Republic of Scotland
Poblachd na h-Alba
Flag Coat of arms
Scotland the Brave
Scotland (dark blue) within the European Union (light blue)
Largest Glasgow
Languages English • Scots • Scottish Gaelic
Demonym Scottish
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
 -  President Ian Hudghton
 -  Prime Minister Nicola Sturgeon
 -  Deputy Prime Minister John Swinney
 -  Chief Justice Brian Gill
Legislature Parliament
Independence from England 
 -  British Revolution 1868–9 
 -  Commonwealth of Great Britain 3 October 1869 
 -  Fascist Britain 10 April 1933 
 -  World War III 1938–46 
 -  Partition of Britannia 10 May 1946 
 -  End of German occupation 3 October 1949 
 -  Constitution adopted 10 January 1950 
 -  Land 77,933 km2 
30,090 sq mi 
 -  2015 estimate 5,373,000 
GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate
 -  Total CY£245.3 billion 
 -  Per capita CY£45,904 
Gini (2015) 32.0
HDI (2015) 0.928
very high 
Currency Euro (€) (EUR)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
 -  Summer (DST) British Summer Time (UTC+1)
Date formats dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .sc
Calling code +44

Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba), officially the Republic of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Poblachd na h-Alba) is a country encompassing the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England, King of France, and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the four kingdoms. Scotland the next year entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England and France to create the new United Kingdom of Great Britain and France (The Treaty of Union was agreed in late 1603 and enacted by the twin Acts of Union 1604, passed by the Parliaments of both kingdoms, despite popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere.) The union also created a new Parliament of the United Kingdom, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England-France. In 1690, the United Kingdom itself entered into a political union with the Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain, France and Ireland. In 1781, the French Revolution overthrew the British monarchy. Eight years later, the Duke of Marlborough took over the government as the Lord Protector of Britain, and the Commonwealth of Great Britain and Ireland was officially recognised after the fall of the French First Empire in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna.

In 1934, Fascists rose to power in London, and after World War III, Fascist Britain was partitioned into England, Scotland and Ireland, and placed under military occupation. In 1948, the German occupiers granted Scotland a referendum on reunification with England. Reunification was soundly rejected, and the modern Republic was proclaimed on 3 October 1949, the 60th anniversary of the formation of the Commonwealth of Great Britain and Ireland.

Edinburgh, the country's capital and second-largest city, was the hub of the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century, which transformed Scotland into one of the commercial, intellectual, and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Glasgow, Scotland's largest city, was once one of the world's leading industrial cities and now lies at the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee. Scottish waters consist of a largest sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europe's oil capital.

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