Scotland lies in northern Britain, bordering England to the south.
The Seventeen Provinces of the Low Countries were established as their own territory by Charles V, separate from both France and the Holy Roman Empire.
Upon the death of Charles V, the Low Countries were inherited by his illegitimate son John, together with Castile. The territories were governed by Charles' son Philip.
John III of Castile and I of the Low Countries, married Mary I of Scots, in 1566.
This personal union between Castile, the Low Countries, and Scotland remained for almost a century, until King John IV of Castile and II of the Low Countries converted to Puritanism in 1662, being forced to abdicate as Castilian king.
In 1703, an Act of Union was established, and the United Kingdom of Scotland and the Low Countries was established.
In 1864, after the death of King William without heir, a succession war started between the English and German pretenders. In the Low Countries, a republican faction was winning when the English, holding Scotland, capitulated to the German allies. The Peace agreements in 1866 confirmed the union of Scotland and the Low Countries under a republican government.
The Succession War was the beginning of the end of the Scottish-Low Countries Empire.