|Second American Civil War|
|Part of the Interwar period|
Workers Liberation Army
| Provisional Government of the United States of America
|Commanders and leaders|
| Sarah Leslie
|| George H. Moses
|| James R. Beverley|
Edmund Root (1932-33)
George A. Alexander (1933-36)
Manuel L. Quezon
|150,000 Workers Party Soldiers (by 1936)
||700,000 in the regular army
|Casualties and losses|
|2.75 million||2.5 million||unknown|
The Second American Civil War was a four-year armed conflict fought in the 1930s that spanned across the North American continent as well as outlying islands in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The war was the result of the Second American Revolution and the decline of America's first nation-state. Decades of industrialization as well as curbing of civil liberties for leftist activists incited the original socialist uprisings of 1932. The standing US Army, as well as many loyal state governments and militias, fought for the counterrevolution.
The Second American Civil War was the most deadly known conflict to ever occur on the continent of North America and in the history of the American State resulting in at least the death of five million combatants and civilians. The current American Government blames 'right-wing forces' and intervention by Imperialist Powers as the causes of excessive casualties.
The Civil War permanently realigned the society and economy of whole regions of the United States. Industrial areas were re-purposed for war-capacity by revolutionaries and remained as a centers for America's military-industrial complex until the 21st century.
After the suppression of the Bonus Army Rebellion in July 1938 capitalists, businessmen, United States loyalists, and people that opposed the establishment of a communist state called of the establishment of a provisional government in opposition of the revolutionaries.
This plot, or the Businesses Plot as it was called later, also formed part of a plan to prevent the swearing of the elected president Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his reformist platform into office. For many FDR was too soft on communism and at worst a crypto communist and a traitor. The newly formed Provisional Government under the Senate's President pro tempore republican George H. Moses was organized and recognized as the legitimate American government by almost every country, with the exception of Russia. Moses, invoking the War Powers Clause of the Constitution, declared a state of emergency, the command of the Armed forces and the suspension of the results of the election of November 8 1932.
On November 23, 1932, Washington DC was captured by members of the American Workers Party. Following this event, California and Chicago along with Washington, DC, which was renamed as the Georgetown Commune, declared themselves to be "socialist republics" united together in a military alliance. In response, the provisional threatened to launch troops into California and Chicago.
Following several workers strikes, the Provisional Government United States declared martial law and relocated the capital from Washington, DC to New York City in an attempt to stabilize the country. This further destabilized the country, resulting in increasing civil unrest and revolutionary movements in several cities and states. To prevent its collapse, the military was called to organized a coup seizing power, until order and government could be stabilized under the leadership of General George Marshall. On November 27, 1932, the Provisional Government formally declared war on the new republics.
The United States sent military forces to California and Chicago, as well as invading the de facto capital of the communist rebellion, Georgetown. The attempt failed, as it forced revolutionaries to band together, forming the Workers' Liberation Army to fight the invasion. The Workers' Liberation Army repelled the invasion pushed farther into United States territory.
While the United States started with a larger military and population, communists possessed a larger industry and a large amount of supporters in the United States. The Workers' Liberation Army sent its navy to invade New York City to quickly reunify the country. The invasion had little preparation and was a failure. Most of the U.S Navy remained loyal to the government in the Atlantic, those who defected in George Town attempted to siege New York City.
Situational Conflicts by Region
The U.S Navy busy in blocking the Atlantic Coast was unprepared for the Californian revolt, in the far west many sailors defected to the Revolutionary Cause. American Navy Personnel in Hawaii were tasked with responding to insurgency from Hawaiian Natives and White leftists. The balance of power in this region would be change by the intervention of Japan in 1933.
In the Southeast sharecropping largely collapsed, through traces remained in Socialist America. African Americans and portions of working class White Anglo-Americans attacked the traditional agrarian elite. Right wing partisans aligned with several white supremacist groups fought a brutal guerrilla struggle to preserve the traditional class and race-based caste system of segregation that existed in America's southern states.
In Appalachia the civil war was a struggle between mobs. Appalachians had mixed loyalties. In certain cities such as modern day Wheeling Pennsylvania coal miners overran local government and declare spontaneous peoples republics. Overall Appalachians supported the Provisional Government just as they had supported the American Federal Government in the first Civil War. All Appalachians were guided in securing their own sovereignty. Their choice of sides revolved around which offered most autonomy.
In many areas the Provisional Government of the United States resorted to a scorched earth policy to prevent revolutionaries from crossing the heart of the United States. The move slowed the advance of leftist forces but many rural Americans became disaffected believing the provisional government had abandoned them.
The small but concentrated pockets of Native Americans in the West of America took the opportunity to declare independence from the federal government and recover their lands. Provisional Cavalry brigades of the US Army attempted to crush Native uprisings. Apaches and Sioux fought successfully against overextended Provisional Government Forces. The Workers Liberation Army supported the Natives in name but seldom got involved in local conflicts directly. Certain Southern Native tribes such as the Catawba aligned with the Provisional Government in exchange for promises of greater autonomy.
The Iroquois as an eastern tribe bore the brunt of campaigns from both American and British Armies, toward the conclusion of the war they faced near-destruction. They formed a strong alliance with the Workers Party to defeat the New York Government.
The ongoing Revolution in the United States deeply unsettled the western countries. The United States had previously played a deciding role in WWI and had set a precedence of authority in the Atlantic Ocean. Lost to a revolution this source of stability would evaporate. At the same time conservative British officials were concerned about a possible invasion of Canada by the revolutionaries or an American inspired revolution among the British working class. Commonwealth members agreed and France fearing a future American strike on her Asian colonies from the Philippines also agreed to intervene.
Japanese Intervention Japan, coming into its own as a separate World Power felt threatened by the Revolution in America. Many of Japan's right wing leaders previously eager to drive western imperialism out of Asia but were intimidated by Russian collaboration's with American Communists. They feared a joint Russian-American invasion upon Sakhalin and Hokkaido from the north. Japanese communists also voiced their support for America's uprising leading to a infamous red scare across the country.
The western powers acted jointly in their intervention and encouraged Japan to join a coalition as League of Nations' mission to restore order. Great Britain and Japan collaborated in dividing America's Pacific Possessions. In Secret Guam and Samoa were granted to Great Britain while Japan was given rights to the Philippines and Hawaii, at the time Hawaii had a majority Japanese population.
In 1933 The Imperial Japanese Navy appeared with the public intention of supporting the U.S military maintain governance of the Philippines and Hawaii and but in reality assumed true control of the archipelago territories.
Western Intervention Great Britain having recently warmed its ties with the United States at the turn of the 20th century stood to lose the most from an American Revolution. The rise of America's new regime would mean the loss of its most reliable ally and pressing security concerns. Border tensions between British Canada and the American state had subsided since 1850 but a completely new American Government opposed to Imperialistic European ideals might threaten all of Great Britain's New World territories.
Resistance and Conclusion
With the Army concentrated on the capital, the Workers' Freedom Army easily broke or were established through the country's borders and started to liberate, or occupy in word of their foes, United States territory. Revolutionaries, who were increasing in numbers, revolted against the US Army and National Guard, seized control of their states and declaring themselves "socialist republics", accelerating the United States' collapse. Anti-Red partisans as the most determined anti Communists rose up on their own accord as the old United States collapsed. In the last stages of the war, Anti-Red partisans were the most effective and hard fighting force of counter revolution.
United States soldiers, seeing the war as a lost cause, began defecting to the new republics or joining anti-Communist partisans, weakening the United States' defense. By late 1936 the northern states were the last remnant of the old American Government, slowly being conquered by the Workers' Liberation Army. Finally, on November 29, 1936, general George Marshall, provisional president of the United States, surrendered to the revolutionary forces, ending the civil war. Most U.S government soldiers disarmed and began to return home, pockets of resistance remained in Southern and Mountainous areas. With the exception of the US Navy the help in the evacuation of the remains of the Provisional Government and refugees to Cuba, Canada and Europe.
War Trials and Amnesty
Under the terms of surrender the majority of soldiers from the former U.S. government were granted amnesty, continuing a tradition from America's first Civil War. Terms stipulated, however, that certain officers and 'rogues' could face punishment for unsanctioned war crimes. Unsanctioned war-crimes referred to an infamous scorched earth policy that had take place on the Great Plains and racial crimes that occurred in the former southern states and in general actions against civilians that violated the rules of war. Trials were carried out by revolutionary tribunals with the majority of defendants sentenced to death.
The legality and astuteness of revolutionary tribunals have often been called into question regarding their legality within both the previous and current American Constitutions. Trails were held in over ten locations usually in close proximity to the alleged crime. Leslie's administration took a firm line that 'crimes against the people were unacceptable'. Which resulted in most trials being performed in a hasty faction, foreign critics called these show-trials. American Socialist officials responded, that accused defendants still had the right to call defensive witnesses and that accusers needed to 'burden of proof'. Since later reforms however the regime has accepted that elements of Habus Corpus were violated.
Declaration of the Socialist Union
With its surrender, the United States was dissolved, and its territory and citizens were incorporated into newly formed socialist republics of what were the former US States. These were now united under the Declaration of the Creation of the United Socialist Republics of America signed by the Provisional Revolutionary Council. An elected constituent assembly was called to draft a National Constitution of the revolutionary state.
With the former United States gone, Alaska was secured as a new territory while remaining United States territories such as Puerto Rico, Hawaii, the Philippines, the Canal Zone, Samoa and Guam either becoming independent or incorporated into surrounding countries.The USRA quickly lead socialist revolutions in these new nations, though due to its own instability and newness as a state, these revolutions failed. This failure convinced the USRA to 'strengthen the home' before leading revolutions to create socialist states.
Main Article: Blue Expats
In the aftermath of the Proclamation of Union, many overseas Americans remained abroad, while many mostly of middle and upper class origin also fled abroad. They contributed greatly to the culture and economies of the nations they emigrated to. By far Cuba, and British Canada were the most common destinations, but others fled to several former U.S territories, Australia and Western Europe..
The former U.S territories became preferred zones for Blue expats fleeing the country, The United Kingdom eagerly invited skilled expats or those with previous business connections to begin anew in former United States territories. Panama became a favorite location for former landowners and entrepreneurs. Unskilled or Working Class expats were often met with distrust and suspicion due to suspected leftist sympathies.
Hawaii, and the Philippines both diverged from America's mainland and other territories for being Asian-majority with distinct nationalities of their own. Both comparatively had small American populations prior to the revolution. The Japanese who intervened were unsure of their policy regarding U.S citizens in its former territories. Conservatives were still upset over earlier racial exclusions which had blocked former Japanese immigration to the former United States and advocated for a strict 'assimilation or exclusion' line for White Americans. Former Japanese Americans were usually permitted back into Japan but were often investigated to asses their level of cultural conformity. Liberal politicians however saw the inclusion of existing European-Americans and some new immigrants as a potential advantage. A compromise was reached that established quotas for incoming Americans per year as a well as a gradual assimilation policy that brought them culturally closer to Japan's people. In Hawaii Whites were also to live in separate neighborhoods from other groups until they demonstrated 'homage before the emperor'.
Overall Blues have been responsible for the continuity of many businesses, the creations of new ones and a large cultural output. Cuisine, music and stories of the Old America have become popularized around the world due to Americans Oversees often competing with the new regime which also claimed to inherit the best aspects of the old United States.
The renewed nation attempted to build prosperity but was mired in reconstruction for decades. Massive federal projects rebuilt infrastructure and railroad transportation would eventually become more accessible than ever before. Yet, rebuilding was expensive and many areas would not see full recovery until the late 1950s.
Among the greatest effects of the Civil War, was the violence by itself. For a second time the relatively pristine territory of America had faced a war of industrial proportions. While wars were more common place and even brutal in Europe prior to this time many American Citizens had less direct experience with the horror of war or of losing a war. The first American Civil War was based on regional ties and allowed for a 'Northern' victory over a 'Southern' defeat.
The Second American Civil War was different. Loyalties to warring factions varied between communities not entire states. Overall Western States had supported the Revolution while Eastern States had opposed the revolution, but the nature of the war prevented a clear regional victor. All sides faced destruction and the psychological effects created by war violence. In this way Americans had similar experiences that Europeans had endured from its 'world war'.
The proclamation of the USRA was seen by the American people as a reason why communism was an ideology that could succeed. The original egalitarian values of the United States, including U.S President Thomas Jefferson's ideal of an Empire of Liberty were emphasized to the public. The shaping of America into a culturally Socialist Nation depended on linking the elements of American History with Socialist Doctrine, a process which continues into the present.