Alternative History
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This page lists all scientific and technological advancements in the Principia Moderni III map game.

Timeline of Inventions, Discoveries, and Important Events

XV Century

  • 14?? - The Pskov Academy of Natural Philosophy (or Simply the Pskov Academy) is founded
  • 14?? - The Circulatory System is rediscovered in Europe thanks to Pskov translating Arabian research
  • 14?? - Arabian Optics brought to Europe thanks to translations done by the Pskov Academy
  • 1467 - Pskov Academy Merges into Pskov University and adopts a series of Reforms
  • Late 15th Century - Heliocentrism becomes accepted by many European Scholars.
  • 1450s - de Patra - Rifling
  • 1460s - de Patra - Theory of Hydrodynamics

XVI Century

  • 1594 - Spanish: Theory of continental drift proposed.
  • 1500s - Paracelsus: Founding of Toxicology.

XVII Century

  • 1612 - Pskov: Moons of Jupiter, OTL Galileo's Astronomical Observations.
  • 1620 - Gentili: Law of Falling Bodies
  • 162? - Dutch: Mercury thermostat.
  • 1624 - Dutch: Law of refraction.
  • 1626 - Val Jean: Method for blood transfusion.
  • 1629 - de Coño: Primitive steam turbine.
  • 1634 - Von Einzberg: Microscope.
  • 1635 - Bayer: Bayer's Law of ideal gas.
  • 1636 - Charter granted by Holy Roman Emperor Wolfgang I to the Imperial Society.
  • 1638 - Dreschner: Coordinate System
  • 1639 - von Guericke: Vacuum pump.
  • 1640 - Hurrle: Study of oscillating system and design of pendulum clocks.
  • 1643 - Torricelli: Mercury Barometer.
  • 1644 - Gentili: Basic principle of relativity.
  • 1646 - Lermontov: Discovery of the Cell
  • 1647 - Pskov University's "Journal of Discoveries" is hijacked by the Pskov Academy and becomes the world's first Peer-Review scientific journal
  • 1650- Pascal Rulings: Slide rule.
  • 1651 - Hurrle: Probability theory. 
  • 1651 - Gentili, Rasputin: Infinitesimal calculus
  • 1660s- Britannia - Famous local clocksmith family, the MacBrughs, invents the Cuckoo Clock in the Northern Highlands, Scotland.
  • 1660s- Britannia - James Mattis II invents a refracting telescope, believed to be the first.
  • 1660s-1670s - Romans: Speed of Light
  • 1663 - Gentili: Laws of motion.
  • 1667 - Kirilov: Observation of first micro-organisms
  • 1675- Dutch: Bacteria
  • 1680s- Mongols - The Paper mill
  • 1680s - Pskov (unknown) - Table Glass
  • 1690s - Russia (Unknown) - Glass holder
  • 1697 - Lyubimova - Metal Lathe Compound Slide 

XVIII Century

  • 1709 - Tserclaes - Seed Drill.
  • 1713 - Landman - Flying Shuttle.
  • 1746 - Petri Endika (Navarre) - Capacitor/Condenser

XIX Century

  • 1802 - Metric System.

Future Inventions

This section is for listing a rough outline of inventions or discoveries you have planned in the next fifty years, so that they can be discussed if needed and organized. Please refrain from claiming all inventors or scientists in a short period, unless you have built a foundation or plausible reason for them to create their inventions.

Scientific Societies

Pskov Academy of Natural Philosophy

Founded in the First half of the XV century by Pskovian Scholars wishing to pursue the knowledge brought from Arabia reciting the Knowledge of the Islamic Golden age, the Pskov Academy is one of the first "Scientific" societies in the world. It was greatly Reformed in 1467 during the founding of the Pskov University, setting up governing principles valuing the acknowledgement of your own error and seeking truth no matter the preconceptions, and valued the invalidation of theories just as much as they valued the validation of new or existing ones, as well as proving or disproving hypotheses using observable and repeatable evidence. The Principle that you must question all writings, whether it be ancient philosophers, or new students, and only make decisions and arguments based on evidence and experimentation (pitki) is more than accepted in a society where dissent is not just tolerated but encouraged, as the people have the power to remove their prince. Their Motto is Изследовайте Далие [Izsledovayte Dalie] (Inquire Further). More to add later.

In 1467 the Academy of Pskov espouses five governing principles based somewhat on the works and lectures of Arabian Scholars before them:

  1. All Mankind is fallible, only what can be observed repeatedly can be taken for fact.
  2. As All Mankind is Fallible, even your own ideas may be riddled with falsehood.
  3. Even if you yourself may be at fault, it is possible that a third unlikely answer may exist, it is your duty to inquire further.
  4. Always Inquire further, Always ask: why? For what reason?
  5. Discoveries should never be secret, this prevents further inquiry.

Interpreting these Principles, the Academy established rules for publication, that, and one of the most important rules was "review before publication", where one man or student must take the side of your observations and conclusions, and try and prove them himself, whereas a second tries to disprove you completely and maintain the status quo, and a third inquires a different path. The work is then taken before a jury of peers, and the three men argue your case, and if a single man on the jury seconds your case, your work can be published, if another theory gets precedence, you inquire further. This creates a primitive peer-review minimum requirement in order to publish. These requirements were strengthened and made more rigorous as the years went by.

University of Constantinople

While lacking in a separate scientific society compared to other institutions of higher education in Europe, the University of Constantinople is one of the major universities in Europe and has been for much of its history. Noticeably destitute for much of the early 1400s, the University made a remarkable comeback with a reversal of fortunes for the Roman Empire and the introduction of Carlo de Patra, who re-invigorated the ailing institution. 

Imperial Society

The Imperial Society of Vienna for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Imperial Society, is a learned society for science, and is one of Europe's most important scientific communities. Founded in November 1636, it was granted a Royal Charter by Holy Roman Emperor Wolfgang I as the "Imperial Society of Vienna". Since its inception the organization has attracted some of Europe's most important and knowledgeable scientists and mathematicians.

University of Vienna

The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. Founded in 1365 by Duke Rudolph IV, the university is the oldest university in the German-speaking world. With its long and rich history, the University of Vienna has developed into one of the biggest universities in Europe, and also one of the most renowned, responsible for educating a number of renown scientists and scholars, as well as promoting the research of a number of sciences. The University of Vienna would later give rise to the Imperial Society, one of Europe's most influential scientific institutions.

University of Brussels