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A Russian Alaskan may refer to any permanent resident of the Alaskan Democratic Federative Republic who can trace their ancestry back to, or were born in Russia. Russian Alaskans make up the second largest ethnic group in the country approximately at 27%. Second only to Ukrainian Alaskans. Because many Ukrainians carry the legacy of Russification and have intermarried with Russians frequently, Russians could possibly be the largest group in Alaska depending on statistical parameters.
Russian Alaskans are the founding population of the modern Alaskan State and were the majority population of the country until the 1890s. Through the 20th century, they have still constituted a large part of the country's population and often set the cultural standard despite not being the largest group. The Russian Language is still the backbone of Alaskan Culture. So much that Alaskans have diverged standard Russian into their Alaskan Russian dialect. The Russian Alaskans historically were the foundations of modern Alaska. There has never been a Russian President of Alaska. Most Alaskan Presidents have self-identified as Ukrainian with some possible Russian ancestry.
The Russian state was the first European country to discover in detail the edges of Northwest North Americas and to reach the Americas from proceeding eastward. Russian Semyon Dezhnev in 1648 set foot on the Diomede islands, being the first Russian to reach modern Alaskan territory. However, he did not reach the North American mainland nor did the later Bering expedition in 1741.
When news of available sea routes to America via the Bering Sea became public hordes of Russian Siberian and Turkic adventurers arrived upon the rocky shores of the Aleutia. In the beginning, the relationship with the original Aleutian Peoples was based on transactions, similar to that of the French treatment of New France. The Newcomers employed the natives to fur trap on their behalf, however as demand for fur grew in Eastern Europe, coercion and violence replaced initially friendly relations. The last years of the 18th century saw Russian colonizers exercise their brutality on uncooperative peoples, especially in the Kenai and Kodiak governates.
Initially, Alaska was a wild land, for journeys that lasted up to two and three years, in what was one of the riskiest adventures of the time there was a high death rate for early travelers. Despite the extraordinary cost and distance, Catherine the Great subsidized the state Russian-American Company to create a permanent presence. Spanish sailors at the same time were eagerly staking claims to entire territory which has become modern Alaska. In 1799 New Archangel was christened the center of Russia's American territories. The earliest years were marked by wars with the early Tlingit Confederation which resulted in the early loss of the town, only to be reclaimed in 1804.
For the first nearly quarter of a century the European Population of Alaska did not exceed 1,000 individuals, most of who would have been Russian, or Eurasians mixed with Mongolian and Turkic heritage. The majority of the population of the colony were the Christianized and friendly Aleuts who had made peace with the RAC. Initially, most Russians would have resided the Northern Areas of the colony, only a few farmers and soldiers guarding the Southern outpost of Ross. Day to day oversight of Russian America fell in the hands of Cossack leaders in charge of the war effort against resistant Indians.
Seeing great potential in Sonoma and fearing loss of Russia's New World to Great Britain and Spain, the central government took a direct hand in bolstering the holdings of the RAC in the country. The company was instructed to locate wealthy aristocrats and merchants who would be willing to invest in the company or to permit some of their serfs to migrate to Ross. Investors who permitted their serfs to go were given a share of stock ownership in the RAC company, and the serfs themselves contracted as indentured servants to work on the company's direction for fifteen years, after which time the serfs would become freeman with the possibility of land ownership. Any children or women who the servant may encounter at that time were part of the company until the expiration of the contract.
Initially the program was limited as to not cause disturbances in domestic Russian Society, nonetheless, the total settler population in Russian America doubled within ten years. The rapid growth provoked the Spanish Empire into an engagement on the high seas of the Pacific Northwest with RAC vessels sparking the Russo-Spanish War.
The proceeding war brought many Imperial Russian soldiers to North America for the first time, most of which were conscripted serfs or small farmers. The presence of thousands of soldiers in Alaska changed the motherland's perception of Alaska forever. Thousands returned home with tales of 'pure, fair, country', in fact, ethnic Russians mutined and at first refused to return home. Only when they were promised grants of land that they would receive at the end of their twenty five year service did they agree to withdraw. Literate military men wrote much romantic literature based on what they had seen as the 'heavenly east'.