|Russian Democratic Federative Republic|
Российская Демократическая Федеративная Республика
Rossiyskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika
"Glory to Russia"
|Government||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
|-||Vice President||Yury Afonin|
|-||Chairman of the State Duma||Ivan Melnikov|
|-||Upper house||State Council|
|-||Lower house||State Duma|
|-||Arrival of Rurik||862|
|-||Tsardom of Russia||16 January 1547|
|-||Empire||22 October 1721|
|-||Republic proclaimed||6 May 1906|
|-||Constitution adopted||18 October 1907|
|-||Total|| 22,800,000 km2 (1st)
8,803,129 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2016 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2016 estimate|
|HDI (2014)||▲ 0.798
|Currency||Russian ruble (₽) (
|Time zone||(UTC+2 to +12)|
|Drives on the||right|
Russia (Russian: Росси́я, tr. Rossiya; from the Greek: Ρωσία – Rus'), also officially known as the Russian Democratic Federative Republic (Russian: Российская Демократическая Федеративная Республика, tr. Rossiyskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika), is a country in Eurasia. At 22.8 million square kilometres, Russia is the largest country in the world by surface area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 140 million people at the end of March 2016. The European western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the eastern; about 77% of the population live in European Russia. Russia's largest city Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world. Other major urban centres include its capital, Saint Petersburg, as well as Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara.
Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans 11 time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan, China and Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and Alaska across the Bering Strait.
The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognisable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland in the west to Alaska in the east.
Following the Russian Revolution, the modern Russian state came into being. Russia played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War III, and emerged as a recognised superpower. The twentieth century saw some of the most significant technological achievements in Russian history, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, Russia had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is today governed as a federal presidential republic.
The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognised nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a country with the potential to regain its former superpower status. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, as well as a member of the G8, G20, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organisation (WTO), as well as being a leading member of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO).