unless your nation has been annexed in a war or vassalized as a result of war (see the mods for the last one), you may not switch nations.
  • No Batman mod events.


Each nation has one turn during which it may do one of the following actions.

  • Work on the nation's military.
  • Work on the nation's economy.
  • Work on the nation's infrastructure.
  • Expand the nation. 
  • Start or remain in a conflict.

There are no rules on what you can write about; it just has to be relevant to your nation ; be significant, plausible and appropriate. Two guidelines for all posts are:

  • Always include a name for your nation. If your nation is the United States, you can use "America," "The Americans," "The US," "The USA," etc. Avoid "The White House declares xxx," or "Montana expands north into unclaimed territory," but instead "The American government declares xxx" or "American colonists in Montana push north into unclaimed territory."
  • When you expand into another nation, always include the actual name. A map is included on the Principia Moderni talk page with the names of various nations. But don't write "The US expands into China more," if you are invading Tibetan Kingdoms. It would be even better to write, "The US invades the Tibetan Kingdom of Lhasa, expanding south as far as Mount Everest."

Colonial Turns

Within each turn, you may expand colonies by a given amount in areas that are black or dark grey on the map. These are given in sq km. Only use numbers divided by 50 in your turns (e.g. do not use numbers like 734, round to 750). This is because 50 sq km is equal to one pixel.

Time Since First Colony Founded Expansion rate per full turn

(Major Powers)

Expansion rate per full turn (Minor Powers) Expansion rate per full turn (Other Nations)
<50 years 1000 750 500
50–100 years 2000 1500 1000
100–200 years 5000 3000 2000
>200 years 10000 6000 4000
  • The above chart is for the base colonial expansion along the coastline or up a major river when using a full turn to do so. If you have already used a full turn in your main nation, your colonial expansion is 75% of the normal rate per turn.
  • The five largest nations in terms of power are the "Major Powers", the next five are "Minor Powers" with the rest categorized in "Other Nations". This is to maintain realistic sizes for colonies. Moderators will decide who is what.
  • Your First Colony for its first turn will remain at 1 px and will be expandable in its second turn.
  • If the colony itself is younger than five years, it can only expand by 200 sq km, regardless of any bonuses.
  • If a colony itself is older than 50 years, a bonus +100 sq km is given for expansion in that colony.
  • If a colony is older than 150 years, a bonus +500 sq km is given for expansion in that colony.
  • Desert, tundra and mountainous regions have expansion halved. Forests and plains have expansion at 75%. If you are colonising significantly outside of your home state's temperature range then the rates are halved further.
  • Additional bonuses will be received with industrialization.
  • Expansion into areas which are fragmented (in civil disarray) can be done through colonial expansions, at half the normal rates. Expansion into organized states or areas with small fragmented states requires an algorithm.
  • Expansion is capped at 10,000 sq km per turn (if plausible state must be able to fund/support this if not it will be collapsed out of your hands)

Colonization Rules

  • Colonies are defined as any possessions separated from its contiguous home nation by an ocean (Britain-Canada) or multiple seas (Italy-Ethiopia). This also includes places significantly distanced from a main home country (France-Lebanon).
  • No colonies until 1500.
  • No external colonies until your country is "boxed in" by other states on all sides.
  • Only two new colonies are allowed per 50 year period. And one colony per 20 years. The maximum number is seven at one time, two of which can be "large size." Large colonies are larger than OTL Peru (1,285,216 sq km) OR 25,704 pixels. You can conquer extra colonies after that but you increase the chances of a colonial revolution..
  • Colonies begin as a slice of a coast, and expand slowly over a period of 30–250 years to full size.
  • The maximum number of external colonies after 1950 is three, which can't be large. Small exclaves of former large colonies count as one-third of a colony, but these may not include large cities.
  • Colonies are designated on the map with crimson borders, as opposed to the usual grey.
  • Colonization of Africa until 1850 and beyond (subject to change) will not exceed 3 px inland
  • Exceptions are expansion up a river (Congo River, Niger River)
  • Colonial expansion inland must be either along a river or body of water or a slow and gradual process along all possible expansion routes. Long slender "tentacles" that aren't along a river or body of water will not be allowed. 

Multiple States

It is possible to control multiple states. However, some rules must be observed.

Vassal States

  • You may have vassal states subordinate to your nation, but contiguous to your nation or another vassal.
  • They are ruled by your first nation's government, but are allowed to keep their own interests.
  • Size rules do not apply, and a vassal my control up to two extra colonies. However, should a vassal state be more powerful than their liege-state then revolts are likely to occur.
  • Vassalising a state via peaceful means is hard and will take one year for two percent of what that state is in size compared to your home nation, with a minimum of three years. (e.g. If Foix is 8% of the size of France then it will take four years to vassalise Foix).
  • The religion, culture and geopolitics of a region will effect how long it takes to vassalise or if vassalising is even plausible.
  • You can annex vassal states after they have been ruled over by you for a couple decades.
  • A vassal cannot declare war on another country independent of its liege-state.
  • You must mention the vassalization of said state every turn for it to be considered legitimate.

Puppet States

  • You may have puppet states subordinate to your nation. They do not need to be contiguous to your nation. However, for each puppet state a nation has, a point will be deducted from the main nation's score in every war, regardless of whether the puppets are involved or not.
  • Puppet states can be obtained through the same methods as vassalisation.

Dynastic and Personal Union

  • Dynastic and personal union is multiple nations ruled by a single dynasty or person, respectively.
  • This can be accomplished by overthrowing or marrying into the dynasty in another country.
  • The rules are the same as standard expansion, but it may be a better idea than invasion or vassalisation if the second nation is an ally.
  • Dynastic and personal union are not the same thing, although a dynastic union may lead to a personal union, in the right circumstances.
  • You do not control a nation if it is only in dynastic union with your main nation. However, there is a decent chance of it becoming a personal union.


  • Border states may gain independence at any time.
  • Colonies may gain independence beginning in 1775.
  • Players may decide to relinquish control over the independent state and come back to it later, although standard expansion rules apply.

Full Unity

  • A nation not in dynastic or personal union and without vassal states is in full unity as they do not have as long a chain of command. When not in full unity, the nation is more susceptible to invasion, despite having more turns. Newly independent nations are in full unity after 15 turns.


  • There should be a sufficient number of moderators at all times.
  • Anyone may comment on a post believed to be implausible, but only moderators may roll them back or cross the post out.
  • Moderators are in charge of inducting new members.
  • Moderators should be active often to inspect moves for historical implausibility.
  • Moderators may cause natural events, revolts, etc. Moderators may cause events affecting all players of a certain region or only players who have expanded implausibly.
  • Moderators may have specific roles, which they are in charge of.
  • Inactive moderators may be removed.
  • Moderators may be impeached. The impeachment procedure can be initiated by any player but must be approved by at least two other mods. Only moderators (minus the one being impeached) can vote on whether the impeached mod will or will not be removed.
  • A moderator may propose that an user be banned from the game, either temporarily or permanently. The moderators will vote upon this. 
  • The above can be avoided if an user has broken the rules in a severe way (e.g. sockpuppeting), then the said user can be automatically banned by any moderator. 


  • Not having expanded implausibly for twenty turns, as determined by other moderators.
  • Played for at least thirty moves.
  • Must use a user account for most of their edits.
  • Must be active at least six days a week on average.
  • Pass a vote on the talk page with a two-third super majority.
  • Be nominated by a fellow mod.


Common sense. If it is not plausible then it should not be in the game. This is an attempt to simulate a real life alternate history. Also, just because it is plausible or even if it occurred in real life doesn't mean that it follows the rules. Just because you play as England, France, China or Muscovy does not mean you will become a superpower.

Common Implausibilities:

  • Advancing technology too fast. You should never invent something or discover something too far ahead of real life, If you have a special circumstance, which could occur, please contact a moderator to ask permission.
  • Expanding too fast. Massive expansion takes time to achieve, and nations that have expanded vast amounts in short periods of time (like the Mongols, Nazi Germans or Napoleonic French) have had their empires collapse, break apart and be defeated soon after doing so.
  • Having real life people exist. No real life people born after 1405 will exist in this map game. There are billions of name combinations, other than very common ones or repeat names in royal families, it is unlikely that any of the same names that are for famous people in our world would be for famous people in others.
  • Massive cultural shifts. Cultural shifts take many decades, have to have good reason, and tend to not be drastic. Religious changes in nations, other than secularism rising in the twentieth century, will almost always just be a denominational change.
  • Being overly liberal for the time period. Especially in the west, religious freedom was a foreign concept in most nations prior to the nineteenth century. In almost all nations, women did not become leaders and important figures with equal rights until the twentieth century. Don't get ahead of real life, like technology


Users are recommended to create articles for all of their colonies, as well as their main country. Articles are highly recommended for regions, event, and famous people that didn't exist IRL. There is an opportunity for bonus and/or awards for creativity and work put into articles.

A main country article should include (recommended headings in parentheses):

  • Capital and other cities (Urban Areas)
  • Administrative divisions (Subdivisions)
  • Official language, culture, and religion (Culture)
  • Ruler or monarch, government system (Government)
  • A quality picture of choice — map and flag highly recommended (can be under any heading)
  • History - may be detailed or brief, but must include important dates such as establishment date and any date of change of government (History)
  • A description of foreign relations (Foreign Relations)
  • List of colonies and colonial history (Colonies)

A colonial article should include:

  • List of settlements in their native language and OTL equivalents (Cities and Towns)
  • Cultural description (Culture)
  • History — may be detailed or brief, but must include date of formation and any applicable dates of transfer or full conquering of a sovereign state (History)
  • A picture of choice — map highly recommended (may be under any heading)

All articles are to be placed under the main category of "Principia Moderni III Map Game", as well as all other applicable categories, to easily organize all affiliated pages. 

All articles should contain the PM3 navigation box at the bottom of the page, which can be placed with {{PM3}}.


  • Maps are updated every five years and are to be posted as soon as possible during the year they are active. They apply to the end of every turn. So the 2005 map will apply to the years 2000-2004.
  • Only mapmakers may post the main map. Anyone may dispute the map if they see a problem.
  • No one else is allowed to post on the main map. This is to prevent errors and over-expansion.

Types of Countries

Player countries are added to the map, as is custom, after a few (at least five) turns of activity. This a measure to keep players involved in the game, prevent spamming and people who join just to make a few turns for a country. Countries are disconnected after an extended period of unplanned inactivity (over a week), and only when it is nearly certain that a player will not return. A player may always return to a disconnected country unless another user has taken over the country. Move your feet, lose your seat.

Regions in the map in light gray are organized states that have a central government. These states can see minor expansion but at a certain point there will be a large amount of organized resistance and possible war.

Regions in dark gray are fragmented. Countries which are fragmented may have a weak or powerless central government. This could mean that they either:

  • are in civil disarray
  • have no central authority (can overlap with the first)
  • are hordes
  • are composed of numerous small city-states or small kingdoms.

Countries that enter this state may come out of fragmentation, but it will take anywhere from a few years to a few decades depending on the size.. They receive algorithm modifiers in wars, but cannot take any territory in wars.. Expansion into these countries is difficult and damaging. You may help set up governments in a fragmented area but this is a messy process and must be done carefully.

Regions in black are dominated by a tribal or nomadic system of society. They are the easiest to expand into although that doesn't mean there will not be strong resistance. Major tribes are marked in white on the labelled map.

Tribal Nations

Tribal nations will start with the size of one tribe or 4 px, whichever is larger.


You may declare a war on any country at any time. You may have any NPC declare war on you so long as it is plausible. Small border expansion can (But is unlikely to) be completed without a war algorithm, but major expansion or invasions require the war algorithm to be completed. In order to declare war, you must specify what country is under attack.

An algorithm for war has been developed and is used in any war involving a player. This includes player-versus-player wars and player-versus-NPC wars. Everyone should try to copy the algorithms and construct their own. These algorithms are final. Disregarding the outcome of the algorithm will result in a ban!

In cases of civil wars, other wars where both factions are controlled by the same player, or in an instance where the players controlling the lead nations agree to a fixed outcome, algorithms do not have to be used.

You are not allowed to break off territory into new vassals or vassalize new nations in the middle of a war to increase the nations on your side. Wars can only be retconned if all players involved agree to do so.



Location goes by capital city. (May go by a Colony's Capital if it is a major Colony which can support a war or be a base.)

  • at the location of the war: +25
  • next to the location of the war: +20
  • close to the location of the war: +15
  • far from location of the war: +10
  • other side of the world: +5
  • Antarctica: 0

Tactical Advantage


  • No defenses, open field, etc: 1
  • High ground/ambush: 2
  • Tribal Ambush/Unconventional Warfare (Only works for Tribes against higher tiered civilizations): 3


  • No defenses, open field, etc: 1
  • High ground/ambush: 2
  • Siege Equipment: 5 (must be explicitly with the army and stated in the post.)

A country receives high ground/ambush if: 1) The battle location, or area where the army in question is located, has a high topographic prominence, meaning it is surrounded by areas of significantly lower elevation. Even plateaus count, but it must be so that the enemy has to climb the mountain to capture the location. 2) The defenders are meeting a force invading from the coast. This means in all invasions involving crossing water in boats/ships and meeting an enemy immediately at the beach starts at this level.

Nations Per Side on the War

  • L for Leader (+5) M for military aid (+3), S for supplies (+2), C for Cultural (+2) ,V for vassalization or subordination (-2) and then W for withdrawal (-1). Along with this nations having more than two personal union nations involved (Leading) in the war will get an additional -2 per union state involved. The same applies for having three or more Leading vassals involved in the war which each will equate to -2 in an algo per vassal. This has it so many nations from say a large empire could have troops and supplies drawn in from its entire empire, but only have the relevant areas involved through the L system
  • In the case of a Coalition war this limitation is per leader and not grouped together with all leaders. So France, Britain and Spain could all have their respective blocs involved and would not be penalized. 
  • When the final scores are added up the Nations per side score is calculated by dividing the final total by the # of involved nations on your side 

Military Development

  • Country has developed military: +2 for each turn dedicated to military or military technology in the last 20 years gets you the basic military development score.
  • The military development scores for both sides will be completed, then the larger side will be divided by the smaller one. The result, rounded to the nearest whole number, will be the number of points the higher scoring side gets on the algorithm. The lower scoring side gets none.
  • Navy was mentioned = full mil turn.
  • Navy was not mentioned = score cut in half.


  • Country has developed economy: +2 for each turn dedicated improving the economy in the last 20 years.
  • A nation can get economic bonus points for controlling crucial trade routes and locations (NOTE: you must control the entire coastline of the region to obtain the bonuses for the regions) Cities can rise and fall between +1 and +2 on the list but no city will reach +3. Economic Bonus can also be applied after division for certain things like larger economy, Rapid industrialization, etc.
  • Bonuses like larger economies also are brought into account.

Locations Bonus


  • Straits of Gibraltar (Croatia)
  • Suez and Central American canals (when built) (Imperial Rome [Suez])
  • Gulf of Mexico


  • Sea of Marmara (Imperial Rome)
  • Øresund (Scandinavia)
  • Malacca Straits (Ayutthaya)
  • Cape of Good Hope (Netherlands)
  • Red Sea Opening (Hashemite Caliphate)
  • Hawaii (Hawaii)
  • Fiji (France)
  • Cuba (Hamburg)
  • English Channel
  • Hudson Bay
  • Great Lakes


  • -Genoa (Lombardy)
  • -Antwerp (Netherlands)
  • -Lubeck (Hamburg?)
  • -Alexandria (Imperial Rome)
  • -Shanghai (Japan)
  • Nanjing (China)
  • Hangzhou (China)
  • Manhattan Island (Arcadia)
  • New Orleans (Reme)
  • Boston (Arcadia)
  • Reme (Reme)
  • Ragusa (Croatia)


  • Lisbon (Portugal)
  • London (Britannia)
  • Stockholm (Scandinavia)
  • Elsastat/St. Patriksburg (Russia)
  • Constantinople (Imperial Rome)
  • Baghdad (Hashemite Caliphate)
  • Barcelona (Aragon)
  • Samarkand (Tartary)
  • Delhi (Delhi)
  • Kozhikode (Kozhikode)
  • Khambhat (Udaipur Rajya)
  • Mogadishu (France)
  • Lanzhou / Xi'an (China)
  • Guangzhou / Hong Kong (Japan)
  • Yokohama (Japan)
  • Cuzco (Andea)
  • Tenochtitlan (Before canal) (Mexaca)
  • Santa Cruz (Brazilia)
  • New Hamburg (Hamburg)

Economic Bonus:

  • Much larger Economy: +10
  • Larger Economy: +5
  • Equally matched economy: +2 (to both nations)
  • Smaller Economy: -2
  • Receding Economy: -3
  • In Golden economic age: +3
  • Larger Trade/Colonial Empire: +5
  • These bonusus are added to the Economic development category

Military Modifier: 

  • Has not lost any of the previous three wars: +10
  • Has Naval dominance: +10
  • More total troops than enemy: +5
  • Nation is fully mobilized for war: +5 (must be specifically said in turn)
  • Nation has a moderately sized armed forces: +3 (60,000 to 20,000)
  • Nation has a small armed forces (20,000 or below) -2
  • Lost more than two recent wars: -3
  • Smaller armed forces: -3
  • Much Smaller armed forces: -5 
  • Nation was not initially mobilized: -10 (no active troops or preparedness. Major powers are immune to this except for special cases, See German invasion of the USSR
  • These Modifiers are added to the Military Development Category.
  • If a negative score just divide it by 2 for safety's sake.


  • +1 for every turn that it is built up
  • It only counts for the defender in an algo
  • Only Home defenders Infrastructure counts (France can't use its infrastructure to save the Byzantines - it makes no sense)
  • Defensive wars may take no more than 2-3% of an attacking nations (if plausible) territory. In order to seize more territory an offensive algo would have to be made as a counterattack. These algos would all fall under a singular war (so a recent wars modifier does not apply) Some exceptions apply (Defending nation is a superpower which would assuredly win) (Attacker has nothing left following the attack)


  • Expansion: -1 for every turn used for non-colonial expansion in the past 15 years


  • Economic (Gains land, resources, etc): + 3
  • Aiding Ally: + 3
  • Defending territory not owned by nation more than 20 years: + 4
  • Defending territory not part of heartland but held for more than 20 years: + 5
  • Taking territory of similar culture but not part of nation: + 5
  • Pre-emptive Strike against a nation rapidly building military forces: + 5
  • Taking back territory recently held by nation but since lost: + 6
  • Aiding Social/Moral/Ideological/Religious Kinsmen who are being oppressed: + 7
  • Attacking to enforce political hegemony: +7
  • Defending Heartland from attack that will not cripple/ destroy nation: + 5
  • Defending Core/heartland from possibly fatal attack + 9
  • Defending from attack that will wipe out nation and culture: + 10 (pre-nuclear era), + 15 (post-nuclear era)
  • Defending from nuclear armed nation that has a motive over 5 and has not yet used their weaponry: + 10
  • Defending from nuclear armed nation, regardless of motive, that has used said weaponry: + 15
  • Warning: Negative motive scores are possible!!
  • Due to the implausibility associated with nations winning on motive alone only one nation may have a heavy hitter motive. (Motive over +5) 


  • Single Nations:
  • Non-democratic Government supported by people: + 4
  • Democratic government supported by people: + 5
  • Government not supported by people: - 10
  • WAR not supported by people (democratic) : - 3
  • WAR not supported by people (non-democratic): - 2
  • Troop Morale high (requires motive over 5, chance over 4, and stronger development scores in at least one category): + 5
  • Troop Morale low (any of the above: chance below 1, lower development scores in all categories, recent war penalty over 8): - 5
  • Fighting Guerrilla War: -5 attacker, + 1 defender
  • Multiple concurrent wars: -15
  • Coalitions:
  • Democratic or democratic-supporting nations: +6
  • Mostly non-democratic nations: -3
  • High Morale (same criteria): +6
  • Low Morale (same criteria): -6
  • Unpopular war in multiple nations: -3 per nation wherein the war is unsupported
  • Guerrilla: -10 Attacker, -2 Defender
  • Nations fighting multiple concurrent wars: -10 per nation
  • Supported government modifiers also only apply to player nations (Main nation and Personal Unions not Vassals) unless otherwise specified by a Moderator

If there are multiple motives, the one told to the army will be selected. 


0 to 9 points will be awarded to each person based on chance. Factors will be the opponent's edit count (on Althist's main articles. The main articles' edit count can be found in Edicount Page. and the precise time when the country declares war or acknowledges the other's declaration of war. The product of the non-zero digits of the time by UTC (0:00 yields 1) will be written as a percentage of the opponent's edit count at the exact time of the declaration. The result is multiplied by pi and the hundredths digit is the amount of points that person gets (e.g. 123.8377% yields 3).

  • Edit count = x
  • nonzero digit in time*nonzero digit in time = y
  • x / y * pi = z
  • Chance = Hundredth place of z

For NPCs, the chance will be defined as the thousandth place of z, using the exact same algorithm as the player nation.

NPC Bonus

In every very year that a NPC nation is not at war or expanding, or having a disaster, it will build up one of the three (military, infrastructure and economy). The number of total buildups will be divided into the three categories as evenly as possible, with preference going infrastructure > economy > military.

Ex: If a nation (ex: Moravian Serbia) existed for 11 years, or spent 11 turns not doing anything, this would mean that the infrastructure and the economy were updated in four turns, and the military in three.

Special NPC Bonus nations

Some Non Player Countries are stronger than others, usually because these nations used to be part of a powerful empire, hence they are stronger than normal NPCs.

This bonus is worked out like the normal NPC bonus, where in every very year that a NPC nation is not at war or expanding, or having a disaster, it will build up one of the three development areas (military, infrastructure and economy). The number of total buildups will be divided into the three categories as evenly as possible, with preference going infrastructure > economy > military with their final score being divided by two then rounded to the nearest whole. However, the special NPC bonus doesn't divide by two, so it is just the number of total buildups.

E.g. If a nation existed for 15 years, or spent 15 turns not doing anything, this would mean that the infrastructure, military and the economy were updated in five turns each. The NPC nation would receive fifteen points of bonus, five for each department (economy, infrastructure and military).

Nation Age

Goes by the last major change in the system of government.

  • Newborn nation (less than 5 years since gov change) =  -10
  • Young nation (5–25 years since government change) = -5
  • Maturing nation (25–75 years) = +0
  • Mature nation (75–200 years) = +5
  • Old nation (200–300 years) = +0
  • Ancient nation (300–500 years) = -5
  • Antique nation (more than 500 years) = -15


  • The population score is the number of digits in the population + the additional bonus, which is below:
  • +2 to the larger nation that is less than five times the population of the smaller.
  • +10 if the larger nation is between five and ten times the population of the smaller.
  • +20 if the larger nation is more than ten times the population.

Recent Wars

  • -2 for Leadership in any war in the past 15 years.
  • -1 for and Military or supply support in the past 15 years


All nations get a +10 on this (Nations as in side, if two nations are participating, such as one sending supplies and military, there is still only a +10 for the side).

Number of Troops

  • Friendly soldiers / Enemy soldiers.
  • Friendly ships/ Enemy Ships
  • Troops and ships must be in a plausible amount for your nation. No troop spamming this will be paid attention to and mods will edit to reflect your nations true troop potential (no armies of 25 million guys even if you have the population of China, its just not doable)
  • Naval battles must be conducted in the invasions of major territory overseas or in regards to attacking a major Naval Power. Major nations may not have a surface navy for whatever reason (German U-Boat fleet) and this can be circumvented. 

Treaty Breaking

  • Attacker breaks non-aggression pact/treaty: -5
  • Attacker breaks alliance: -10

Example Algo:

  • Location: next to the location of the war: 4
  • Tactical Advantage: Siege Equipment: 5
  • Nations Per Side on the War: +4  Castile (L) +5 Aragon (M) +3 Portugal (M) +3 = 11/3 = 3.6 = 4
  • Military Development: +10 20/2 = 10 (10 years of development)
  • Economic: +7 20/3 = 6.67 = 7 (10 years of development)
  • Expansion: N/A (no expansion)
  • Motive: Total: +11 +7 (hegemony) +4 (non Dem supported)
  • Chance: Chance :4
  • Edit count = 95
  • 2 * 1 * 5 * 6 = 30
  • 95 / 30 * pi = 9.94
  • NPC Bonus: N/A
  • Special NPC Bonus nations :N/A
  • Nation Age: Mature nation (75–200 years) = +5
  • Population:Total: +9 +7 (7 million) +2 (to the larger nation that is less than five times the population of the smaller)
  • Participation: +10
  • Number of Troops: 15,000 / 7000 = 2.14 = +2
  • Theaters of War: 0
  • Total: 71
  • Location: +5
  • Tactical Advantage: High security Fortress City walls +4
  • Nations per side: Morocco :+5 (L) +5/1 = 5
  • Military Development: 4/2 = +0
  • Economy: +0
  • Infrastructure: 5/2 = 2.5 = +3
  • Expansion: -0 (no expansion)
  • Motive: Defending heartland from non fatal attack +5
  • Chance: +5
  • Edit count = 335
  • 2 * 2 * 1 * 6 = 24
  • 335 / 24 * pi = 43.8
  • Nation Age: Old nation +5
  • Population: +6
  • Participation: +10
  • Recent Wars: -1 (war with Algiers)
  • Troops strength: 7000/15,000 = 0
  • Theaters of War: 0
  • Total: +47

Currently Castilian victory. Castile can take ((72/(72+42)*2)-1 = 26.31% of Granadan territory at most, and can decide how long the war lasts. Castile's player will have the war last four years, so they can gain up to (26.31)*(1-1/(2*4)) = 23.02125 of Granada's territory (needs an update but I've got class)


The equation for gains from war algorithms is (p)*(1-1/(2x)), where x is the number of the years the war goes on and p is the amount of territory determined by the algorithm ((y/(z+y))*2)-1 where y is the winner's score and z is the losers). So if your war lasts one year, you only get 50% of the territory, but if you let the war last five years, you get 90% of the territory. The minimum amount of territory you can win from an algorithm is 1%, otherwise it is a percentage of the loser's territories to two decimal places e.g. 13.69% not 13.69242%.

A great calculator for this is you just copy and paste the equations into the box and replace the letters with the numbers for that specific war. And then you just copy the answer to the main page. Or folks, just use Google. Their automatic calculator is a great aid in working out all this.


  • If your nation has recently had a popular revolt soon after a new weak government was formed (like Adolf Hitler or Napoleon Bonaparte) your score is multiplied by 1.5 for all wars in the next ten years. However, you cannot have multiple popular revolts of this nature in a row without government changes in between.
  • Nations in civil disarray cannot take territory in wars. Instead of the final results algorithm being (p)*(1-1/(2x)), they will have it be (p)*(1-1/(x)). This will require wars there to last twice as long to gain the same amount of territory, as it will take longer to subdue them because they are used to civil conflict. The amount of initial territory you can take from them is multiplied by *1.5 due to lack of unity.
  • City-states get a *0.5 modifier for the amount of territory they lose in the initial results algorithm and can take territory so long as the nation they take it from has territory to take close enough for the city-states to rule without it being considered a colony.
  • If you take 33.33% of your opponent's territory or more, you can topple their government and do whatever is plausible to their nation that you wish.
  • It may be implausible for a nation to take or lose the full amount of territory listed in the algorithm.
  • You can add together winning percentage scores in order to total 33.33% if all of the wars happened within a 30 year period. Meaning if in two wars with 14 years between them both score 17.00%, then added together we get 34.00% which is enough for the losing nation's government to collapse. You can use any number of wars so long as they take place in the 30 year period. This 30 year period starts from the end of the first war. The nations must be the same nations fighting in all of the wars for this rule to apply. For example, if Venice invades Aquileia and wins by 28.50%, Austria cannot use the 28.50% combined with their war victory of 21.28% against Aquileia. The exception to this rule is if the original nations are both part of a larger coalition of nations e.g. Austria and Venice invade Aquileia. Sending military aid or supplies does not count as being part of the coalition.
  • A popular revolt requires over 33.33% to be put down, while one that isn't popular only requires a victory.
  • Small ports (e.g. Shanghai, Hong Kong), cannot be a nation in a war unless that port specifically is being attacked.
  • For measuring the length of wars, the turn war is declared counts as the first year if fighting takes place in it. So for example, if the algo says the war lasts three years, then the turn the war was declared counts as the first IF the target was also invaded. It is possible to not invade the turn war is declared, although this gives the enemy the possibility of mobilizing. 

Coalition wars

For a coalition algorithm, all of the nations that have declared full-on war would have their own algorithm section (with them being the leader, their nation age and military build up, etc.) but because it is a coalition some of the scores for each side are worked out differently than in the usual algorithm.

These differences are that location, motive and nation age scores are done as an average of the coalition, e.g. Nation A has a location score of 4 and Nation B has a location score of 2. Thus (4+2)/2 = 3, meaning the location score for the coalition of Nations A and B is 3.

All other scores in the coalition war is a total of each nation's individual score e.g. Nation A has a military development of +5 and Nation B has a military development of +3. Thus the coalition of A & B has a military development of +8. Also strength, military development and economic development scores are still divided by the other side's score for that category. Chance is a single score done using the data from the player that started the war in the first place and the player who they declared war against. Ergo, the first players on each side.

Furthermore, if only one nation has a bonus (e.g. an industrialization bonus, height bonus, popular revolt bonus, etc.) then it cannot be applied to the entire coalition as all nations in the coalition may not be as industrialized as the other side. You need a Super majority of 75% to gain these sort of bonuses, e.g. eight nations of your ten-nation coalition have a popular revolt bonus, meaning the whole coalition gets the bonus. This does not apply to Locations Bonus (Gibraltar, Venice, Cape of Good hope, etc)

Another difference is the result of a coalition war: all the nations on each side are added up together, and the winning side gets to take territory from each nation. However, the nations that do better on each side would get more, while nations that did really bad may be temporarily occupied.

Nations can only leave the coalition war if both sides agree to it, meaning separate peace agreements can be formed between nations in either side. If both sides don't agree to the peace then that nation is still in the war as the other side will still be attacking them.

In the situation revolving around Defensive wars, an offensive algo would be required for any counterattack to gain territory in any situation.

Theaters of War

Theaters of war are to prevent a single overall algo from deciding a war that has multiple fronts. If there is a major global colonial war going on between France and England, there would be the potential for two or three theaters of war is not more which requires multiple algos. The algos are calculated the same except the capital of the nearest colony is used rather than the capitals of England and France. This means that the Capitals of New France and New England would be used for the algo. However, the development of the mother country would be used (as these are still nominally part of the mother country.) The colonial nations age would also be used in this (government changes can happen in colonies). The bonuses economic or otherwise still count as well. However in terms of Colonies being able to fight independently, if the colony is over 100-120 years old the Colonies would be able to fight independently due to their established status and larger population base, but unless supported from the mother country, are limited by the forces and resources they control.

There are also modifiers to the algo that apply to wars like this. If there is a war being fought on multiple fronts then negative points can be assigned according to how many fronts the nation is involved in.

  • 1 front: -0
  • 2 fronts: -5
  • 3 fronts: -7
  • 4 fronts or more: -10

Along with this the 15 theaters are denominated as such. These will be used to consider the multiple fronts to a war like the case of WW2 where there was North African, Western European, Oceanian, and Eastern European front being fought by multiple powers. This also prevents an algo in which say France falls to England, but English colonies lose to the French ones, this leaves the Colonies with an attempt to negotiate the peace (headed by the French government) with England who would more than likely accept the peace if there was a risk to losing all the colonies. As per the fact that many colonial powers could easily fight out of their colonies with impunity, Major Colonizers may fight out of one major colony and one minor colony or two minor colonies with no detraction to their scores, Minor can fight out of either one major colony, or one minor colony, Other colonizers get nothing.


  • Western Europe
  • Eastern Europe
  • Northern Europe
  • Southern Europe
  • Eurasia
  • Central Asia
  • East Asia
  • India
  • Oceania
  • North Africa
  • South Africa
  • East Africa
  • West Africa
  • Colonial North America (until 1750)
  • Colonial South America (Until 1750)

Involvement in Foreign Nations

You control the basic government of your country. To an extent, you may also create the actions of your country's people so long as it is plausible. For example, there is nothing wrong with posting "the citizens begin exploring new art forms." But there is a problem with posting "every citizen decides to paint himself purple with green polka dots from birth."

Player countries (PCs) are controlled by a user. You must ask request to do the following with a PC:

  • Diplomacy and alliances.
  • Cut or re-continue trade along trade routes.

You may do the following to any country:

  • Declare war.
  • To a limited extent, help encourage movements among the common people.

For non-player nations (who are not controlled by a user), you may do the following. However, these must be dealt with carefully and plausibly:

  • Sign treaties, agreements and alliances.
  • Encourage the government of that country to make certain choices.

However, unless there is evidence from our timeline or previous years of Principia Moderni, you cannot simply assume you have trade or an alliance.

There is a definitive line between PCs and NPCs, as should be reflected by the most recent version of the map. If in doubt, ask a moderator.

Technology and Development

Technology will roughly follow OTL tech. This section will be updated for industrialisation and nuclear and space tech later on.