Alternative History
Russian Democratic Federative Republic
Российская Демократическая Федеративная Республика
Rossiyskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika
Flag of Russia Coat of arms of Russia
Coat of arms
Славься Россия
Slav'sya Rossiya
"Glory to Russia"

CapitalSaint Petersburg
Largest Moscow
Official languages Russian
Demonym Russian
Government Federal presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Gennady Zyuganov
 -  Vice President Yury Afonin
 -  Chairman of the State Duma Ivan Melnikov
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house State Council
 -  Lower house State Duma
 -  Arrival of Rurik 862 
 -  Kievan Rus' 882 
 -  Grand Duchy 1283 
 -  Tsardom of Russia 16 January 1547 
 -  Empire 22 October 1721 
 -  Revolution 1905–07 
 -  Republic proclaimed 6 May 1906 
 -  Constitution adopted 18 October 1907 
 -  Total 22,800,000 km2 (1st)
8,803,129 sq mi 
 -  2016 estimate 164,544,710 
 -  Density 8.4/km2 
21.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
 -  Total £3.685 trillion 
 -  Per capita £22,395 
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
 -  Total £1.133 trillion 
 -  Per capita £6,885 
Gini (2013) 40.1
HDI (2014) 0.798
Currency Russian ruble (₽) (RUB)
Time zone (UTC+2 to +12)
Date formats
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .ru
Calling code +7

Russia (Russian: Росси́я, tr. Rossiya; from the Greek: Ρωσία – Rus'), also officially known as the Russian Democratic Federative Republic (Russian: Российская Демократическая Федеративная Республика, tr. Rossiyskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika), is a country in Eurasia. At 22.8 million square kilometres, Russia is the largest country in the world by surface area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 140 million people at the end of March 2016. The European western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the eastern; about 77% of the population live in European Russia. Russia's largest city Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world. Other major urban centres include its capital, Saint Petersburg, as well as Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara.

Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans 11 time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan, China, Korea and Japan. It also shares a maritime border with Alaska across the Bering Strait.

The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognisable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland in the west to Alaska in the east.

Following the Russian Revolution, the monarchy was overthrown and a brief period of constitutional government followed. However, the rise to power of Joseph Stalin in the late 1920s dashed hopes of a stable democracy. Russia aligned itself with the Axis powers in World War III, but lost a significant amount of its European territories in the conflict. Nevertheless, it remained a powerful rival of Cygnia and Germany, and during the Cold War became an ally of Nationalist China. The twentieth century saw some of the most significant technological achievements in Russian history, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, Russia had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. An attempt at liberalisation by President Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s and early 1990s ended in a coup d'état, resulting in the institution of military dictatorship until the Snow Revolution in 2011, when democracy was restored.

Today, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognised nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a country with the potential to regain its former superpower status. It is a member of the United Nations and the G20, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organisation (WTO), as well as being a leading member of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO).